A Researcher’s Guide to Local History Terminology/Abecedary

An Abecedary of Native historical past terminology[edit]

A Phrases[edit]

A B C D E F G H I J Ok L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
expoliate


  • A pied – a French time period neaning ‘on foot’.
  • Abatis, ‘Abattis’, or ‘Abbattis – a French phrase that means a heap of fabric thrown; a time period in area fortification for an impediment shaped of the branches of timber laid in a row, with the sharpened tops directed outwards, in the direction of the enemy.
  • Abbacy – the workplace, time period, or jurisdiction of an abbot. The put up was additionally held in post-reformation occasions by secular people; the Earl of Eglinton held the abbacy of Kilwinning Abbey in Scotland.
  • Abditory – a spot for hiding or preserving articles of worth.
  • Abecedary – the total alphabet carved in stone in church buildings, on paper, and so on. Typically thought of to be instructing aids, significantly to the illiterate. The alphabet could have been thought at the moment to posses supernatural powers alongside the traces of the runic futhork. Every letter would have had a symbolic that means to the religious. An instance from the Church of St Mary of the Gray Friars was present in Dumfries, Scotland, in 1967.
  • Abele – a white poplar (Populus alba).
  • Abjure – to surrender below oath; to recant solemnly; repudiate: abjure one’s beliefs; to surrender an motion or apply.
  • Abstersion – the act of wiping clear; a cleaning; a purging.
  • Abstracted multure – the title of the offense when tenants did not carry their corn to the mill of the thirl. They might be sued for this offence.
  • Abthane – a Thanedom or proprietorship of land held of the crown, and within the possession of an abbot; the title of a Saxon proprietor, that’s, a proprietor below the Saxon legal guidelines, holding direct of the crown, equal to that of a Norman baron. Abthainries existed at Boring, Kilmichael, Airlie and Madderty.
  • Abuilyement – additionally ‘Abuilement’. Clothes or clothes.
  • Accolade – a ceremonial embrace, as of greeting or salutation; the ceremonial bestowal of knighthood.
  • Accouchement – a confinement throughout baby start; a mendacity in.
  • Accoutre – additionally accouter. To outfit and equip, as for navy responsibility.
  • Acolyte – One who assists the celebrant within the efficiency of liturgical rites; a faithful follower or attendant.
  • Acre – the English ‘statute acre’ is 4840 sq. yards, the ‘Scots acre’ was considerably bigger at about 1.Three English Acres. In medieval occasions form mattered greater than dimension. An acre was an rectangular formed portion of land, both straight sided or sinuous, with a size of 220 yards and a width of 22 yards, giving a ratio of 10 : 1. It was variable in dimension, however was considered the realm of land that one man may plough in at some point.
  • Acroterion – additionally ‘Acroterium’ is an architectural decoration positioned on a flat base known as the acroter or plinth, and mounted on the apex of the pediment of a constructing within the Classical type.
  • Advert perpetuam remanentiam – the merger of leasehold pursuits, e.g. a renunciation by a tenant in favour of the owner. The place the upper charge is already registered within the Land Register and the proprietor acquires by disposition advert rem the subjacent charge, title to which is recorded within the Register of Sasines, the absorption should be given impact to within the Land Register.
  • Additament – an addition, or a factor added.
  • Adjure – to command or enjoin solemnly, as below oath; to attraction to or entreat earnestly.
  • Adventiti – in medieval occasions these had been vacationers visiting villages and cities for varied financial functions.
  • Advocate – an individual who pleads, intercedes, or speaks for one more. It additionally means an individual whose occupation is to plead causes in courts of legislation. That is particularly the use in Scotland. Within the USA it means any lawyer. To advocate, means to talk in favour of an thought (Authorized).
  • Advowson – the best of a patron to current an individual to a church dwelling or benefice.
  • Aedicule – the framing of a window or opening by columns topped with a pediment in order that it resembles a temple facade in miniature.
  • Aedile – an workplace of the Roman Republic. Aediles had been answerable for upkeep of public buildings, regulation of public festivals, and so they had powers to implement public order.
  • Aestival – of or referring to summer time; Coming forth in the summertime.
  • Affusion – a pouring on of liquid, as in baptism.
  • Agalmata – statues of the gods which had open eyes and moveable limbs as invented by Daedalus.
  • Agger – an earthwork; a mound; a raised work.
  • Agister – previously an officer of the king’s forest, who had the care of cattle agisted, and picked up the cash for a similar; – therefore known as gisttaker, which in England is corrupted into guest-taker.
  • Agistment – letting-out of land (together with woodland) as grazing for cattle.
  • Agnate – Associated on or descended from the daddy’s or male aspect.
  • Agnate Seniority – a patrilineal precept of inheritance the place the order of succession to the throne prefers the monarch’s youthful brother over the monarch’s personal sons. A monarch’s kids succeed solely after the males of the elder era have all been exhausted. Females of the dynasty and their descendants are excluded from the succession by this method.
  • Ague – an acute fever. In late Center English a malarial fever with chilly, sizzling, and sweating levels (at first particularly the recent stage, later particularly the chilly). From the late 16th century may additionally imply any shivering match.
  • Aids – the best of a superior below feudalism to require help throughout occasions of emergency or occasions similar to a wedding.
  • Air Vent – any of all kinds of holes in farm buildings which permit air flow and stop crops inside getting damp and mouldy. This can lead to fairly complicated brickwork patterns; very seen and distinctive.
  • Airey – variant of “space”.
  • Aisle – a aspect extension to the nave of a church. Church buildings might be enlarged by having arches pierced via the prevailing aspect partitions.
  • Alb – a protracted white garment worn by clergymen, and so on. below the chasuble.
  • Alba – the Scottish Gaelic, Welsh language (Yr Alban) and Irish language identify for the constituent nation of Scotland.
  • Albion – a Celtic phrase referring to the entire island of Nice Britain.
  • Alembic – an equipment consisting of two vessels related by a tube, previously used for distilling liquids; a tool that purifies or alters by a course of akin to distillation.
  • Alienate – within the context of feudal superiors, this implies the place the baron alienates or ceases to be the feudal superior of the barony and the jurisdiction passes to a sheriff.
  • Aliment – required by courtroom order to aliment (to produce with sustenance, similar to meals) the deserted household.
  • Allenarly – solely, solely or completely.
  • All & Haill – ‘all and entire’. Present in authorized paperwork.
  • Allocution – a proper and authoritative speech; an deal with.
  • Allodial title – an idea in some methods of property legislation. It describes a scenario the place actual property (land, buildings and fixtures) is owned free and away from any encumbrances, together with liens, mortgages and tax obligations. Allodial title is inalienable, in that it can’t be taken by any operation of legislation for any motive in any respect.
  • Attract – the parapet stroll on a fortress wall, city wall, and so on.
  • Amerce – to punish by a high-quality imposed arbitrarily on the discretion of the courtroom; to punish by imposing an arbitrary penalty.
  • Almoner – Christian non secular functionaries whose responsibility was to distribute alms to the poor.
  • Alms – the charitable donation of cash or meals to the poor.
  • Almshouse – a charitable dwelling for these in want. Normally arrange or endowed by a rich benefactor.
  • Alquife – an enchanter within the medieval romances of knight-errantry.
  • Alter ego – one other aspect of oneself; a second self. An intimate pal or a continuing companion.
  • Alterage – a wage paid to a priest for saying a sure variety of plenty, at regulated durations, for the souls of the some individual or individuals departed.
  • Ambuscade – an ambush.
  • Amerciate – topic to or punished by a high-quality.
  • Ampulla – a vessel for consecrated wine or holy oil.
  • Anagoge – a mystical interpretation of a phrase, passage, or textual content, particularly scriptural exegesis that detects allusions to heaven or the afterlife.
  • Analemma – the figure-Eight path that the solar makes in its passage throughout the sky.
  • Anathematise – curse or declare to be evil or anathema or threaten with divine punishment.
  • Andiron – one in all a pair of steel helps used for holding up logs in a fire. Additionally known as ‘canine’.
  • Anent – concerning; regarding.
  • Animadvert – to comment or remark critically, normally with sturdy disapproval or censure.
  • Anima loci – the ‘soul’ of a spot, its basically character. A Wicca idea linked to the supernatural spirits of nature as residing in stones, springs, mountains, islands, timber, and so on.
  • Anno Lucis – Freemasons, of their ceremonial or commemorative proceedings, add 4,000 years to the present Anno Domini calendar 12 months and append Anno Lucis (“Yr of Gentle”) to the Gregorian calendar 12 months, eg. 1887 AD is 5887 AL.
  • Annuitant – an individual entitled to an annuity.
  • Anthropodermic bibliopegy – the apply of binding books in human pores and skin. Although happily unusual in trendy occasions, the method dates again to a minimum of the 17th century. The Nazi’s don’t seem to have carried out this, the suggestion being most definitely an city legend.
  • Antiburgher – a member of a piece of the Secession Church which in 1747 separated from the opposite get together in that Church (the Burghers) on the query of taking the Burgess oath. The 2 sections had been reunited in 1820.
  • Antinomianism – the doctrine that religion in Christ frees the Christian from obligation to watch the ethical legislation as set forth within the Outdated Testomony.
  • Antinuptial – earlier than wedlock. Typically utilized in church session minutes in reference to intercourse earlier than marriage.
  • Antediluvian – extraordinarily outdated and antiquated; occurring or belonging to the period earlier than the Biblical Flood.
  • Aphorism – a tersely phrased assertion of a reality or opinion; a short assertion of a precept.
  • Apocrypha – the biblical apocrypha consists of texts written within the Jewish and Christian non secular traditions that both had been accepted into the biblical canon by some, however not all, Christian faiths, or are often printed in Bibles regardless of their non-canonical standing.
  • Apocryphal – a chunk of labor the place the authenticity or authorship is unsure.
  • Apotropaic – protecting towards evil.
  • Apogee – the farthest or highest level; the apex.
  • Apophthegm – a short clever saying.
  • Apoplexy – used to explain any sudden dying that started with a sudden lack of consciousness, particularly one the place the sufferer died inside a matter of seconds after dropping consciousness. These studying historic paperwork ought to think about the chance that the phrase “apoplexy” could also be used to explain the symptom of sudden lack of consciousness instantly previous dying and never an precise verified illness course of. Sudden cardiac deaths, ruptured cerebral aneurysms, sure ruptured aortic aneurysms, and even coronary heart assaults could have been misdiagnosed as apoplexy within the distant previous.
  • Apothecary – a chemist licensed to dispense medicines and medicines.
  • Appanage – the grant of an property, titles, places of work, or different issues of worth to the youthful male kids of a sovereign, who below the system of primogeniture would in any other case don’t have any inheritance.
  • Appellate – having the ability to listen to courtroom appeals and to evaluate courtroom choices (Authorized).
  • Appendix – extra or supplementary materials typically situated on the finish of a e book or piece of labor; article, and so on.
  • Apprising – the sentence of a courtroom affecting a debtor’s heritable property, as a consequence of which that property could be bought to pay the debt.
  • Appurtenance – a factor that belongs to a different, a ‘belonging’; a minor property, proper, or privilege, belonging to a different extra necessary, and passing in possession with it; an appendage.
  • Apse – a normally semicircular or polygonal, usually vaulted recess, particularly the termination of the sanctuary finish of a church.
  • Arable – land which is ploughed or appropriate for ploughing for rising crops.
  • Archive – a spot through which historic paperwork and different information are preserved. Normally operated by massive organizations, they could or will not be open to the general public.
  • Space – in structure a basement degree mild nicely in entrance of Georgian interval homes.
  • Aret – formally set up; to reckon; to ascribe; to impute.
  • Aries – earnest-money, a present.
  • Armiger – an individual entitled to make use of a heraldic coat of arms. Such an individual is alleged to be ‘armigerous’.
  • Armorial – referring to heraldry or coats of arms.
  • Arrage – all work related with the cultivation of the land.
  • Arrhae – contracts, within the civil legislation. Cash or different beneficial issues given by the customer to the vendor, for the aim of evidencing the contract earnest. Earnest cash is an instance, paid to clinch the discount when a spouse was bought in olden occasions.
  • Artificer – a craftsman.
  • Ascapart – a fictional large, in legend conquered by Bevis of Hampton, although so big as to hold Bevis, his spouse, and horse below his arm. Ascapart was defeated after his membership (made out of a complete tree) was swung at Sir Bevis and have become caught in delicate floor. Sir Bevis determined to make him his Squire relatively than kill him.
  • Ashlar – dressed stone work of any kind of stone. Ashlar blocks are massive rectangular blocks of masonry sculpted to have sq. edges and even faces.
  • Asperity – roughness or harshness, as of floor, sound, method or local weather; severity or rigor. A slight projection from a floor; some extent or bump.
  • Aspersion – a sprinkling, particularly with holy water.
  • Assart – personal farmland shaped out of a part of a wooden, widespread or forest. The act or offense of grubbing up timber and bushes, and thus destroying the thickets or coverts of a forest.
  • Assignation – to legally make over property, and so on.
  • Assythement – a compensation paid to the relations or buddies of somebody who had been killed, by the killer(s).
  • Asylum – Latin from Greek for refuge. It entered English with the particular that means of a spot of security the place criminals or political dissidents may escape the legislation. By the early 18th century it had its basic that means of a spot of refuge, being utilized to establishments by the mid 18th century. By way of into the mid 19th century or later, nonetheless, there have been different asylums than lunatic asylums, “orphan asylums” for instance.
  • Astricted – thirled or bonded to a selected mill.
  • Atavism – a science phrase, coined from Latin for “past one’s grandfather”, that means a reversion of animals (together with people) or crops to an ancestral kind. Phrase coined by Antoine Nicolas Duchesne (1747-1827) in relation to strawberries (about 1766) as in degeneration principle.
  • Athame – a ceremonial black-handled knife, one in all a number of magical instruments utilized in Wicca; different types of trendy witchcraft have since adopted the time period for varied ritual knives.
  • Atlantes – plural of atlas and utilized in structure.
  • Atlas – pl. atlantes. In structure a standing or kneeling determine of a person used as a supporting column, as for an entablature or balcony.
  • Atour – moreover, as well as, furthermore.
  • Atteint – additionally ‘Attaint’. A blow or strike, particularly in jousting. Additionally a wound on the leg of a horse attributable to a blow. In legislation the giving of a false verdict by a jury; the conviction of such a jury, and the reversal of the decision.
  • Attainder – a felony condemned for a critical crime, whether or not treason or felony, might be declared “attainted”, his civil rights being nullified. Such an individual may now not personal property or go property to his household by will or testomony. His property may consequently revert to the Crown or to the mesne lord. Any peerage titles would additionally revert to the Crown. For an individual who dedicated a capital crime and was put to dying for it, the property left behind was escheated to the Crown or lord relatively than being inherited by household.
  • Attavi – an ancestor or particularly a terrific, nice, nice, grandfather.
  • Auchan – additionally ‘Auchen’ – quite a lot of Pear (Scots). Outdated Auchans close to Dundonald is legendary for its personal number of pear.
  • Auchen – a area made out of cleared woodland. A Scots time period often discovered as a spot identify element.
  • Aught – additionally ‘Ought’ – something in any respect.
  • Augur – one in all a bunch of historic Roman non secular officers who foretold occasions by observing and deciphering indicators and omens; a seer or prophet; a soothsayer.
  • Aumbrey – additionally ‘Aumbry’. A wall recess; typically as a cabinet for meals. Typically present in church buildings, chapels, and so on. for retaining the sacramental vessels, and so on.
  • Aureole – a halo or circle of sunshine or enclosed space, particularly across the head or physique of a portrayed non secular determine.
  • Autographed – any doc carrying the signature of the one that wrote it.
  • Autographed letter – a letter which is handwritten.
  • Avocation – an exercise that one engages in as a passion exterior one’s principal occupation
  • Aw – a flat-board of an undershot water-wheel.
  • Ayre – medieval Justiciars initially travelled round Scotland listening to circumstances on circuit or ‘ayre’.
  • Azotic – an out of date time period in chemistry, referring to azote, or nitrogen; shaped or consisting of azote; as, azotic fuel; azotic acid. Additionally an out of date time period that means deadly to animal life.

B Phrases[edit]

A B C D E F G H I J Ok L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


  • Bagimont’s Roll – the rent-roll of benefices in Scotland.
  • Bailey – the courtyard or courtyards that existed round a motte.
  • Bailliary – the workplace or authority of a baillie.
  • Baillie – an area official. Equal to an Alderman. A Baron’s deputy within the context of a Barony. Additionally turned a private identify, similar to William Baillie who was a prisoner after the Battle of Durham within the 14th-century. He was the Baillie of Lambroughton in North Ayrshire.
  • Bal – noise; uproar; merriment (Scots).
  • Baldachino – additionally ‘Baldachin or Baldaquin’. A wealthy cloth of silk and gold brocade; a cover of cloth carried in church processions or positioned over an altar, throne, or dais; in structure a stone or marble construction constructed within the type of a cover, particularly over the altar of a church. Such a construction can also be known as a ‘Ciborium’ when it’s sufficiently architectural in kind.
  • Ballista – a siege engine which fired smaller stones, heavy arrows and iron bolts. Tensile energy was equipped by twisting ropes with windlasses.
  • Baluster – one of many upright, normally rounded or vase-shaped helps of a balustrade; an upright help, similar to a furnishings leg, having an analogous form; one of many supporting posts of a handrail.
  • Balustrade – a rail and the row of balusters or posts that help it, as alongside the entrance of a gallery
  • Bannock – within the context of Mills, a fee to a servant amounting to a handful of meal, along with that given as knaveship. Additionally a kind of Scottish or Manx bread.
  • Bane – an archaic time period for animals and objects inflicting critical injury and even dying; the time period ‘Deodand’ changed it.
  • Bangor – a missionary monastic college.
  • Banshee – from the Irish Gaelic bean sí (“lady of the sídhe” or “lady of the fairy mounds”) is a feminine spirit in Irish mythology, normally seen as an omen of dying and a messenger from the Otherworld. Her Scottish counterpart is the Bean Nighe (“washer-woman”).
  • Barbican – a ahead defensible construction jutting out or set in entrance of the principle a part of a fortress’s defenses or partitions. In lots of circumstances the barbican shaped a part of the fortress gatehouse complicated.
  • Bark Home – a constructing used to retailer bark, primarily from oak timber, gathered to be used in tanning.
  • Barker – an individual whose occupation was the sripping of bark fron timber for the aim of the tanning of leather-based.
  • Barmikan – additionally Barmkin. Initially a livestock enclosure, later a authorized time period for the partitions of the interior or outer courtroom or shut of a fortress, place, and so on.a time period utilized in Scotland to cowl the assorted walled courtyards, service yards, walled gardens and orchards that unfold in each path from a home.[1]
  • Barn – a constructing designed for threshing and storing corn.
  • Baron baillie – a Baillie of a barony courtroom (Scots).
  • Barony – lands held immediately from the crown. The baron’s historic heritable jurisdiction diversified in keeping with the wording of the grant on the time the lands had been erected right into a barony; there was no commonplace set of rights or obligations. The baronial courts of their truncated kind had been used largely to implement fee of rents on the laird’s property. Heritable jurisdiction ceased in 1747.
  • Barr – mountain grazing hooked up to a particular lowland space (Gaelic) or a big hill or the ridge of a hill (Scots).
  • Bartizan additionally ‘Bartisan’ – a small, overhanging turret on a wall or tower, particularly of a fortress.
  • Bascinet – additionally ‘Basnet.’ A light-weight helmet, at first open, however later made with a visor.
  • Bastard – an illegitimate baby. Indicated by the ‘bend’ sinister on armorial bearings.
  • Bastardy, Reward of – in Scots Regulation, a present from the crown of the heritable or movable results of a bastard who has died with out lawful subject, and with out having first disposed of the lands.
  • Bastle home – discovered alongside the Anglo-Scottish border, within the areas previously stricken by border reivers. They’re farmhouses, characterised by elaborate safety measures towards border raids.
  • Baulk – An unplowed strip of land; a ridge between furrows.
  • Bavardage – a lot speaking; prattle; chatter.
  • Baxter – a baker.
  • Bearherd – a person who tends a bear.
  • Bearward – a keeper of bears.
  • Beck – a reputation for a small stream, particularly in Cumbria.
  • Bedesman – additionally ‘Beadsman’. Initially a person endowed to wish for others; later a licensed beggar or a reputation for a servant in England. In Scotland there have been public almsmen supported by the king and anticipated in return to wish for his welfare and that of the state. These males wore lengthy blue robes with a pewter badge on the best arm, and had been nicknamed Blue Robes. Their quantity corresponded to the king’s years, an additional one being added every royal birthday. They had been privileged to ask alms all through Scotland.
  • Bedizen – to decoration or costume in a showy or gaudy method.
  • Bedlam – Bethlehem was shortened to Bedleem and Bedlem in Center English. The hospital was nicknamed Bedlam’ from early on. From the early 16th century, bedlam additionally got here to imply `mad’.
  • Mattress-stone – the decrease of a pair of grindstones, with the rind passing although it. It’s the one that is still stationary.
  • Bee Bole – an alcove or area through which a ‘Skep’ for bees is saved to supply shelter.
  • Beehive – a synthetic dwelling for bees. The ‘Stewarton Hive’ was the primary that didn’t require the killing of the bees with the intention to extract the honey.
  • Beeves – additionally ‘Beefs’, that means cattle or a herd of cows. Frequent utilization in 19th century writings.
  • Beget – to father or sire; to trigger to exist or happen.
  • Behoof – in widespread parlance it signifies want, coming from the saxon time period behoove, to want or have want of. Within the authorized sense of the phrase, it signifies use, service, revenue, benefit.
  • Belfry – a cell siege tower which might be wheeled as much as the partitions of a fortress and so on. Moist hides might be held on it to forestall hearth and so they had small drawbridges to permit besiegers to entry the highest of the partitions.
  • Belletrist – an individual concerned in writing ‘belles-lettres’, literary works valued extra for his or her aesthetic qualities than for any informative or academic content material.
  • Beltane – an historic Gaelic vacation celebrated round Might 1. Traditionally celebrated in Eire, Scotland and the Isle of Man. Comparable festivals had been held on the identical time within the different Celtic nations of Wales, Brittany and Cornwall.
  • Belvedere – additionally ‘Belvidere’, a small spherical copse on a hill or knoll as a part of the scenic structure of formal gardens on an property.
  • Benefice – a church dwelling.
  • Benighted – overtaken by darkness, as utilized in Sir Walter Scott’s Man Mannering. Additionally intellectually or morally ignorant.
  • Benitier – a stoup for holy water in a chapel, church, and so on.[2]
  • Bequeath – a time period showing in a will that means to depart or give property as specified therein to a different individual or group (Authorized).
  • Bercary – a medieval sheep farm, significantly a monastic one.
  • Bere – additionally ‘Bear’ – in Scots this was the primitive indigenous type of one-sided barley. It gave a great yield on poor soils and its straw, used for thatching, was lengthy and robust.
  • Bere or Beer – from the Outdated English this was a wooden, normally one confined to a grove-like kind.
  • Bers – a mortar of the 16th century.
  • Beshrew – to curse; invoke evil upon.
  • Bespeak – to point; to interact, rent, or order prematurely; to request: bespeak a favor; to talk to; deal with.
  • Bestow – to current as a present or an honor; confer; too apply or use; to position or stow or to retailer or home.
  • Bevor – a chunk of plate armour designed to guard the neck.
  • Bibliophile – a lover of books.
  • Bicket – a pocket, as in place names, e.g. Bickethall (Scots).
  • Biggin – a constructing. A basic time period utilized in Scotland, Cumbria and elsewhere in England.
  • Billet – a chunk of wooden lower to be used as gas and infrequently of a normal dimension.[3]
  • Binding – in books phrases, the quilt of the e book.
  • Birlayman – a person appointed by a courtroom, similar to a Barony Court docket, to evaluate damages.
  • Birlinn – a kind of small galley with 12 to 18 oars, used particularly within the Hebrides and West Highlands of Scotland within the Center Ages. Variants in English and Lowland Scots embrace ‘berlin’ and ‘birling’. They seem in Scottish heraldry because the ‘lymphad.’
  • Bittern – in sea salt manufacture, the fluid portion containing the opposite salts which must be eliminated to forestall a bitter and unpalitable style to the ultimate product.
  • Black letter script – additionally recognized Gothic or Gothic minuscule, was a script used all through Western Europe from the mid twelfth to nicely into the 17th century. It continued for use for the German language till the 20th century.
  • Blackhouse – a standard home which was once widespread in Highland Scotland, the Hebrides & Eire. Typically constructed with double wall dry-stone partitions full of earth and picket rafters lined with turf or reed thatch. The ground was typically flagstones or packed earth and there was a central fireplace for the fireplace. There was no chimney (Gaelic).
  • Blair – a plain (Gaelic).
  • Blazon – a proper description of a coat of arms or flag, which allows an individual to assemble or reconstruct the suitable picture. A coat of arms or flag is subsequently not primarily outlined by an image, however relatively by the wording of its blazon. Blazon additionally refers back to the specialised language through which a blazon is written, and, as a verb, to the act of writing such an outline.
  • Bleachfield – a bleaching works with its adjoining drying-ground. Now typically as a survival in place-names (Scots).
  • Blench responsibility or ‘Blanch’ – a ‘Blench Holding’ is by a nominal fee by the feu holder , as of a penny Scots, or a purple rose, usually solely to be rendered upon demand to the superior.
  • Blench ferme – tenure by which a vassal holds land for an elusory yearly responsibility payable relatively as an acknowledgement of, than as a revenue to, the superior.
  • Bletting – a course of that some fleshy fruits endure, past ripening. Such fruits are both sweeter after some bletting, similar to sea buckthorn, or for which most varieties may be eaten uncooked solely after bletting, similar to medlars, persimmons, quince, Service Tree fruit, and Wild Service Tree fruit.
  • Block E book – a e book printed from picket blocks through which every web page, each phrases and footage, is carved from a single piece of wooden and can’t be rearranged for subsequent use; a method primarily employed within the mid-fifteenth century.[4]
  • Blood-wit – a high-quality imposed for inflicting a big effusion of blood from a sufferer (Scots).[5]
  • Bloody – it might be derived from the phrase “by Our Girl”, a sacrilegious invocation of the Virgin Mary. The abbreviated kind “By’r Girl” is widespread in Shakespeare’s performs across the flip of the 17th century, and curiously Jonathan Swift about 100 years later writes each “it grows by’r Girl chilly” and “it was bloody sizzling strolling to-day” suggesting {that a} transition from one to the opposite may have been below method.
  • Blout – additionally ‘Bloak’ – an upwelling of water, a spring or a moist, damp place (Scots).
  • Bodger – itinerant chair leg makers, who in locations like Chinnor in England, would camp within the woods in the summertime months in days passed by.
  • Physique politic – the bodily individual of the sovereign, the emperor, dictator, or the voters.
  • Bogle – the Scots identify for a scarecrow, which is a tool (historically a model) that’s used to discourage birds similar to crows from disturbing crops and feeding on just lately forged seed.
  • Boll – additionally ‘Bow’, ‘bol’, ‘boill’, ‘boall’, or ‘bowl’ – a measure of capability for grain, malt, salt, and so on., or typically of weight, various for various commodities and in numerous localities (Scots).
  • Boline – additionally ‘Bolline’. A white-handled ritual knife, one in all a number of magical instruments utilized in ‘Wicca’. Not like the ‘Athame’, which in most traditions is rarely used for precise bodily slicing, the boline is used for slicing cords and herbs, carving candles, and so on.
  • Bolling – the principle trunk of a pollarded tree.
  • Bolster – “That a part of a mill through which the axletree strikes” (Scots).
  • Bolt – a measure of cloth, saved rolled up in fastened lengths.
  • Bolter – a tool in a mill used for separating the flour or meal from impurities (Scots).
  • Bond of surety – a written, binding settlement to carry out as specified. Many varieties of bonds have existed for hundreds of years and seem in marriage, land and courtroom information of utilized by genealogists. Traditionally, legal guidelines required directors and executors of estates, grooms alone or with others, and guardians of minors to put up bonds. It’s not uncommon to find {that a} bondsman was associated to somebody concerned within the motion earlier than the courtroom. If a bondsman did not carry out, the courtroom could have demanded fee of a specified sum as a penalty (Authorized).
  • Bonds of Manrent – a type of mutually helpful bond of allegiance.
  • Bondage Days – the variety of days that the tenant was certain to work for the proprietor.
  • Boniface – the proprietor of a lodge or restaurant; an innkeeper.
  • Bookplate – a pasted-in signal of possession of a e book. Most of the older bookplates had been extremely elaborate with engraved coats of arms, household mottoes and so on. They’re typically dated and provides helpful info of titles, full names, the pursuits of the proprietor, and so on.
  • Boon-work – work completed on the lord’s land by dependent peasants for a set variety of days per week.
  • Bordland – additionally ‘Borlum’ or ‘Bowland’. The terra mensalis or desk land that particularly furnished meals for the fortress desk.[6]
  • Boor – a serf to which Norman lords usually apportioned lands close to to their castles, therefore ‘Boorland’.
  • Bordar – a smallholding cottager of much less standing than a villein however higher off than cottars.
  • Borough – additionally ‘Burgh.’ Initially a city (constructed space bigger than a village), or one which was fortified, or one which had its personal inside authorities. Later got here to imply a city that had its personal self-government given to it by constitution from the king or queen (a municipal borough) or which despatched consultant/s to parliament (a parliamentary borough). In 1845 a borough is outlined as A borough, city or metropolis company having 1 / 4 classes, recorder and clerk of the peace.
  • Boss – an ‘Umbo’ or raised central space on a protect or ‘buckler’. Additionally a carved keystone at rib intersections on a stone or picket roof. Typically extremely carved and brightly painted.
  • Bote – ‘Housebote’, ‘Hedgebote’, ‘Gatebote’, ‘Harrowbote’, and so on., are the rights of explicit tenants or commoners to chop timber or wooden from hedges, commons or woods when wanted for sustaining buildings and tools.[7]
  • Bothy – a single room for a bachelor farm employee (Scots).
  • Boulevard – a rampart. Bulwark has its origins on this time period.
  • Boulingrin – a grass garden with differential mowing that leaves a sample within the longer grass.
  • Bountith – an addition to wages for good conduct (Scots).[5]
  • Bour Tree – a Frequent Elder (Scots); usually used as a part of a spot identify, similar to Bourtreehill in Irvine, Ayrshire, Scotland.
  • Bovate – a Carucate was sub-divided into bovates (measure of land) (additionally known as Oxgates) and these had been based mostly on the realm a single oxen may until in a 12 months, they had been subsequently one eighth of a carucate. Round 15 acres; land ploughed by two oxen.
  • Bow – a herd of cattle, or a fold or enclosure for cattle.
  • Bowshot – a measure of distance, round 200 yards; derived from the flight achieved by an arrow from a totally drawn bow.
  • Bowbutt – a measure of distance of round 30 yards; derived from the gap aside of butts utilized in archery apply.
  • Field Mattress – a mattress which is boxed in; as present in cot-houses.
  • Brae – a steep or sloping financial institution of a river, lake or shore; a steep slope rising from a water (Scots).
  • Brace – a triangulating piece, normally in a timber body.
  • Brachet – a kind of hound that hunts by scent; bitch-hound; a spoilt baby.
  • Brachygraphy – an abbreviated writing; shorthand.
  • Braggart – one given to loud, empty boasting; a bragger.
  • Braided – streams flowing in an interconnected community of channels that divide and reunite.
  • Brandanes – additionally ‘Brandini’. A collective time period for the natives of Arran and Bute, now archaic. Its origin could also be within the identify of Saint Brendan or in the daring water or spray males.[8]
  • Brank – a scold’s bridle, consisting of a locking steel masks or head cage that accommodates a tab that matches within the mouth to inhibit speaking. Some have claimed that convicted widespread scolds needed to put on such a tool as a preventive or punitive measure.
  • Brasses – memorials to the lifeless on tombs. Normally manufactured from latten hammered into sheets and extremely ornamented, with the identify of the lifeless individual, a portrait, and so on.[9]
  • Breastshot – a water wheel turned by water hitting it halfway up.
  • Brehon – an Anglicisation of ‘breitheamh’ (earlier ‘brithem’, the Irish phrase for a choose). The Brehon legal guidelines had been written within the Outdated Irish interval (ca. 600–900 AD) and are assumed to replicate the standard legal guidelines of pre-Christian Eire and elements of Scotland. They’re related to the Justice or Moot Hills.
  • Breike – trousers (Scots).
  • Breive – a written authorized request to an area official requiring him to inquire right into a case.
  • Bretwalda – additionally ‘Brytenwalda’, or ‘Bretenanwealda’. An Anglo-Saxon time period, the primary report of which comes from the late ninth century. It’s utilized to a few of the rulers of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms from the fifth century onwards who had achieved overlordship over some or all the opposite Anglo-Saxon kingdoms.
  • Brevi manu – summarily or in an offhand style.
  • Breviary – a e book, additionally known as a ‘portitorium’, containing the hymns, places of work, and prayers for the canonical hours.
  • Brigid or ‘Bridget’ – the midwife of Mary, mom of Jesus. Additionally a Celtic Goddess as daughter of Dagda, an Irish god. On February 1, Brigid is widely known on the Gaelic competition of Imbolc, when she brings the primary stirrings of spring to the land.
  • Brisure – a system of marks added to coats of arms in heraldry to differentiate between members of the identical household.
  • Brithem – an early choose in Scotland; from the Gaelic ‘Breitheamhan’ (See Brehon). These judges had been appointed by the King and attended courts convened by the mormaers.
  • Broach spire – a half-pyramid of stone set at every nook of a sq. tower to form the spire.
  • Broadside – a single sheet printed on one aspect and issued by itself, used for ads, ballads, propaganda, and so on.[4]
  • Broch – an Iron Age round stone tower, discovered within the Shetlands and Western shoreline of Scotland.[9]
  • Brocard – an elementary precept or most; a brief, proverbial rule, in legislation, ethics, or metaphysics.
  • Brock – a badger. Typically used within the nation. The Outdated-English identify.
  • Brook – a small stream, additionally ‘Brooklet’.
  • Brother German – a brother by each the daddy’s and mom’s aspect, in contradistinction to a uterine brother, one by the mom solely. From the Outdated French germain, that means “intently associated.”
  • Brownie or ‘Urisk’ (Lowland Scots) or brùnaidh, ùruisg, or ‘gruagach’ (Scottish Gaelic) is a legendary sort of creature standard in folklore round Scotland and England (particularly the north).
  • Brythonic – Indo-European languages, similar to Welsh belong to the Brythonic department of Celtic Languages, which incorporates Breton and Cornish. This department can also be named “P-Celtic”. See Goidelic.
  • Buckler – a small rounded protect held by a deal with. The ‘Buckler fern’ is so named from the resemblance of the ‘spore covers’ (indusia) to those shields.
  • Buckram – a heavy linen fabric utilized in e book binding. Buckram is commonly starched or coated with some type of protecting materials.
  • Bull – an official doc issued by the pope and sealed with a bulla.
  • Bulla (plural, ‘Bullae’), a lump of clay molded round a wire and stamped with a seal. When dry, the container can’t be violated with out seen injury to the bulla, thereby guaranteeing the contents stay tamper-proof till they attain their vacation spot. Bullae from antiquity seem as a lump surrounding a dangling wire (as with a lot later wax bullae and Papal bulls manufactured from lead relatively than clay) or a flat, disc-shaped lump pressed towards a wire surrounding a folded doc (similar to papyrus or vellum).
  • Bullaun – the despair through which a free standing rounded boulder sits inside a water crammed pure cavity. Bullauns are sometimes related to cursing stones and therapeutic stones.
  • Bullionism – an financial principle that defines wealth by the quantity of valuable metals owned. Bullionism is an early or primitive type of mercantilism. It was derived, within the 16th century, from the statement that the English state possessed massive quantities of gold and silver, despite the truth that there was no mining of valuable metals on English soil, due to its massive commerce surplus.
  • Burgage – a city ‘rental property’ owned by a king or lord. The property ‘burgage tenement’ consisting of a home on a protracted and slender plot of land, with the slender finish dealing with the road. Tenure was normally within the type of cash, however every “burgage tenure” association was distinctive, and will embrace companies.
  • Burgher – a member of the Secession Church who upheld the lawfulness of the burgess oath (Scots).
  • Burgess – a freeman or citizen of an English borough or a Scottish burgh; later an elected consultant; a member of the English Parliament who as soon as represented a city, borough, or college.
  • Burgess plot – a strip of land in a medieval city owned by a service provider or burgess. The plot included the location of a home in addition to room for a market stall and a small quantity of enclosed land for grazing a cow or rising greens.
  • Burin – the software utilized by engravers for gouging traces on copper or metal printing plates.
  • Burlaw Court docket – a particular courtroom held by the birlaymen of a barony, males chosen by tenants and tried minor circumstances at cuthills (Scots).
  • Burn – a small stream (Scots).
  • Burr stone – a hard-waring stone, normally from France, used within the development of millstones. Typically made into sections and certain along with iron hoops.
  • Burthen – a burden.
  • Bushel – a unit of dry measure / dry quantity, normally subdivided into eight native gallons within the methods of Imperial models. Used for volumes of dry commodities, not liquids, most frequently in agriculture.
  • Butt – a small piece of land as utilized in ploughing.
  • Butt & Ben – Actually ‘backwards and forwards’. A dwelling entered by a single shared fore-door with a double partition and doorways to the dwelling quarters on one aspect and the byre on the opposite. An individual sitting within the dwelling space, known as the in-seat, would look ‘butt to the byre’ and somebody within the byre would look ‘ben’ to the dwelling space’ (Scots).
  • Buttery – a bottle retailer – a service room for liquid foodstuffs.
  • Buttress – helps for partitions, normally manufactured from stone and typically topped with a pinnacle. Flying buttresses are a variant which allowed a extra delicate look while sustaining the power of the helps.
  • Butts – targets for archery. Typically made out of straw and positioned on a picket or basket ‘woven’ body; typically set towards an earthen mound.
  • Buzone – an archaic time period for the elite inside the ruling class.
  • By – a time period that means a ‘settlement’, derived from the Scandinavian settlers.
  • Byre – a cowshed or barn (Scots).

C Phrases[edit]

A B C D E F G H I J Ok L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


  • Cablish – windfallen wooden.
  • Cabriole – a type of furnishings leg that curves outward after which narrows downward into a decorative foot, attribute of Queen Anne and Chippendale furnishings.
  • Cadency – any systematic method of distinguishing comparable coats of arms belonging to members of the identical household. Cadency is important in heraldic methods through which a given design could also be owned by just one individual directly. As heraldic designs could also be inherited, the arms of members of a household will normally be much like the arms utilized by its oldest surviving member (known as the “plain coat”). They’re shaped by including marks known as brisures, much like expenses however smaller. Brisures are typically exempt from the legislation of tincture.
  • Cadet – in family tree, a junior department of a aristocratic household.
  • Cadger – utilized in Scots as in commonplace English to imply a touring hawker (mainly of fish or Cheese in East Ayrshire ), beggar or carter.
  • Caitiff – a base or despicable individual, a coward.
  • Calefactory – the one room in a monastery through which a fireplace was permitted. This was over the winter months solely.
  • Callant – a stripling, a lad, a time period of affection. Hardly ever – a lady (Scots).
  • Calm – Limestone (Scots).
  • Caltrop – a steel system with 4 projecting spikes so organized that when three of the spikes are on the bottom, the fourth factors upward, used as a hazard to the hooves of horses. The primary settlers within the USA even used them towards the Native Individuals.
  • Calumny – a false assertion maliciously made to injure one other’s fame; maliciously false statements; slander (Authorized).
  • Cambric – a finely woven white linen or cotton cloth. The etymology is out of date Flemish kameryk, from Kameryk, Cambrai, a metropolis of northern France. Reference is made to this materials in Sir Walter Scott’s Kenilworth.
  • Camelaucum – the headdress each the mitre and the Papal tiara stem from, initially a cap utilized by officers of the Imperial Byzantine courtroom.
  • Camerarius regis – chamberlain to the King.
  • Camerarius Scotiae – the good chamberlain of Scotland.
  • Camlet – a sturdy, waterproof fabric, esp. for outerwear or attire manufactured from this materials. Additionally to brighten (cloth, e book edges, and so on.) with a colourful, marbled design.
  • Canon – a set fee in type or feu responsibility.
  • Canon legislation – the ecclesiastical legislation of the Roman Catholic Church, is a totally developed authorized system, with all the mandatory components: courts, legal professionals, judges, a totally articulated authorized code and rules of authorized interpretation.
  • Cant – a compartment in a coppiced wooden.
  • Canticle – a track or chant, particularly a non-metrical hymn with phrases taken from a biblical textual content aside from from the E book of Psalms.
  • Cantrip – a magical spell or mischievous trick (Scots); a deception; a sham.
  • Caparisoned – a decorative overlaying for a horse or for its saddle or harness; trappings; richly ornamented clothes or finery.
  • Capital – the highest, usually ornately carved, of a column.
  • Capital Messuage – the principle messuage of an property, the home through which the proprietor of the property usually lived.
  • Caponier – a lined passage throughout a ditch, used militarily as a protected musketeer emplacement. A high-quality instance is to be discovered at Craignethan fortress in Lanarkshire, Scotland.
  • Carbonarum – a medieval coal mine, significantly monastic websites.
  • Carding – the processing of brushing uncooked or washed fibers to organize them as textiles.
  • Carl – additionally see ‘Churl’ – massive stalks of hemp which bear the seed; – known as additionally carl hemp; sort of meals – Caring or carl are seeds steeped in water and fried the subsequent day in butter or fats. They’re eaten on the second Sunday earlier than Easter, previously known as Carl Sunday.
  • Carlin Stone – a witch stone. The identify Carlin was used as a derogatory time period for a girl that means an ‘outdated hag’. It’s also mentioned within the context of mythology to be a corruption of the Gaelic phrase “Cailleach”, that means the ‘outdated Hag’, the Goddess of Winter. A number of stones and locations in Scotland are recognized by this identify (Scots).
  • Carr – an alder wooden.
  • Cart – a powerful car with two or 4 wheels designed for carrying hundreds and drawn by a horse or horses.
  • Cartouche or ‘Cartouch’ – a construction or determine, usually within the form of an oval protect or rectangular scroll, used as an architectural or graphic decoration or to bear a design or inscription; an oval or rectangular determine in historic Egyptian hieroglyphics that encloses characters expressing the names or epithets of royal or divine personages; a heavy paper cartridge case.
  • Cartshed – a constructing for housing carts, waggons, ploughs, harrows and different farm equipment.
  • Carucage – the tax levied on every ‘carucate’ of land.
  • Carucate – a unit of evaluation for tax present in many of the Danelaw counties of England. The phrase derives from caruca, Latin for a plough. It’s analogous to the ‘disguise’, the measurement of land for tax evaluation used exterior the Danelaw counties. It was utilized in Scotland the place it was equal to 100 Scots acres.
  • Carved Stone Balls – tennis ball sized balls with a variable variety of protruding knobs. Principally thought up to now from the Late Neolithic and nearly all the time present in Scotland. Their operate is unknown.
  • Casque – a helmet or helmet-like course of.
  • Castellan – the governor or caretaker of a fortress or hold. The phrase stems from the Latin Castellanus, derived from castellum ‘fortress’. Normally, a castellan mixed the duties of each a majordomo (answerable for a fortress’s home employees) and a navy administrator (answerable for sustaining defenses and defending the fortress’s lands). This was significantly the case if there was no lord resident on the fortress, or if the resident lord was often absent.
  • Catechism – a e book giving a short abstract of the fundamental rules of Christianity in question-and-answer kind; a guide giving primary instruction in a topic, normally by rote or repetition; a physique of elementary rules or beliefs, particularly when accepted uncritically.
  • Catechumen– one who’s being taught the rules of Christianity; one who’s being instructed in a topic at an elementary degree.
  • Cateran – the widespread folks of the Highlands in a band; brigands, freebooters, or marauders collectively.
  • Cathedral Shut – an enclosure pertaining to a cathedral through which similar to employees housing and upkeep amenities are sited.
  • Caudal – of, at, or close to the tail or hind elements; posterior; located beneath or on the underside; inferior.
  • Caudel – additionally ‘caudle’, a heat drink consisting of wine or ale blended with sugar, eggs, bread, and varied spices, typically given to in poor health individuals. The etymology is from the Center English caudel, from Medieval Latin caldellus, from Latin caldum, sizzling drink, from caldus.
  • Causeymaker – a avenue or lane maker; a layer of cobblestones.
  • Cautioner – in Scotland, one who acts as surety for one more, thereby enterprise to be accountable for the default of one other, or for his look in courtroom, fee of a high-quality, and so on.
  • Celerity – swiftness of motion or movement; pace
  • Cellarium – a storehouse, similar to in an abbey.
  • Centuriation – the Roman apply of dividing wind up into squares of 775 trendy yards, oriented precisely north and south. Centuriation normally adopted the organising of a brand new colony on vacant land. Very uncommon in Britain.
  • Cereal – any plant which produces grain.
  • Certiorari – a writ or a type of judicial evaluate whereby a courtroom is requested to think about a authorized choice of an administrative tribunal, judicial workplace or group (eg. authorities) and to determine if the choice has been common and full, if there was an error of legislation, if the tribunal had the ability to make the choice complained of or whether or not the tribunal exceeded its powers in issuing the choice complained of.
  • Cess – An evaluation tax or levy, outdated by charges. In Scotland it initially meant land-tax and it’s nonetheless often used to indicate an area tax of any type.
  • Cessio bonorum – give up of a debtor’s items in favor of his collectors.
  • Chaff – additionally ‘Bran’, the husk of a cereal seed, eliminated throughout from the flailed grain by winnowing.
  • Chaeatabeastie – the mill-dust, blended with husks and bought as an animal feed. The story of a pig’s dying from being over fed with milldust is in Dr. Duguid’s e book (Service 1887).
  • Chagrin – a eager feeling of psychological unease, as of annoyance or embarrassment, attributable to failure, disappointment, or a disconcerting occasion.
  • Chained library – outdated libraries through which the books and manuscripts had been hooked up to the bookcases by brief chains in order to permit precise studying however deterring theft. Hereford Cathedral and the Bodlean nonetheless have such libraries.
  • Chain Traces – the vertical traces seen in a sheet of handmade paper, normally about 2 cm aside, which maintain the wires in place in paper moulds.
  • Chalder – an historic Scottish dry measure, utilized to grains, various with the grain being measured.
  • Chamberlain – an officer who manages the family of a sovereign or noble; a chief steward; an official who receives the rents and costs of a municipality; an usually honorary papal attendant.
  • Champaign – open countryside, or an space of open countryside.
  • Chancel – additionally ‘Sacrarium’, ‘pit’ or jail cell. The a part of a Christian church close to the altar, reserved for the clergy, the choir, and so on. They’re normally enclosed by a display screen or separated from the nave by steps.
  • Chancery – an workplace of archives for public or ecclesiastic information; a courtroom of public information.
  • Chantry chapel – endowed by wealthy parishioners, these would have a separate altar the place clergymen would have mentioned prayers for the souls of the benefactor and his household. These had been usually situated within the transepts.
  • Chaplet – a wreath or garland for the top; a rosary having beads for 5 a long time of Hail Marys; a string of beads; in structure A small molding carved to resemble a string of beads.
  • Chapman – mainly British A peddler. A supplier or service provider.
  • Chapter-house – the constructing in an abbey, minster, and so on. the place the enterprise elements of the non secular group had been carried out.
  • Cost – any object or determine positioned on a heraldic protect or on some other object of an armorial composition. Any object present in nature or know-how could seem as a heraldic cost in armory. Costs may be animals, objects, or geometric shapes. Other than the ordinaries, probably the most frequent expenses are the cross—with its a whole bunch of variations—and the lion and eagle. Different widespread animals are stags, boars, martlets, and fish. Dragons, unicorns, griffins, and extra unique monsters seem as expenses and as supporters.
  • Char fabric – additionally known as Charpaper, is a swatch of cloth made out of vegetable fiber (similar to linen, cotton or jute) that has been transformed by way of pyrolysis right into a slow-burning gas of very low ignition temperature. It’s able to being ignited by a single spark that may in flip be used to ignite a tinder bundle to start out a fireplace.
  • Charnel – a repository for the bones or our bodies of the lifeless; a charnel home; something resembling, suggesting, or appropriate for receiving the lifeless.
  • Chartulary – a set of charters; a spot the place charters are saved.
  • Chase – Mainly British. a non-public recreation protect; a tract of privately owned land reserved for, and typically stocked with, animals and birds to be hunted. Used as a component in English place names.
  • Chasuble – a extremely ornamental cloak worn by a priest over the white undergarment, the alb.
  • Chateau – a French fortress; a French manor home; a big nation home.
  • Chateau reve – a ‘fortress of desires’.
  • Chatelaine – the mistress of a giant home; a set of brief chains hooked up to a lady’s belt.
  • Chatelet – a gatehouse or different function constructed within the type of a miniature chateau.
  • Chaudemelle – a homicide of ardour; not premeditated.
  • Cheese-brizer – a cheese press (Scots).
  • Cheese-stane – a big, heavy stone, labored with a screw, for urgent cheese (Scots).
  • Chesset – initially the oak wooden container banded with iron hoops into which slated curd was positioned to press it and form it (Scots). An instance at Dalgarven Mill, North Ayrshire in Scotland has a thick picket sides and is perforated on the backside. It’s strengthened with steel hoops.
  • Chevalier – a member of sure male orders of knighthood or benefit, such because the Legion of Honor in France. A French nobleman of the bottom rank. Used as a title for such a nobleman.A chivalrous man.
  • Chevaux de Frise – a defensive measure on the entrance to a fort constructed from stone pillars or stakes designed to interrupt up a mass assault.
  • Chi-Rho – an early Christian image or monogram made out of the primary two Greek letters of Christ’s identify, X and P.
  • Chiromancy – palmistry. Learn the palm to find out the long run; as practiced by Gypsies, and so on.
  • Chorography – within the 16th and 17th centuries chorography was used to confer with antiquarian research of topography, place, group, historical past, reminiscence. Chorography is subsequently the research of its smaller elements; provinces, areas, cities, or ports. With the consolidation of disciplines of area and place, chorography was subsumed below geography and topography.
  • Chrism – a consecrated combination of oil and balsam, used for anointing in church sacraments similar to baptism and affirmation. Additionally known as ‘holy oil’.
  • Christmasing – the surreptitious assortment of holly by moonlight for the aim of promoting.
  • Chrismatory – a particular, normally lockable container, for holding the chrism.
  • Chromolithography – a way of printing in colors by the method of ‘lithography’.
  • Churl – (etymologically the identical identify as Charles), in its earliest Anglo-Saxon that means, was merely “a person”, however the phrase quickly got here to imply “a non-servile peasant”, nonetheless spelt ceorle, and denoting the bottom rank of freemen. Based on the Oxford English Dictionary it later got here to imply the alternative of the the Aristocracy and royalty, “a standard individual”. Says Chadwick, “from the time of Aethelstan the excellence between thegn and ceorl was the broad line of demarcation between the courses of society.” This that means held via the 15th century, however by then the phrase had taken on detrimental overtone, that means “a rustic individual” after which “a low fellow”. By the 19th century, a brand new and pejorative that means arose, “one inclined to uncivil or loutish behaviour”.
  • Ciborium – a vaulted cover completely positioned over an altar or font; a lined receptacle for holding the consecrated wafers of the Eucharist.
  • Cicerone – an outdated time period for a information, one who conducts guests and sightseers to museums, galleries, and so on.,
  • Ci-devant – the French the Aristocracy of the ancien régime (the Bourbon monarchy) after it had misplaced its titles and privileges within the French Revolution. Even previous to the revolution, the time period ci-devant was already a standard expression to confer with “folks or issues dispossessed of their property or high quality
  • Cincture – one thing that encircles or surrounds; a belt or sash, particularly one worn with an ecclesiastical vestment or the behavior of a monk or nun.
  • Cist – additionally ‘Kist’ a small stone slab-built coffin-like field or ‘ossuary’ used to carry the our bodies of the lifeless, particularly throughout the Bronze Age within the British Isles and infrequently in Native American burials.
  • Citadel – a time period for a ‘Fortress’ or ‘Maintain’.
  • Clachan – a small settlement of clustered homes with no church, and the land round held below a system of land tenure also known as the Rundale System – whereby farmers inside the clachan had scattered plots of fine, medium and poorer high quality land. The higher land was normally discovered near the cluster of homes and was often called the infield – poorer high quality land was present in what was also known as the outfield, because it was additional away from the cluster. Components of the land had been held ‘in widespread’ e.g. the land across the homes and the mountain land. The mountain land was allotted in soums – e.g. one soum entitled a farmer to graze a cow or so many sheep. The variety of soums {that a} farmer held was associated to how a lot land he held within the infield/outfield space (Scots).
  • Clan Crest – the badge worn by a clan member, normally on the arm as an indication of allegiance. The crest of the clan chief is definitely his crest and never that of the clan by way of rightful use.
  • Clap – the shape or lair of a hare or rabbit (Scots).
  • Clap – clap or clapper, the instrument which by hanging the hopper causes corn to be shaken into the mill-stones (Scots).
  • Clap & Happer – an expression utilized in Scottish authorized paperwork, that means the entire mill (Scots).
  • Clare constat – identify of a principle (an order), through which a superior acknowledges that it ‘clearly seems’ that somebody is inheritor to landed property held of the superior, and which orders the giving of sasine (Authorized). This phrase means it does clearly seem.
  • Clathri – a grating or lattice of bars, as of cages for animals or gratings for home windows.
  • Claustral – of or associated to a cloister; secluded, remoted, or retired from the World.
  • Claviger – additionally a ‘Macer’. A servant at a legislation courtroom, answerable for sustaining order.
  • Clepe – (archaic) to name; identify.
  • Clerestory – the windowed high of a nave in a church. Sure early Victorian railway coaches had an analogous high construction and had been named clerestory coaches.
  • Cloister – lined walkways in a cathedral or abbey, set out as a sq. and utilized by the monks as a research.
  • Shut-stools – pierced picket seats with a detachable container beneath, utilized in many nation homes earlier than trendy plumbing was developed.
  • Coat of Arms – the heraldic bearings or protect of an individual, household or company. The presence of a coat of arms on an merchandise normally signified possession, therefore the looks of coats of arms on buildings, furnishings, silverware, cash, and so on.
  • Cobbled – surfaces similar to roads and flooring lined with small rounded stones or cobbles.
  • Cocidius – a Brythonic Celtic deity worshipped in northern Britain. The Romans equated him with Mars, god of struggle and looking and with Sylvanus, god of forests, groves and wild fields. Like Belatu-Cadros, he was in all probability worshipped by lower-ranked Roman troopers in addition to Britons.
  • Cockade – an decoration, similar to a rosette or knot of ribbon, normally worn on the hat as a badge. A White Cockade was the badge of the ‘Jacobites’.
  • Cocket, additionally ‘Cocquet’ – a seal utilized by a customs home, utilized to a certificates (a “letter of cocket”) certifying that responsibility has been paid on items to be exported.
  • Codex, Codices – the usual e book format, with folded flat sheets stitched alongside one edge to bind the sheets collectively, additionally an historic quantity of manuscript, similar to these surviving from the Aztec civilisation.
  • Codger – an outdated or unusual individual. Could also be derived from ‘Cadger’.
  • Codicil – a complement or addition to a will; not meant to interchange a complete will (Authorized).
  • Codicology – the research of books as bodily objects, particularly manuscripts written on parchment in codex kind. It’s also known as ‘the archaeology of the e book’, regarding itself with the supplies (parchment, typically known as membrane or vellum, paper, pigments, inks and so forth), and methods used to make books, together with their binding.
  • Coeval – originating or present throughout the identical interval; lasting via the identical period; One of many identical period or interval; a recent.
  • Cofferer – a principal officer within the English royal courtroom, subsequent below the controller. Within the counting-house, and elsewhere at different occasions, he had a particular cost and oversight of different officers of the home, for his or her good demeanor and carriage of their places of work—to all whom he paid the wages.
  • Cofferer of the Family – previously an workplace within the British Royal Family. The holder had particular cost over different officers of the family and was an officer of state and a member of the Privy Council and the Board of Inexperienced Fabric.
  • Cognizance – in Heraldry, a crest or badge worn to differentiate the bearer.
  • Cogswounds – an expression that means God’s Wounds, now archaic. A personality in Sir Walter Scott’s ‘Kenilworth’ makes use of this expression. It’s an instance of a phrase which has had a consonant altered to assist masks its literal that means.
  • Collateral line – a line of descent connecting individuals who share a standard ancestor, however are associated via an aunt, uncle, cousin, nephew, and so on.
  • Collateral Succession – succession through which the throne handed not linearly from father to son, however laterally from brother to brother after which to the eldest son of the eldest brother who had held the throne.
  • Collation – a sup of drink and a mouthful of bread taken earlier than retiring to mattress.
  • Collegiate church – a church served and administered by a school of canons or prebendaries, presided over by a dean or provost. In its governing a collegiate church is much like a cathedral, though a collegiate church just isn’t the seat of a bishop. Collegiate church buildings had been usually supported by (typically in depth) lands held by the church. Lincluden at Dumfries in Scotland is an instance.
  • Collop – a small portion of meals or a slice, particularly of meat; roll of fats flesh. ‘Collop Monday’ was the day when the final of the collops had been eaten previous to Lent.
  • Colloquy – in legislation, a routine and extremely formalized dialog, similar to between the choose and legal professionals. A spiritual colloquy or colloquium is a gathering to settle variations of doctrine or dogma.
  • Colonus – (plural Coloni) – a tenant farmer of the late Roman Empire and the European Center Ages. Coloni had been drawn from impoverished small free farmers, partially emancipated slaves, and barbarians despatched to work as agricultural labourers amongst landed proprietors. For the lands that they rented, they paid in cash, produce, or service. Some could have turn into coloni with the intention to achieve safety from the proprietor towards the state tax collector or towards invaders and aggressive neighbours. Though technically freemen, the coloni had been certain to the soil by money owed that had been heritable and by legal guidelines limiting their freedom of motion. By advert 332 landlords had been permitted to chain coloni suspected of planning to depart. Coloni had been forbidden to switch their property with out consent of the owner and to sue the owner aside from growing their lease. The colonus couldn’t lose his land so long as he paid the lease, however he was forbidden to depart or change his occupation. If the land was bought, he went with it; his kids held it after him on the identical phrases.
  • Colophon – an figuring out inscription or emblem from a printer or writer showing on the finish of a e book. Additionally the logo on the backside of the backbone on each a e book and its dust-wrapper in addition to the emblem on the title or copyright web page.
  • Columbarium – a dove-cote or doocot.
  • Columbarius – a full time keeper of a flock of pigeons.[10]
  • Mix harvester – a cell machine that reaps, threshes and bales.
  • Commandry – the smallest division of the European landed property or manor below the management of a commendator, or commander, of an order of knights.
  • Commendam – additionally ‘Commendator’. The origins of the apply may be discovered within the Early Center Ages when briefly unoccupied church property (ecclesiastical benefice) could be briefly entrusted to the safety of a member of the church, to safeguard it till order was restored and a brand new everlasting holder of the place was granted in titulus. The safeguarder would obtain any revenues generated from the property within the meantime. An instance could be that of Kilwinning Abbey, Ayrshire, Scotland which was positioned within the palms of a Commendator after the reformation.
  • Commonty – a standard; a chunk of floor utilized by or belonging to multiple individual.
  • Compearance – in Scotland, defenders do not “seem” in a authorized motion; they “compear” (Authorized).
  • Compline – the final of the seven canonical hours recited or sung simply earlier than retiring; the time of day appointed for this church service.
  • Composition – a fee made by an inheritor succeeding to land, to the superior of the land.
  • Compurgators – ‘oath-helpers’ whom an individual on trial was allowed to name in to swear that, to their perception, as neighbours of the accused and acquainted along with his character, he was talking reality in making oath.
  • Commissariots – areas based mostly on pre-Reformation dioceses in Scotland through which the Commissary Courts handled points similar to executries, slander, aliment and small debt.[11]
  • Fee of justiciary – sturdy powers granted to native lords to carry justice courts for explicit occasions or durations of time (Scots).
  • Fee of lieutenandry – sturdy powers granted by the federal government to named feudal lords which just about gave the person the powers of the monarch for a set interval (Scots).
  • Frequent Regulation – the standard code of legislation in England, courting from the Center Ages and supplemented by authorized choices over the centuries. Not written down in anyone place. Typically contrasted with statute legal guidelines handed by Parliament.
  • Commonweal – the general public good or welfare.
  • Commutation – change or substitution.
  • Compear – to look. To seem in courtroom personally or by lawyer (Authorized).
  • Comptroller – a variant of ‘controller.’
  • Coney – an grownup rabbit. The time period has nearly died out on account of its ribald or vulgar hyperlinks.
  • Confidencen – a desk already laid and set with meals that might be raised up by pulleys right into a room in order that aristocracy may eat and converse confidentially within the absence of servants. From the French for ‘In confidence’.
  • Conge – formal permission to depart or an abrupt and unceremonious dismissal.
  • Congé d’élire – permission to elect.
  • Connexus – a connecting construction.
  • Consignation cash – cash paid to the church previous to marriage to forestall ante-nuptial fornication. The cash was returned if no proof of fornication was obvious.
  • Constable – the title comes from the Latin comes stabuli (rely of the stables) and originated from the Jap Roman Empire; initially, the constable was the officer answerable for retaining the horses of a lord or monarch. In lots of nations the title developed right into a excessive navy rank and nice officer of State.
  • Consuetude – customized; utilization.
  • Cope – a big ceremonial cloak worn by some Christian clergymen [Late Latin cappa hooded cloak] a big ceremonial cloak worn by some Christian clergymen [Late Latin cappa hooded cloak].
  • Consanguinity – the diploma of relationship between individuals who descend from a standard ancestor. A father and son are associated by lineal consanguinity, uncle and nephew by collateral sanguinity.
  • Consistory – a consistory courtroom is a kind of ecclesiastical courtroom, particularly inside the Church of England, established by a constitution of King William I. These courts nonetheless exist right this moment, though since concerning the mid 19th century they’ve misplaced a lot of their subject-matter jurisdiction.
  • Consuetude – a customized or utilization that has acquired the power of legislation.
  • Consuetudinary – a guide describing the customs of a selected group (particularly the ceremonial practices of a monastic order).
  • Conterminous – additionally ‘Coterminous’ – having a boundary in widespread; contiguous: The northern border of the USA is conterminous with the southern border of Canada.
  • Contumacious – obstinately disobedient or rebellious; insubordinate.
  • Contumely – insolently abusive and arrogantly humiliating. An insolent or smug comment or act.
  • Conventicle – an unlawful assembly of Presbyterian covenanters (Scots).
  • Conventual – a member of a department of the Franciscan non secular order that allows the buildup and possession of widespread property.
  • Conveyance – a authorized doc by which the title to property is transferred; warrant; patent; deed (Authorized).
  • Coppard – a tree which has been firstly coppiced after which just a few poles allowed to develop from the stool. These poles had been pollarded and the tree cropped cyclically to supply faggots.
  • Coppice – a standard methodology of woodland administration through which younger tree stems are lower right down to a low degree. In subsequent progress years, many new shoots will emerge and after numerous years the cycle begins once more and the coppiced tree, or stool, is able to be harvested once more.
  • Coracle – small boats manufactured from versatile twigs, similar to willow, after which lined with animal hides and sewn along with leather-based thongs. They had been used earlier than the Romans arrived and proceed for use in elements of Wales for fishing, similar to within the rivers Teifi and Tywi.[12]
  • Corbel – a projection from a wall-plane meant to help a construction above.
  • Cordon sanitaire – a guarded line between two areas, such because the border between Scotland and England previous to the Act on Union.
  • Corn – any cereal earlier than or after harvesting.
  • Cornage – an historic tenure of land, which obliged the tenant to provide discover of an ‘invasion’ by blowing a horn.[13]
  • Cornice – a horizontal decorative moulded projection across the high of a constructing. Retains the rain of the partitions.
  • Coronach – (additionally written coranich, corrinoch, coranach, cronach, and so on.) is the lamentation or dirge for the lifeless which accompanied funerals within the Highlands of Scotland and in Eire. It may be a choral lament or a funereal track sung or shrieked by Celtic girls.
  • Corpus delicti – the precise topic of inquiry in a felony trial – such because the physique of the individual murdered; with out which a trial couldn’t happen.
  • Cossnent – wages with out meals (Scots).[5]
  • Coterie – a small, usually choose group of individuals who affiliate with each other often.
  • Coterminous – additionally ‘Conterminous’ – having a boundary in widespread; contiguous: The northern border of the USA is coterminous with the southern border of Canada.
  • Cothouse – additionally a ‘Cot,’ A dwelling with or with out land hooked up. A tied cottage to a farm labourer and his household (Scots).
  • Cottage Ornee – a kind of ‘Summer time Home’ or ‘Cottage orne’ from the early improvement of nation estates, early 18th century.
  • Cottar – a tenant or villein. Lowest of the principle ranges of peasant cultivators at Domesday; cottagers with Four acres or much less.
  • Cotte – lady’s or baby’s petticoat; a skirt.
  • Cottown – Additionally ‘Cottoun’ – a bunch of cottages, usually set other than a township, occupied by cottars who had been landless folks allowed to decide on the widespread land and domesticate a small space of land in return for his or her labour (Scots).
  • Couchant – in heraldry the time period means ‘Mendacity down with the top raised’.
  • Couillon – see ‘Cowan’.
  • County or shire – an English administrative district, uniting a number of smaller districts known as a whole bunch, dominated collectively by an ealdorman and sheriff, who presided within the shire-moot. Moot Corridor or Mote Home turned the identify for what we now name a City Corridor (See 1890 romanticisation by William Morris). The Normans (from 1066) continued to rule England in shires, utilizing Anglo-French counté, Anglo-Latin comitatus to explain them. These phrases had been absorbed into English as county.
  • Court docket hill – see ‘Moot’,’Mote’ hill and ‘Cuthill’.
  • Cousin German – a baby of 1’s aunt or uncle; a primary cousin; from O.Fr. germain “intently associated.”
  • Covenanter – an individual who had signed or was an adherent to the ‘Nationwide Covenant of the Solemn League and Covenant’ in 17th. century Scotland, in help of Presbyterianism (Scots).
  • Covin – numerous individuals banded collectively; a mixture or union.
  • Cowan – additionally ‘Cullion’ or ‘Couillon’. Anybody who works as a mason with out having served a daily apprenticeship; amongst Freemasons, a time period for pretender, interloper.
  • Coxcomb – a immodest dandy who’s overly impressed by his personal accomplishments; a cap worn by courtroom jesters; adorned with a strip of purple [syn: cockscomb].
  • Crenellate, Licence to – Royal permission was needed for the fortification of dwellings. Later thios turned extra a matter of the craetion of spectacular obvious, relatively than actual fortifications.
  • Cresset – a steel cup, usually suspended on a pole, containing burning oil or pitch and used as a torch.
  • Crest – The proper use of the heraldic time period ‘crest’ refers to only one element of a whole achievement in heraldry. The crest rests on high of a helmet which itself rests on an important a part of the achievement — the protect. The crest is normally discovered on a wreath of twisted fabric and typically inside a coronet. The fashionable crest has advanced from the three-dimensional determine positioned on the highest of the mounted knights’ helms as an additional technique of identification. In most heraldic traditions a lady doesn’t show a crest.
  • Crinoline – initially a stiff cloth with a weft of horse-hair and a warp of cotton or linen thread. The material first appeared round 1830.
  • Cro – additionally ‘Weregeld’. The assythement on account of be paid to the buddies or household of somebody who had been killed, by the killer.
  • Crock – an earthenware jar which was traditionally used for the storage of butter or different meals gadgets. Dalgarven Mill, North Ayrshire in Scotland has a great assortment. The expression ‘Crock of gold’ in relation to the supposed treasure on the finish of a rainbow refers to one of these pot.
  • Crocket – in structure a projecting decoration, normally within the type of a cusp or curling leaf, positioned alongside outer angles of pinnacles and gables.
  • Croft – a fenced or enclosed space of land, normally small and arable with a crofter’s dwelling thereon (Scots).
  • Cromlech – also called ‘Dolmen’ or ‘quoits’, are a kind of single-chamber megalithic tomb, normally consisting of three or extra upright stones (megaliths) supporting a big flat horizontal capstone. Principally courting from the early Neolithic interval in Britain (4000 BC to 3000 BC). They had been normally lined with earth or smaller stones to kind a barrow, although generally that overlaying has weathered away or eliminated for drystone dyking, and so on.
  • Crop – the produce of cultivated crops, particularly cereals.
  • Cross Moline – a design aspect used as a mark of cadency in heraldry, significantly English heraldry; named as a result of its form resembles a millrind, the iron clamp of the higher millstone.
  • Crop rotation – rising completely different crops on the identical area annually to forestall the construct up of pest species, and so on.
  • Cross pattée – additionally ‘cross patty’ or ‘Cross formy’ is a kind of cross that has arms that are slender on the heart, and broader on the perimeter. The identify comes from the truth that the form of every arm of the cross was thought to resemble a paw (French patte). There are a number of variants of the cross pattée.
  • Crowstep – Additionally ‘Corbie-step’. rectangular stones forming the gable of a constructing, each stepped again from the one beneath.
  • Crozier – additionally ‘crosier.’ The stylized employees of workplace carried by high-ranking Roman Catholic , Jap Orthodox , Anglican and a few Lutheran prelates
  • Cruck – curved timber, utilized in pairs to kind a bowed A-frame which helps the roof of a constructing independently of the partitions.
  • Cruive – a constructed enclosure utilized in salmon-fishing.
  • Crupper – a leather-based strap mounted to the saddle of a harness and looping below the tail of a horse to forestall the harness from slipping ahead; the rump or buttocks of a horse or armour for the rump of a horse.
  • Crusado – an outdated Portuguese coin of gold or silver having a cross pictured on the reverse.
  • Cuckold – a person married to an untrue spouse. The feminine of some Outdated World cuckoos lays its eggs within the nests of different birds, leaving them to be cared for by the resident nesters. This parasitic tendency has given the feminine chook a figurative fame for unfaithfulness as nicely. Center English cokewold, the ancestor of Trendy English cuckold, is first recorded in a piece written round 1250.
  • Cudrun – a Scottish unit of measurement for cheese. It’s not recognized what the measure was.
  • Cuirass – a chunk of armour for safeguarding the breast and again; the breastplate alone.
  • Cuisse – plate armour worn to guard the entrance of the thigh.
  • Culdee – the Celi De or ‘Shoppers of God’. The clergymen of the early Celtic church, initially from Eire. In Scotland that they had communities at Iona and St. Andrews, with monasteries at Brechin, Abernethy, Loch Leven, Monymusk and Muthil.
  • Cullion – see ‘Cowan’.
  • Culver – the Anglo-Saxon phrase for a pigeon.
  • Culverine – long-barrelled artillery of the 16th century.
  • Cumerlache – a fugitive serf (Scots).
  • Cummer – additionally ‘Cummar’; ‘cwmar’; ‘cummere’, ‘comer’, and so on. A godmother (in relation to the mother and father and different godparents); a feminine intimate; a lady gossip.
  • Cunningary – a rabbit-warren. From the outdated phrase ‘Coney,’ an grownup rabbit, particularly the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The phrase rabbit was initially used completely for the younger solely.
  • Cunyng – a rabbit.
  • Cunyngar – keeper of the rabbit warren.
  • Cup and ring mark Stone – these are a type of prehistoric artwork discovered predominantly within the upland elements of the British Isles but additionally in some elements of continental Europe. They encompass a concave despair, no various centimetres throughout, pecked right into a rock floor and infrequently surrounded by concentric circles additionally etched into the stone. Generally a linear channel known as a gutter leads out from the center.
  • Cupola – additionally a ‘Lantern’ or ‘Glover’ – a canopy which gives an entrance / exit, however retains out the rain from a constructing or construction.
  • Cupping – drawing blood by making use of a heated cup to the scarified (scratched) pores and skin. Additionally known as moist cupping. The apply as a therapy for illness is outdated and located in numerous cultures.
  • Cur – a canine thought of to be inferior or undesirable; a mongrel. A base or cowardly individual.
  • Curate – a cleric, particularly one who has cost of a parish; a cleric who assists a rector or vicar.
  • Treatment – ecclesiastical Religious cost or care, as of a priest for a congregation.
  • Curia – within the Roman Catholic Church, the central administration governing the Church.
  • Curial – a medieval meeting or council; a medieval royal courtroom of justice.
  • curlicue – additionally ‘curlycue’. Within the visible arts, is a elaborate twist, or curl, composed normally from a sequence of concentric circles. It’s a recurring motif in structure, in calligraphy and basically scrollwork; typically discovered on gravestones.
  • Curling – a precision workforce sport much like ‘bowls’ or ‘bocce’, performed on an oblong sheet of ready ice by two groups of 4 gamers every, utilizing heavy polished granite curling stones which gamers slide down the ice in the direction of a goal space known as the home. Factors are scored for the variety of stones {that a} workforce has nearer to the middle of the goal than the closest of the opposite workforce’s stones.
  • Curmudgeon – a crusty irascible cantankerous individual, normally outdated, filled with cussed concepts. Deriving from the 16th-century, origins unclear.
  • Curse – the efficient motion of some energy, distinguished solely by the standard of adversity that it brings. A curse can also be mentioned to consequence from a spell or prayer, imprecation or execration, or different imposition by magic or witchcraft, asking {that a} god, pure power, or spirit carry misfortune to somebody.
  • Cursing – a denunciation issued within the identify of a bishop which led to excommunication. The ‘curse’ was learn out at a divine service or in a public place.
  • Cursus – a reputation given by early British archaeologists similar to William Stukeley to the massive parallel lengths of banks with exterior ditches which they thought had been early Roman athletics tracks, therefore the Latin identify ‘Cursus’, that means ‘Circus’. Cursus monuments are actually understood to be Neolithic constructions and will have been of ceremonial operate. They vary in size from 50 metres to nearly 10 kilometres and the gap between the parallel earthworks may be as much as 100 metres. Banks on the terminal ends enclosed the cursus. Greater than 100 examples are recognized, such because the one close to Drybridge in North Ayrshire, Scotland.
  • Curtilage – the land and constructions on property which instantly encompass the residence.
  • Curvilinear – shaped, bounded, or characterised by curved traces.
  • Cuthill – a placename aspect that means an meeting or rysting place, similar to for non-seignural courts, largely within the Scottish Highlands; from the Gaelic ‘comhdhail’.

D Phrases[edit]

A B C D E F G H I J Ok L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


  • Dairy – the place milk was made into butter and cheese. In earlier occasions demand for milk as a drink was fairly low because it went off rapidly within the absence of fridges.
  • Dalmatic – a extremely ornamental cloak worn by a Deacon over his white alb.
  • Damask – to brighten or weave with wealthy patterns.
  • Dandiprat – just a little fellow; – in sport or contempt. Additionally a small coin. King Henry VII issued a small coin denomination nicknamed a dandiprat.
  • Danewort – one other identify for the Dwarf Elder (Sambucus ebulus).
  • Davach – additionally ‘Davoch’. A unit of land-area, utilized in elements of the Pictlands rather than the ploughgate. A davoch represents both the realm sown with a sure amount of seed or the realm yielding a sure amount of grain; typically equated with 4 ploughgates. Within the 18th century the davoch equalled 96 Scots acres.
  • Davidian Revolution – a time period given by many students to the adjustments which passed off within the Kingdom of Scotland throughout the reign of David I of Scotland. These included his basis of burghs, implementation of the beliefs of Gregorian Reform, basis of monasteries, Normanization of the Scottish authorities, and the introduction of feudalism via immigrant French and Anglo-French knights.
  • Davy Mud – a reputation for powdered limestone used to ‘dampen down’ coal mud in mines.
  • Damask – a cloth of silk, wool, linen, cotton, or artificial fibers, with a sample shaped by weaving. At present, it typically denotes a linen texture richly figured within the weaving with flowers, fruit, types of animal life, and different varieties of decoration.
  • Dapifer – a bearer of meat to desk; a steward. This time period was later used within the context of the Excessive Stewards of Scotland, later the Stewarts & King Robert II; first Stewart king of Scotland.
  • De eodem – ‘of that place.’ Akin to with the identify Fergushill of Fergushill q.v. Fergushill de Eodem.
  • Darg – a day’s work or its equal (Scots).
  • Dean – a wooded hole or valley (Anglo-Saxon).
  • Deasil – clockwise, righthandwards or sunwise, kind the Gaelic deiseil.
  • Debatable land – particularly an space of the Scotland and England Border which was not correctly delineated till the development of the Scots Dyke following arbitration by the French.
  • Deckle edges – a time period for uncut or untrimmed edges on a e book.
  • Declarator – in Scots legislation an motion searching for to have some proper, standing, and so on., judicially ascertained.
  • Decolate – to behead.
  • Decree Arbitral – in Scot’s Regulation, a decree made by arbitrators chosen by the events; an award.
  • Deed – a doc transferring possession and title of property (Authorized).
  • Deemster – additionally ‘dempster’ – an officer whose responsibility it was to announce the doom or sentence pronounced by the courtroom (Scots legislation).
  • Deer Leap – a gap in a deer park enclosure which was designed to permit the entry, however not the exit of deer.
  • Defalcate – to misuse funds; embezzle.
  • Definitor – an officer of the chapter in sure monastic orders, charged with the ‘definition’ or choice of factors of self-discipline.
  • Defixione – from the traditional Roman time period ‘tabulae defixiones’ which translated means curse tablets. Historic defixiones had been used to convey messages to influential gods and spirits, normally asking them for victory over an enemy by ‘binding them up’ in some sort of horrific hassle. The foundation thought is to bind or tie up.
  • de jure – in precept versus de facto, in reality.
  • Delectus Personae – the best of selection by a selected individual. Vital in a authorized sense stopping assignation or delegation of an obligation by the individual chosen.
  • Delirium– a psychological state with incoherent speech, hallucinations, restlessness and pleasure which resulted from both sickness or alcohol. ‘Febrile delirium’ is delirium attributable to fever.
  • Delved land – land that had been labored by a spade.
  • Demesne – all of the land, not essentially all contiguous to the fortress, that was retained by the lord for his personal use as distinguished from that “alienated” or granted to others as tenants. Initially the demesne lands had been labored on the lord’s behalf by villeins or by serfs, in achievement of their feudal obligations.
  • Demurrage – an allowance on account of a shipmaster or shipowner for the time a ship is held up longer than regular to be loaded or unloaded.
  • Dempster – additionally ‘deemster’ – an officer whose responsibility it was to announce the doom or sentence pronounced by the courtroom (Scots legislation).
  • Dentelle – the embellished fringe of the leather-based which a e book binder brings over the boards from the surface of the binding. Additionally known as the Flip In.
  • de Eodem – ‘of that place.’ Akin to with the identify Fergushill of Fergushill q.v. Fergushill de Eodem.
  • Deodand – a factor forfeited or given to God, particularly, in legislation, an object or instrument which turns into forfeit as a result of it has brought about an individual’s dying.
  • Descry – to catch sight of (one thing troublesome to discern) or to find by cautious statement or scrutiny.
  • Desuetude – a situation of disuse or inactivity.
  • Devexity – a bending downward; a sloping; incurvation downward; declivity.
  • Satan’s door – a door left open throughout church companies in a church for the Satan to flee via. Pope Harmless III banned the apply within the 13th century as superstituous, and plenty of such doorways had been subsequently walled up.
  • Desideratum – one thing that’s thought of needed or extremely fascinating.
  • Desuetude – a doctrine that causes statutes, comparable laws or authorized rules to lapse and turn into unenforceable by a protracted behavior of non-enforcement or lapse of time. It’s what occurs to legal guidelines that aren’t repealed once they turn into out of date. It’s the Authorized doctrine that lengthy and continued non-use of a legislation renders it invalid, a minimum of within the sense that courts will now not tolerate punishing its transgressors.
  • Devoir – an act or expression of respect or courtesy; civility as in ‘one pays one’s devoirs’. An obligation or duty.
  • Dewar – A relic keeper.
  • Diablerie – sorcery; witchcraft; illustration of devils or demons, as in work or fiction; devilish conduct; deviltry.
  • Diablotin – an ‘imp’; a small satan or depraved spirit.
  • Diaper – a diamond-shaped sample.
  • Diarchy or ‘dyarchy’ – a type of authorities through which two diarchs are the heads of state. In most diarchies, they maintain their place for all times and go the obligations and energy of the place to their kids or household once they die.
  • Dilligence – in Scots Regulation a course of or execution, as in a writ.
  • Diffidatio – an archaic time period for the act of renunciation of religion or allegiance; formal severing of peaceable relations.
  • Dilligrout – a watery porridge made with plums in it. A lot favoured by William the Conqueror and as soon as served as a part of the Coronation ceremonies.
  • Dimity – a sheer, crisp cotton cloth with raised woven stripes or checks, used mainly for curtains and attire.
  • Dirk – a protracted dagger as previously worn by Scottish Highlanders. A high-quality instance is the Campbell Dirk which belonged to Sir John Campbell, the adviser to William III over the Bloodbath of Glencoe.
  • Disavow – to deny information of, duty for, or affiliation with.
  • Discalced – a time period utilized to these non secular congregations of women and men, the members of which go completely barefoot or put on sandals, with or with out different overlaying for the toes.
  • Dispensation – an exemption from a church legislation, a vow, or one other comparable obligation granted in a selected case by an ecclesiastical authority.
  • Dispone – to make over or convey legally (Authorized)(Scots).
  • Disruption, The – a interval of battle within the Church of Scotland over patronage, or the appointment of ministers by landowners.
  • Dissenter – identify given an individual who refused to belong to the established Church of England.
  • Distraint – the seizure and holding of property as safety for fee of a debt or satisfaction of a declare (Authorized); Initially misery was a landlord’s treatment towards a tenant for unpaid rents or property injury, however now the owner is given a landlord’s lien.
  • Dittay – the substance of the cost towards an individual accused of a criminal offense (Scots) (Authorized).
  • Diurnal – a diurnal was the time period for a newspaper.
  • Divination – the try of ascertaining info by interpretation of omens or an alleged supernatural businesses.
  • Divot – a chunk of turf torn up by a golf membership in hanging a ball, or by a horse’s hoof. A skinny sq. of turf or sod used for roofing (Scots).
  • Dobble – a kind of manakin used to show a swimsuit of armour.
  • Dobby stone – Milk was poured as an providing to ‘Gruagach’ the Gaelic guardian-goddess of cattle, into hollows in stones known as ‘Dobby stones’ or ‘Leach na Gruagach’.
  • Doctrine – a precept of political or non secular perception.
  • Canine tooth – a kind of ornamentation within the moulding of an arch; sometimes present in church buildings and a few castles.
  • Doggis – pistols of the 16th century.
  • Dolmen – also called ‘Cromlechs’ or ‘quoits’, are a kind of single-chamber megalithic tomb, normally consisting of three or extra upright stones (megaliths) supporting a big flat horizontal capstone. Principally courting from the early Neolithic interval in Britain (4000 BC to 3000 BC). They had been normally lined with earth or smaller stones to kind a barrow, although generally that overlaying has weathered away or eliminated for drystone dyking, and so on.
  • Dominium directum – “the direct lordship”; the curiosity which a feudal superior had in property, like the best to feu duties, casualties and different rights.
  • Dominum utile – the best to make use of one thing, usually utilized in reference to feudal legislation through which the Crown held dominum directum over the land and granted this proper to the lords or vassals.
  • Donjoun – a fortified constructing or fortress. Particularly the initially picket tower on high of the motte. Initially nonetheless the earthen hillock.
  • Doocot – Scots for a ‘dovecote’. A shelter with nesting holes for domesticated pigeons, initially saved as a supply of meals (particularly in winter) and later for appearances sake.
  • Dool Tree or ‘Dule Tree’ – in Scotland a tree used for executions and as a gibbet in reference to the feudal rights of ‘pit and gallows’ held by native barons and different such representatives of the crown. In England often called a Gallows-Tree
  • Doric order – One of many three orders or organisational methods of Historic Greek or classical structure which stood on the flat pavement of a temple and not using a base, their vertical shafts fluted with pararell concave grooves topped by a easy capital that flared from the column to fulfill a sq. abacus on the intersection with the horizontal beam that they carried.
  • Dortour – a dormitory, particularly in a monastery.
  • Dowager – a widow holding property or a title obtained from her deceased husband; title given in England to widows of princes, dukes, earls, and different noblemen.
  • Dower – a authorized provision of actual property and help made to the widow for her lifetime from a husband’s property, as in ‘Dower Home’ (Authorized).
  • Dowry – additionally ‘dowery’ – land, cash, items, or private property introduced by a bride to her husband in marriage.
  • Drawcansir – a blustering, bullying fellow; a pot-valiant braggart; a bully.
  • Dressing stones – getting ready the floor of the millstone for grinding.
  • Dripstone – in structure a projection or moulding which prevents water from dripping onto stone or different vertical surfaces.
  • Drove Street – a route utilized by cattle drovers driving cattle from the Highlands and Islands to the markets or trysts of southern Scotland and England.
  • Druid – the priestly class in historic Celtic societies, which existed via a lot of Western Europe north of the Alps and in Britain and Eire till they had been supplanted by Roman authorities and, later, Christianity. A typical aspect in place names.
  • Druids’ Twine – a tool used for measuring, laying out a proper angle and making the seventh a part of a circle utilizing geometry. It’s a rope with 13 equal sections, every marked by a knot, making a complete of twelve knots.
  • Drum – a protracted slender ridge or knoll, “utilized to little hills, which rise as backs or ridges above the extent of the adjoining floor”
  • Dry-goose – a ball of additional finely floor meal, wetted till it might be patted and rolled right into a spherical form, then roasted within the sizzling ashes from a mill kiln (Scots).
  • Dry multure – the multure {that a} tenant needed to pay, whether or not it was floor or not (Scots).
  • Dryster – somebody who attends to a kiln at a mill.
  • Duellium – additionally ‘Duellum’ or ‘Duel’. An archaic time period for a prearranged, formal fight between two individuals, usually fought to settle some extent of honour.
  • Duff – decaying leaves and branches overlaying a forest ground.
  • Du – additionally ‘Dubh’ – black or darkish in Gaelic.
  • Dulcify – to make agreeable or mild; to sweeten.
  • Dule Tree or ‘Dool Tree’ – a tree used for executions and as a gibbet in reference to the feudal rights of ‘pit and gallows’ held by native barons and different such representatives of the crown (Scots).
  • Dun – additionally ‘Doon’ or ‘Dum’ – a stronghold or hill-fort (Gaelic).
  • Dunlop Cheese – a gentle cheese or ‘sweet-milk cheese’ which resembles a delicate Cheddar cheese in texture. It originates in Dunlop, Ayrshire, Scotland and was first made in south western Scotland within the 18th century (Scots).
  • Dunter – also called a ‘Powrie’ or ‘Crimson cap’, is a kind of malevolent murderous goblin, elf or fairy present in British folklore. They inhabit ruined castles discovered alongside the border between England and Scotland. Redcaps are mentioned to homicide vacationers who stray into their properties and dye their hats with their victims’ blood (from which they get their identify (Scots).
  • Dur – additionally ‘Der’ – water (Gaelic).
  • Dutch Barn – a farm constructing which is totally open on a number of sides and supported by brick or stone pillars or cast-iron or metal piers.
  • Duvate – roofing made out of turfs. The identical origin because the phrase ‘Divot’, utilized in golf and polo.
  • Dyke – in geology an intrusion or band of exhausting stone, normally igneous, usually operating for miles and eroded very slowly in relation to softer rocks (Scots).
  • Dyke – a stone wall. In England it may possibly imply a ditch. previous to this enclosure of land the cattle had been free to combine with out a lot management from the farmer and establishing or sustaining a ‘pure breed’ was subsequently virtually unimaginable. The event of superior breeds of cattle subsequently depended upon the enclosure of pastures.
  • Dysentery – previously this illness was very prevalent within the UK, however within the current day it’s virtually confined to sizzling climates. Soil contaminated with excremental issues is without doubt one of the most necessary contributing situations important to the prevalence of dysentery. The infectivity of bacillary dysentery lies within the stools.
  • Dyvour – a bankrupt.

E Phrases[edit]

A B C D E F G H I J Ok L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


  • Ea – additionally ‘Ey’ – an island (Anglo-Saxon).
  • Earth Home – additionally ‘fogou’, ‘Pict’s home’ or ‘souterrain’.
  • Easter – the extra easterly of two locations, buildings or different issues (Scots).
  • Ebrious – Inclined to drink to extra; intoxicated; tipsy. As present in Sir Walter Scott’s Waverley novel.
  • Ecclesiastical – pertaining to the church or the clergy.
  • Ecclesiastical benefice – a church property.
  • Eclaircissement – the clearing up of something which is obscure or not simply understood; an evidence.
  • Effluvium – (plural effluvia or effluviums) – a gaseous or vaporous emission, specifically a foul-smelling one
  • Effulgent – Shining brilliantly; resplendent.
  • Egad – a softened oath, the second aspect God, first unsure; it might characterize the exclamation ‘ah’.
  • Egregious – extraordinary in some dangerous method; evident; flagrant: an egregious mistake; an egregious liar. An archaic that means is that of one thing distinguished or eminent.
  • Eggler – a chapman who dealt in eggs.
  • Eik – an addition or complement to a deed (Authorized).
  • Eirenic – additionally ‘irenic’, aiming or aimed toward peace. Part of Christian theology involved with reconciling completely different denominations and sects.
  • Eld – a late time of life or a time of life (normally outlined in years) at which some explicit qualification or energy arises; “she was now of faculty age”; “tall for his eld”, and so on.
  • Electrical fluid – archaic tem for the supposed matter of electrical energy; lightning.
  • Eleemosynary – of or pertaining to alms, charity, or charitable donations; charitable. Derived from or supplied by charity. Depending on or supported by charity: an eleemosynary academic establishment.
  • Elephant folio – the watermark on paper utilized in a e book which is about 23 inches tall; subsequently named after the watermark.
  • Ellwand – a employees or measuring one ell in size. Within the Baronial courtroom this was one of many ‘badges’ of the Baron-sergeant.
  • Embroidery – an historic number of ornamental needlework through which designs and footage are created by stitching strands of some materials on to a layer of one other materials. See additionally: Machine embroidery.
  • Emeralder – archaic slang for an Irish individual.
  • Emolument – fee for an workplace or employment; compensation.
  • Emparkation – the creation of a park with its related ‘pale.’
  • Emphyteusis – a time period for holding land in return for a yearly fee of lease.
  • En talus – a navy time period for the sloping face of a bulwark.
  • Enceinte – the principle enclosing or curtain-wall of a fortification.
  • Enclosure – see ‘Inclosure.’
  • Encomium – a proper or high-flown expression of reward. An instance is that of the reward usually heaped upon an individual at their dying.
  • Enfeoff – to take a position with an property in land (in England all the time a heritable property), held on situation of homage and repair to a superior lord, by whom it’s granted and in whom the possession stays
  • Enfilade – the place all of the rooms in a dwelling open one into the subsequent in an effort to see from one finish via to the opposite.
  • Enormity – the standard of passing all ethical bounds; extreme wickedness or outrageousness; a monstrous offense or evil; an outrage.
  • En – nui – listlessness and dissatisfaction ensuing from lack of curiosity; boredom.
  • Entail – to ivolve is to limit the inheritance of land to a particular group of heirs, similar to a person’s sons. The Scottish kind ‘tailyie’ turned obsolescent within the mid. 18th c.; the legislation books favour the spelling ‘tailzie’. (Authorized).
  • Enumeration – an inventory of individuals, as in a census.
  • (de) Eodem – ‘of that place.’ Akin to with the identify Fergushill of Fergushill q.v. Fergushill de Eodem.
  • Eodem anno – in the identical 12 months.
  • Eodem die – on the identical day.
  • Eodem mense – in the identical month.
  • Ephemera – one thing which disappears rapidly. A phrase from the Greek ephemeron, overlaying gadgets that are simply misplaced to the historic report, similar to manifestos, packages, tickets, posters, broadsides, and so on.
  • Epicene – the lack of gender distinction, usually particular lack of masculinity.
  • Epithalamium – a poem written for a marriage.
  • Equiponderate – to weigh; to be equal in weight; to weigh as a lot as one other factor.
  • Erastian – an individual who would see the church positioned completely below the management of the State.
  • Erection – royal favourites to whom the benefices which had belonged to Scottish monasteries had been granted after the Reformation.
  • Eremite – a recluse or hermit, particularly a spiritual recluse.
  • Erenagh – individual answerable for repairs of church property. {Gaelic].
  • Ergastula – a Roman constructing used to carry in chains harmful slaves, or to punish different slaves. The ergastula was normally subsurface, constructed as a deep, roofed pit – massive sufficient to permit the slaves to work inside it and containing slender areas through which they slept.
  • Eroticical – about sexual love.
  • Errata – errors or errors ina publication; typically recorded as an ‘errata slip’ laid right into a e book by a writer who has found errors simply previous to publication.
  • Error, summons of – a authorized motion to get somebody’s designation as inheritor to a property annulled, on the grounds that an inquest had recognized the fallacious individual as inheritor as a result of a nearer inheritor existed.
  • Escalier d’honneur – a principal staircase in a fortress or mansion home.
  • Eschatology – part of theology and philosophy involved with the ultimate occasions within the historical past of the world, or the final word future of humanity, generally known as the ‘finish of the world.’
  • Escheat – the reversion of land held below feudal tenure to the manor within the absence of authorized heirs or claimants.
  • Escheator – an officer whose responsibility it’s to watch what escheats have taken place, and to take cost of them.
  • Eschew – to keep away from or shun.
  • Escuage – or Scutage the legislation of England below the feudal system, allowed a knight to “purchase out” of the navy service as a result of Crown from the holder of a knight’s charge. Its identify derived from the knightly protect (in Latin: scutum).
  • Escutcheon – the time period utilized in heraldry for the protect displayed in a coat of arms. An Inescutcheon is a smaller escutcheon borne inside a bigger escutcheon. The time period crest is commonly used incorrectly to designate this a part of the coat of arms. The time period “escutcheon” additionally refers back to the shield-like form on which arms are sometimes borne. The escutcheon form relies on the Medieval shields that had been utilized by knights in fight. Since this form has been considered a war-like system acceptable to males solely, girls typically bear their arms upon a lozenge, or diamond-shape, whereas clergymen bear theirs on a cartouche, or oval. Different shapes are doable, such because the roundel generally used for arms granted to Aboriginal Canadians by the Canadian Heraldic Authority.
  • Esow – resolve; keep away from.
  • Esquire – (abbreviated Esq.) is a title of honour and dignity ranked beneath a knight and above a gentleman, allowed, for instance, to the sons of nobles and to the gentry who don’t possess some other title. It in the end derived from the medieval time period squire. On this foundation, a gentleman was historically designated Mr (‘Mister’ earlier than his identify), whereas an Esquire was designated ‘Esq.’
  • Essoin – an excuse for not showing in courtroom on the return of course of; the allegation of an excuse to the courtroom; exemption.
  • Ether – a protracted versatile wooden stake utilized in non permanent hedging and woven in horizontally between vertical stakes.
  • Property – this includes the homes, outbuildings, supporting farmland and woodland insurance policies that encompass the gardens and grounds of a really massive property, similar to a ‘nation home’ or ‘mansion’. It’s an ‘property’ as a result of the earnings from its produce and rents are ample to help the family in the home at its heart. Thus ‘the property’ could confer with all different cottages and villages in the identical possession because the mansion itself.
  • Property – the Social Class of a person, as within the ‘Three Estates.’
  • Estover – the best ot acquire firewood in medieval occasions.
  • et ux – “and spouse.”
  • Evidents – a Scottish identify for any deeds or different written proof (Authorized).
  • Excambied – a Scots time period for the change of property, particularly land.
  • Exculpate – to away from guilt or blame.
  • Execration – hate coupled with disgust or abhorrence; an attraction to some supernatural energy to inflict evil on somebody or some group; the article of cursing or detestation.
  • Executor – a male appointed by a testator to hold out the instructions and requests in his or her will, and to eliminate the property in keeping with his testamentary provisions after his or her dying (Authorized).
  • Executrix – a feminine appointed by a testator to hold out the instructions and requests in his or her will, and to eliminate the property in keeping with the testamentary provisions after his or her dying (Authorized).
  • Exegesis – a crucial rationalization or evaluation, particularly of a textual content.
  • Exhorter – churchmen licensed to provide sermons and to learn from the E book of the Frequent Order. Additionally one who encourages, beseeches, prompts, helps with phrases and angle another person to do one thing that individual ought to do or has a need to do.
  • Exigent – requiring a lot; exacting; pressing or urgent.
  • Ex-Libris – a bookplate printed with the proprietor’s identify or initials. It’s Latin for “From the library of …”.
  • Exordium – a starting or introductory half, particularly of a speech or treatise.
  • Expunge – the sealing or destroying of authorized information. Typically, expungement may be considered as the method to “take away from basic evaluate” the information pertaining to a case. However the information could not fully “disappear” and should be out there to legislation enforcement (Authorized).
  • Extents – documenting in a radical however not exhaustive style the main points of the lands held by aristocrats, the church, and so on. Not widespread in Scotland, however a frequent apply in England. They’re usually entitled the ‘Black E book of ….’ and have echoes of the Doomsday E book.
  • Extranean – an individual coming from a distance or dwelling beyonds the bounds of a spot.[5]

F Phrases[edit]

A B C D E F G H I J Ok L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


  • Facsimile – an actual replica, by pictures or by typographic or manuscript imitation, of an authentic leaf or e book. The ‘Doomsday E book’ and the ‘E book of Kells’ could be examples of things reproduced as facsimiles.
  • Faggot – a bundle of twigs, sticks, or branches from the underwood certain collectively; a bundle of items of iron or metal to be welded or hammered into bars. Typically of a particular dimension and used as a unit of measurement.
  • Fairy mud – the spores or ‘seeds’ of ferns had been broadly believed to make the consumer invisible.
  • Fairy ring – also called fairy circle, Elf circle or pixie ring, is a naturally occurring ring or arc of mushrooms which result in the non permanent enrichment of the bottom giving a darkish inexperienced ring which progressively expands outwards.
  • Fall – a standard unit of distance equal to six ells. The autumn was utilized in land measurement considerably just like the rod. Measurements in rods had been usually made with an precise wooden pole, whereas measurements in falls had been usually made with a rope 6 ells lengthy. The space falling below the rope was known as a fall. The autumn was used largely in Scotland, the place its conventional size was 6 Scots ells or about 18.6 English toes (5.67 meters). The Scots mile was equal to 320 falls (5952 English toes, 1.127 English mile or 1814.2 metres). After the unification of Scotland and England the autumn was reinterpreted to equal 6 English ells (22.5 toes or 6.858 metres).
  • Fall – a standard unit of space equal to at least one sq. fall. Within the conventional Scots system of measurement, a fall of land equals about 346 sq. toes or 32.15 sq. metres. A conventional Scots acre was equal to 160 falls or about 6150 sq. English yards (1.27 English acres or 0.514 hectare). Within the English system a fall of land is 506.25 sq. toes, 56.25 sq. yards, or about 47.03 sq. metres.
  • Fallow – ploughed and harrowed land left uncultivated for a 12 months.
  • Fama clamosa – a present scandal. Typically present in outdated church session books!
  • Farina – the flour or meal of cereals, nuts, or starchy roots similar to potatoes.
  • Farm – Within the Latin of medieval Europe, ‘firma’ was a set fee. Our farm (agricultural) derives from paying lease for land. Farm (and particularly “farm out”) additionally had the that means (from the mid-17th century) of subcontracting a job for a charge. Particularly, the care of individuals, or the upkeep of an establishment (workhouse for instance) through which they had been saved, for a set charge.
  • Farm City – a standard medieval sub-division of land was by the ploughgate (104 acres), the extent of land which one plough tesm of oxen may until in a 12 months. This space was once more subdivided into 4 husbandlands, every of 26 acres, every husbandland may present two oxen and eight oxen had been want for a plough-team. This association led to small farm cities being established with lodging for a minimum of 4 males of six to eight homes, taking sensible issues into consideration.
  • Fasces – from the Latin phrase fascis, that means “bundle”. Symbolising abstract energy and jurisdiction, and/or “power via unity.
  • Fata morgana – a mirage; named after the Italian translation of Morgan le Fay, the fairy shapeshifting half-sister of King Arthur. It’s a naturally occuring optical phenomenon which ends up from temperature inversion.
  • Fauld – a area which is manured by retaining sheep or cattle on it.[14] Hardly ever manure from different livestock, similar to pigeons droppings from a dovecot at Kilmaurs in Ayrshire. Pigeons produce appreciable quantities of manure as any metropolis dweller will know! (Scots).
  • Faun – place-spirits (genii) of untamed woodland. Romans related their fauns with the Greek satyrs, wild and orgiastic drunken followers of Bacchus (Greek Dionysus). Fauns and satyrs had been initially fairly completely different creatures. Each have horns and each resemble goats beneath the waist, people above; however initially satyrs had human toes, fauns goat-like hooves.
  • Fauxine – an individual in Medieval occasions branded with an ‘F’ on their brow for being responsible of a falsehood. A feminine outlaw; deserted with out the safety of the legislation.
  • Feal and divot – the best to take turfs for roofing or different functions, which in England goes by the identify of “widespread of turbary”.
  • Fealty – the constancy owed by a vassal to his feudal lord; the oath of such constancy.
  • Feckless – feeble; ineffective.
  • Feeble-minded – such folks had been neither idiots nor imbeciles, but when adults, their situation was so pronounced that they require care, supervision, and management for their very own safety or the safety of others. If kids of faculty age, their situation wasso pronounced that they by motive of such defectiveness seem like personally incapable of receiving correct profit from instruction in strange colleges.
  • Price – an inherited or heritable property in land (Authorized).
  • Price easy – an inheritance having no limitations or situations in its use (authorized).
  • Feeing Market – the market at which the hiring of farm employees passed off.
  • Fell – a mountain (Scandinavian).
  • Feme sole – an single lady or a married lady with property impartial of her husband (Authorized).
  • Fenced – as in ‘fencing’ a courtroom, retaining order within the courtroom and summoning the events (Authorized).
  • Fencible – able to being defended, or of constructing or affording protection; A soldier enlisted for dwelling service solely.
  • Feretory – a receptacle to carry the relics of saints; a reliquary; An space of a church through which reliquaries are saved.
  • Ferme – lease within the type of oatmeal and bere appropriate for malting and of a amount as to require barns for holding the lord’s share.
  • Fermee Ornee – a rustic property laid out partly in keeping with aesthetic rules and partly for farming. Ferme ornee had been an expression in panorama gardening of the Romantic Motion of 18th. century Europe, i.e. a working farm, home animals, pure panorama joined with follies and grottoes, statuary and classical texts mixed with avenued walks, flowing water, lakes, areas of sunshine and shade, particular plantings and inspirational views.
  • Fermtoun – a set of rural buildings together with a farm (Scots).
  • Fess – in heraldry a large horizontal band forming the center part of an escutcheon.
  • Fertilizer – any chemical added to the soil which makes it extra fertile or productive.
  • Ferule – an instrument, similar to a cane, stick, or flat piece of wooden, as as soon as utilized in punishing kids.
  • Festy-cock – a ball of additional finely floor meal, wetted till it might be patted and rolled right into a spherical form, then roasted within the sizzling ashes from a mill kiln. Eaten as an alternative choice to the cockerel and eaten at Shrovetide (Scots).
  • Feu – that is an annual fee in cash or in type in return for using land. The crown is the primary overlord or superior; the land is held by crown vassals (Lords, and so on.), however they in flip could feu their land, as it’s known as, to others who turn into their vassals (Authorized).
  • Feu constitution – a constitution granted within the context of a barony by which the baron stays the superior and the grantee turns into his vassal.
  • Feu-duty – an annual fastened money-rent on perpetually heritable land.
  • Feu-ferme tenure – the feuing of land in perpetuity.
  • Feudalism – this refers to a basic set of reciprocal authorized and navy obligations among the many warrior the Aristocracy of Europe throughout the Center Ages, revolving across the three key ideas of lords, vassals, and fiefs.
  • Fiars – costs of grain which had been fastened for every county by its sheriff and a jury of locals each February.
  • Fiar – somebody who held lands through which another person possessed a liferent.
  • Fiat – an arbitrary order or decree; an authorization or sanction.
  • Fictile – manufactured from earth or clay by a potter or referring to pottery or its manufacture.
  • Fidus Achates – a real pal.
  • Fief – additionally ‘fiefdom’, ‘fief’, ‘feud’, ‘feoff,’ or ‘charge’, usually consisted in medieval feudalism of inheritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord in return for a type of allegiance, initially to provide him the means to satisfy his navy duties when known as upon. Nevertheless something of worth might be held in fief, similar to an workplace, a proper of exploitation (e.g., looking, fishing) or a income relatively than the land it comes from.
  • Fin de siècle – French for ‘finish of the century, a time period typically encompasses each the closing and onset of an period.
  • Finial – an ornamentation above the apex of a gable which might additionally operate as a lightning rod, and was as soon as believed to behave as a deterrent to witches on broomsticks trying to land on one’s roof. On making her ultimate touchdown method to a roof, the witch, recognizing the obstructing finial, was pressured to sheer off and land elsewhere.
  • Firelock – a flintlock; an out of date gunlock that has flint embedded within the hammer; the flint makes a spark that ignites the cost
  • Hearth marks – hearth insurance coverage corporations of the 17th-century and later had their very own hearth brigades and firemen would solely try to avoid wasting a home if it was insured by their firm; hearth marks of lead or iron had been hooked up to the surface of buildings in distinguished positions to point the insurance coverage firm involved.[15]
  • Firlot – a firlot was equal to Four pecks and the peck was equal to Four lippies or forpets or Three grudgies: 1 / 4 of a bole (Scots).
  • Firma – an archaic render of 1 night time’s provides to the Anglo-Saxon royal courtroom by a royal vill.
  • Firmarius – a tenant.
  • First Version – strictly talking the primary look of a piece in e book or pamphlet kind; its first printing. Such books as Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species command extraordinarily excessive costs as first editions.
  • First Property – in feudal occasions this was the Church, i.e. the clergy or those that prayed.
  • Fisc – the treasury of a kingdom or state.
  • Flagstone – a kind of flat stone, normally used for paving slabs, but additionally for making fences or roofing.
  • Flail – a wooden pole with a smaller pole linked on the finish by way of a series or leather-based thong, used for threshing.
  • Flamen – a priest, particularly of an historic Roman deity
  • Flaunches – additionally ‘flanches’ or ‘flanks’ are heraldic units consisting of two arcs of circles protruding into the sector of a coat of arms from the edges of the protect.
  • Flax – the fiber is delicate, lustrous and versatile. It’s stronger than cotton fiber however much less elastic. One of the best grades are used for linen materials similar to damasks, lace and sheeting. Coarser grades are used for the manufacturing of twine and twine.
  • Fleam – additionally flem, flew, flue, fleame, or phleam, was a handheld instrument as soon as used for bloodletting from animals and people.
  • Flibbertigibbet – a “chattering gossip, flighty lady,” in all probability a nonsense phrase meant to sound like quick speaking; because the identify of a satan or fiend it dates from 1603.
  • Flummery – meaningless or misleading language; any of a number of delicate, candy, bland meals, similar to custard; candy gelatinous pudding made by straining boiled oatmeal or flour; delicate dessert of stewed, thickened fruit, usually blended with a grain similar to rice.
  • Flush – a moist place with transferring water.
  • Flux or flix – from French or Latin for move. A flowing. In addition to the flowing of tides (flux and reflux) it was used for an irregular move from the physique of blood or excrement (for instance). Thus for diarrhoea and dysentery.
  • Flying buttress – a buttress variant which permits a extra delicate look while sustaining the power of the helps to a wall.
  • Fogou – an underground construction which is discovered in lots of Iron Age defended settlements in Cornwall. The aim of a fogou is now not recognized, and there may be little proof to recommend what it might need been. It has been conjectured that they had been used as refuges, for non secular functions, or for meals storage.
  • Fold – an enclosure through which animals had been saved, usually sheep.
  • Folio – a single leaf, particularly the leaf of a e book printed with two leaves to every quire.[16]
  • Folly – a reputation given to any extravagant construction whose use just isn’t obvious. Romantic ruins, Roman and Greek type temples and different such constructions come below this time period.
  • Font – a construction in achurch for holding water for baptisms. Typically with extremely carved panels and made out of wooden, stone and barely lead.
  • Foot – a unit of land measurement which was 25.1 cm for the Welsh, 29.6 cm for the Romans, 31.7 cm for the Greeks and 33.5 cm for the Saxons. It was based mostly on the Barleycorn in Wales, with 27 making a Welsh foot. Three barleycorns had been a ‘thumb’ and three thumbs made a palm; three palms making a foot.
  • Ford – a crossing for pedestrians and automobiles throughout a river the place it’s sufficiently shallow to allow passage throughout.
  • Fore-edge portray – a portray executed on the fore-edges of a e book held open obliquely. The sides of the closed e book are then gilded in order that the portray solely turns into seen when the e book is fanned open once more.
  • Forefather – a male ancestor.
  • Foremother – a feminine ancestor.
  • Forera – in ploughing a particular selion a furlong in size supplied to permit the horses and plough to show on the finish of a furrow.
  • Forest – a tract of land topic to particular legal guidelines, normally involved with the preservation of recreation.
  • Forestalling – additionally ‘Regrating’ – the crime of shopping for items on the way in which to a market with the intention of promoting them at an inflated worth.
  • Foreyard – the outer courtroom.
  • Forpet – 1 / 4 of a peck; a dry items measure containing this quantity. Derived from a ‘fourth half’ (Scots).
  • Forswear – additionally ‘Foreswear’ is to surrender or repudiate below oath; to surrender severely; to disavow below oath; deny.
  • Fortalice – a small fortified dwelling or fortress, similar to the instance that existed close to Corsehill Fort in Stewarton, North Ayrshire. Constructed for the safety of the folks relatively than for a lord or landowner.
  • Fosse – the moat or ditch round a fortress, and so on.
  • Fox covert – these had been small areas of woodland put apart for encouraging the breeding of foxes to make sure ample numbers for looking. Badgers and different wildlife profit from them.
  • Foxfire – the time period for the bioluminescence created in the best situations by just a few species of fungi that decay wooden. The luminescence is commonly attributed to members of the genus Armillaria, the Honey mushroom, although others are reported.
  • Foxing – irregular brown spots or stains in paper attributable to chemical or metallic impurities within the authentic inventory of paper, usually aggravated by poor storage, similar to moist situations.[16]
  • Frankalmoin – one of many feudal duties and therefore land tenure varieties in feudal England by which an ecclesiastical physique held land, in return for saying prayers and lots more and plenty for the soul of the granter. Not solely was secular service often not due however within the twelfth and thirteenth century jurisdiction over land so held belonged to the ecclesiastical courts. It fell into disuse as a result of on any alienation of the land the tenure was transformed into socage, and no recent grants in frankalmoin.
  • Franklin – in medieval occasions an individual who was a landowner, however not a nobleman or aristocrat.
  • Frankpledge – an Anglo-Saxon authorized system through which models or tithings composed of ten households had been shaped, in every of which members had been held answerable for each other’s conduct. A member of a unit in frankpledge.
  • Freedom – the ‘share’ or space of land held by a ‘Freeman’ of a burgh.
  • Freeman – a male of authorized age with the best to vote, personal land and apply a commerce.
  • Freestone – stone utilized in structure for molding, tracery and different work required to be labored with the chisel. The stone is fine-grained, uniform and delicate sufficient to be lower simply with out shattering or splitting.
  • Frist – Scots for ‘to belief for a time’.
  • Frith stool – ‘the Chair of Peace’. Frith, although now out of date, was widespread sufficient in Anglo-Saxon English and Outdated German, that means peace, safety and freedom from molestation. Completely different types of the phrase are discovered within the identify ‘Frederick’ (peace-ruler) and the modem German phrases for peace, Friede, and churchyard, Friedhof. Most of the better church buildings had such frith stools positioned, as was one at Hexham Abbey, shut by the excessive altar. Refugees in time of hassle and civil struggle, or wrongdoers in flight from authority and justice may declare the safety of the Church till they had been assured of a full and honest trial. Anybody breaking the best to sanctuary by taking or killing a refugee inside the church was liable to a high-quality of £96; however, if the sufferer reached ‘the stone cathedra subsequent to the altar, which the English name the fridstol’, that breach of sanctuary was past pardon, and the offender confronted excommunication or dying
  • Frontis – additionally ‘Frontispiece.’ An illustration initially of a e book, normally dealing with the title web page. In some books this can be the one full print inside the work. An illustration that faces or instantly precedes the title web page of a e book, e book part, or journal. In archaic phrases a title web page. In structure a façade, particularly a decorative façade or a small decorative pediment, as on high of a door or window.
  • Fugacious – transitory or fleeting in nature.
  • Fuller’s earth – a stiff and extremely absorbent clay used within the elimination of grease from wool fibre; a course of often called fulling.
  • Fulling Mill – mills, usually water powered, used for a ending course of on fabric.
  • Furlong – 220 yards size (x22 yards (1 chain) = 1 acre, 4840 sq. yards). In medieval occasions the typical size of a ploughed area.
  • Fuscous – a brownish-gray or dusky shade.
  • Fusee – a friction match with a big head able to burning in a wind. A colored flare used as a warning sign for vans and trains. A cone-shaped pulley with a spiral groove, utilized in a cord- or chain-winding clock to keep up even journey within the timekeeping mechanism because the power of the mainspring lessens in unwinding.
  • Fustian – additionally known as Fustanum and bombast, a time period for quite a lot of heavy woven fabric, cotton materials, which might be mainly ready for menswear; pompous, inflated or pretentious writing or speech, from a minimum of the time of Shakespeare.
  • Futhorc – the Anglo-Saxon model of the runic alphabet.
  • Fylfot – additionally ‘Fylfot’, a synonym for a swastika.
  • Fylit’ – in Scots, a convicted individual.

G Phrases[edit]

A B C D E F G H I J Ok L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


  • Gabardine – a tricky, tightly woven cloth usually used to make fits, overcoats and trousers. The fibre used to make the material is historically worsted (a woolen yarn), however can also be cotton, artificial or blended. The material is easy on one aspect and has a diagonally ribbed floor on the opposite.
  • Gable stone – carved and infrequently colourfully painted stone tablets, that are set into the partitions of buildings, normally at about Four metres from the bottom. They serve each to establish and embellish the constructing. They might additionally inform us one thing about its proprietor.
  • Gadzooks – a gentle or ironic oath: “Gadzooks”! Maybe from an aliteration of God’s hooks, the nails of the crucifixion of Christ.
  • Gage D’Amour – a pledge of affection.
  • Gainsay – to declare false or deny; to oppose, particularly by contradiction.
  • Gaiete de coeur – an expression that means light-heartedness.
  • Galilee – a church porch of bigger extent than regular; typically used as a definite chapel. Discovered on the west finish of some church buildings the place penitents waited earlier than admission to the physique of the church and the place clergy obtained girls who had enterprise with them.
  • Galuuet – a thief.
  • Galletting – insertion of chips of stone into mortar between bigger stones for ornamental impact.
  • Gallovidian – a local of Galloway in Scotland.
  • Gallowglass – additionally ‘Galloglass.’ An armed retainer or mercenary within the service of an Irish chieftain. Additionally a mercenary warrior élite amongst Gaelic-Norse clans residing within the Western Isles of Scotland (or Hebrides) and Scottish Highlands from the mid 13th century to the tip of the 16th century.
  • Gallows – normally a picket construction, typically a ‘Dule Tree’, from which an individual was hung following conviction.
  • Gambade – a spring or leap by a horse; a caper or antic.
  • Gantelope – a gauntlet; a kind of cane; a race which a felony was sentenced to run within the navy or military. The ship’s crew or troopers, stood in two rows face-to-face, every with a knotted wire, with which they severely struck the responsible get together as he ran between them, stripped to the waist. Generally pronounced gantlet.
  • Garderobes – medieval bathrooms in massive public buildings and castles.
  • Gargoyle – carved rainwater spouts on church buildings, medieval homes, and so on. They had been usually grotesquely carved animals or people and had been as well as believed to guard the church from the Satan.
  • Garitour – a day watchman, particularly in a fortress. A ‘Vigiles’ was an evening watchman.
  • Garret – a high ground or attic room.
  • Garth – in a cathedral or abbey that is the realm of floor surrounded by the cloisters. Additionally a plot of enclosed land by a home or cottage; an outdated Norse phrase and located in placenames similar to Hogarth and Aysgarth.
  • Gauffered – an engraved design on the sides of a e book’s covers.
  • Gauger – an individual who performs the duties of an exciseman (Scots).
  • Gavelkind – a kind of tribal succession, by which the land was divided on the dying of the holder amongst his sons. Illegitimate sons, however not daughters, had been included within the division. The Normans gave this Irish inheritance legislation the identify Gavelkind on account of its obvious similarity to Saxon inheritance in Kent.
  • Gaw – the ‘lower’ left by a plough[14] (Scots).
  • Gazebo – a freestanding, roofed, normally open-sided construction offering a shady resting place; a ‘belvedere’.
  • Gean – a wild cherry (Prunus avium).[7]
  • Geasan – in Gaelic a magic spell.[17]
  • Gebur – the Anglo Saxon England workforce, who had been completely dependant on their lord. They had been tied to the land and never free to go the place they happy unhindered. The gebur’s life was dominated by the labour companies owed to his lord. It’s possible that the gebur class began out by giving their land to a ðegn in return for cover from raiding events. The gebur’s responsibility diversified; on some estates geburs carried out such work as directed for 2 week days every week for each week all year long, and three week days at harvest-time, and three from Candlemas to Easter.
  • Geis – plural ‘Geassa’ – A controlling spell or enchantment through which a sure motion or behaviour will trigger one other sure motion or impact. Normally it takes the type of a taboo or a future, as when CuChullain overheard Cathbad say that any boy who accepts weapons on that day could be destined to be a terrific hero, and he requested his king for arms.
  • Geld – tribute as in ‘Danegeld.’ Derived from Outdated English geld, gield, a fee.
  • Family tree – a time period referring to the research of the historical past of previous and current members of a selected household, which normally consists of the preparation of a “household tree” or pedigree chart, exhibiting the previous and current family members joined collectively by a sequence of traces that assist in ascertaining their relationship to one another, and the placement, documentation and recording of a household historical past, together with tales concerning the private lives of particular person family members, typically even together with footage of those people or household teams.
  • Genethliac – Pertaining to nativities; calculated by astrologers; exhibiting place of stars at one’s start. It’s utilized in Sir Walter Scott’s Waverley Novel, ‘Kenilworth’.
  • Gens vertueux – a wealthy and achieved fullness of character.
  • Gentile – a time period typically utilized by early Irish chroniclers for the Dane and Norse invaders.
  • Gentleman – a person who didn’t have to work, and the time period was significantly used of those that couldn’t declare the Aristocracy and even the rank of esquire.
  • Gentleman of the bedchamber – an workplace in a European royal family starting from concerning the early within the 11th century. The workplace duties concerned such actions as ready on the royal individual when he would eat in personal, serving to him dressing, guarding the bedchamber and closet, and offering companionship.
  • Gentrification – the restoration and upgrading of deteriorated city property by middle-class or prosperous folks, usually leading to displacement of lower-income folks. In a historic context it may possibly result in native adjustments, similar to place names, farming practices, and so on.
  • Geognost – one who research the geological of the Earth’s construction and composition.
  • Geomancy – a way of ‘divination’ that interprets markings on the bottom, or how handfuls of dust land when somebody tosses them.
  • Georgian – of or attribute of the occasions of kings George I – IV (1714 – 1830).
  • German – having the identical mother and father or the identical grandparents on both the mom’s or the daddy’s aspect. Typically utilized in mixture: a cousin-German; a brother-German. From the Outdated French germain, that means “intently associated.”
  • Gesith – an archain time period for a companion to a king in medieval England; a thegn.
  • Gewgaw – one thing gaudy and ineffective; trinket; bauble.
  • Gibbet – a kind of ‘gallows’ from which a physique remained hanging as a warning to others over a substantial time period.
  • Gig – a light-weight two-wheeled carriage designed to be drawn by one horse.
  • Gilt Edges – web page edges which have been smoothed and trimmed previous to gilt or gold being utilized. Typically on the highest edge solely, the aim being to forestall dust from staining probably the most often dealt with floor; moreover to assist forestall dust entering into the e book.
  • Gingham – a cloth made out of dyed cotton yarn.
  • Girdle – a type of ‘Griddle’, a round iron plate with hooped deal with, suspended or positioned over the fireplace and used for baking scones, oat-cakes, and so on.
  • Girnal – a chest used for storing oats or different grains or a granary.
  • Girth – the best of offering sanctuary, as held by orders such on the Knights Templar.
  • Glacial Erratics – pebbles, stones and boulders which might be transported by glaciers, and deposited as much as a number of hundred kilometres from the place they originated.
  • Glacis – a defensive earthwork designed to deflect cannonballs.
  • Glebe – land apportioned to a minister along with his stipend. A plot of land belonging or yielding revenue to an English parish church or an ecclesiastical workplace. In archaic speech, the soil or earth; land.
  • Gleeman– a medieval itinerant singer; a minstrel.
  • Glen – a valley (Scots).
  • Gloaming – night ‘twilight’ or ‘nightfall’[14] (Scots).
  • Glover – additionally a ‘Lantern’ or ‘Cupola.’ A canopy which gives an entrance / exit, however retains out the rain from a constructing or construction.
  • Goblin – an evil or merely mischievous creature of folklore, usually described in as a grotesquely disfigured or gnome-like phantom, that will vary in top from that of a dwarf to that of a human. They’re attributed with varied (typically conflicting) skills, temperaments and appearances relying on the story and nation of origin.
  • Goesomer – a interval of summer-like climate occurring in late autumn (Scots).
  • Gogsnouns – presumably derived from the expletive ‘Gods wounds’ with the roughly deliberate lack of sure letters.
  • Goidelic – languages (additionally known as Gaelic) have traditionally been a part of a dialect continuum stretching from the south of Eire, the Isle of Man, to the north of Scotland.
  • Gonfalon – a flag hanging from a crosspiece as a substitute of an upright employees, normally ending in streamers; esp., such a normal of any of the medieval republics of Italy.
  • Good brother – a brother-in-law.
  • Good husband – used previously as a courtesy title earlier than the surname of a married man not of noble start.
  • Good spouse – used previously as a courtesy title earlier than the surname of a married lady not of noble start.
  • Good sister – a sister-in-law.
  • Good son – a son-in-law.
  • Gore – a small triangular piece of land.
  • Gorget – a chunk of armor defending the throat; a decorative collar.
  • Gossamer – a really mild, sheer, gauze-like cloth, standard for white wedding ceremony attire and decorations.
  • Gowpen – a double handful (Scots).
  • Grandam – a grandmother.
  • Grangerise – to chop plates and title pages out of many books to kind one quantity on a selected theme.
  • Gowan – additionally ‘Robe.’ A basic identify given to varied wild‐flowers, similar to daisies, both yellow or white with yellow centres, e.g. varied species of the Ranunculus household, such because the buttercup & meadow crowfoot (Scots).
  • Gowk – In northern Europe, phrases like gowk, gouch, qaukr and gough had been utilized in imitation of the cuckoo. In southern Europe phrases like kokkux (Greek) cucu (Latin). Cuckoo succeeded gowk in Center English. How far again the affiliation with foolishness and/or staring goes just isn’t clear. Dictionaries have a tendency to position the affiliation within the late 16th century.
  • Graddan – a sort of coarse oat-meal made out of parched grain roughly floor by hand (Scots).
  • Grail – the article of any extended endeavor.
  • Grain – a seed of a cereal, similar to wheat, maize, rye, oats, and barley. Pigeon’s dung utilized in tanning.
  • Granary – a constructing for the storage of grain. Generally lifted up on staddles or bricks to enhance aeration and stop rats and mice from gaining entry.
  • Grange – a small mansion or nation home with related farm buildings. Additionally on monastic estates a unit full with barns, instruments, and implemenrs for the lands hooked up to it.
  • Granger – steward, for the administration of an property.
  • Granitar – the grasp of a monastic Grange.
  • Grantee – an individual buying, shopping for or receiving property (Authorized).
  • Grape – in Scots a phrase for an iron fork with three or 4 prongs, fitted to a deal with like that of a spade, used for lifting dung, and so on., or for digging.
  • Grassum – the fee, amounting to a 12 months’s lease, for getting into into the miller’s rights below thirlage (Scots).
  • Grave [reeve] – in elements of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, every of numerous administrative officers previously elected by the inhabitants of a township.
  • Grazing – grassland appropriate for pasture.
  • Greave – leg armour worn beneath the knee.
  • Gregorian Reform – a sequence of reforms initiated by Pope Gregory VII, circa 1050–1080, which handled the ethical integrity and independence of the clergy. These reforms are thought of to honour Gregory the Nice.
  • Grice – an extinct breed of pig; a reputation for a younger pig in Scotloand and Northern England.
  • Grieve – in Scotland an overseer or farm-bailiff. It happens not occasionally as a surname.
  • Griffin, griffon or gryphon – a legendary creature with the physique of a lion and the top and wings of an eagle.
  • Grim – from the Outdated English ‘Grima,’ masks, or the Norse ‘Grimr’, hood. The time period is commonly used as a reputation for Woden, Odin, goblin, nightmare or spectre. It’s utilized in many placenames, similar to Grimspound on Dartmoor, Grimes Graves in Norfolk, Grim’s Ditch or Grim’s Dyke, of which there are various, significantly another identify for the Antonine Wall in Scotland.
  • Grimoire – a guide of black magic (for invoking spirits and demons).
  • Grist – additionally ‘Groat’ – In Scots that is Corn to be floor; additionally, a batch of such corn.
  • Grizell – additionally ‘Grisel.’ The Scottish type of the primary identify Griselda. Very generally used within the 19th century.
  • Groats – additionally ‘Grist’ – oats after shelling of their husk within the milling course of (Scots).
  • Groined vault – early medieval vaults had been round-arched tunnels; when two of those intersect at right-angles the assembly traces, shaped by the curved planes are known as groins.
  • Gruagach – the Gaelic guardian-goddess of cattle. Milk was poured as an providing to her into hollows in stones known as ‘Dobby stones’ or ‘Leach na Gruagach’.
  • Grudgie – in Scots, a measure of dry items. One third of a peck.
  • Guardant – positioned in order that the top is turned towards the viewer. Normally used of an animal depicted in order that its physique is considered from the aspect.
  • Guardian – an individual lawfully appointed to take care of the individual of a minor, invalid, incompetent and their pursuits, similar to schooling, property administration and investments (Authorized).
  • Guidman – in Scotland a laird held land from the King, nonetheless a proprietor who held lands from the laird by buy or in any other case was the Guidman of that Ilk.
  • Guidon – a small flag or pennant carried as a normal by a navy unit: a soldier bearing such a flag or pennant.
  • Guild – a society of a selected commerce, membership of which was gained via examination. The ‘Bonnet Makers Guild’ in Stewarton, Ayrshire is an historic instance. The commerce in query couldn’t be carried out with out membership of the guild. Normally with a devoted ‘Guild Corridor’.
  • Gyron – in heraldry a subordinary of triangular kind having one in all its angles on the fess level and the alternative aspect on the fringe of the escutcheon. When there is just one gyron on the protect it’s bounded by two traces drawn from the fess level, one horizontally to the dexter aspect, and one to the dexter chief nook.

H Phrases[edit]

A B C D E F G H I J Ok L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


  • Ha – additionally ‘Haa.’ In Scotland a farm-house, the principle dwelling of a farm, a home, particularly on a farm, occupied by the farmer himself versus the cottar homes (Scots).
  • Ha-ha – a sunken fence as a kind of boundary to a backyard, pleasure-ground, or park, designed to not interrupt the view and to be invisible till intently approached, consisting of a trench, the interior aspect of which is perpendicular and confronted with stone, with the outer slope face sloped and turfed.
  • Habeas Corpus – the authorized proper to a trial in a courtroom earlier than a choose and jury.
  • Habergeon – a neck-covering of chain-mail extending throughout the chest.
  • Hackneyed – Overfamiliar via overuse; trite.
  • Haddish – additionally ‘Huddish’ – a measure of grain equal to at least one quarter or one third of a peck; therefore, a vessel holding this quantity (Scots).
  • Haf – a freshwater lagoon separated from the ocean by a sandbar.
  • Haff – the ocean. As within the ‘Nice Haff’.
  • Hagiography – the research of saints; refers actually to writings as regards to such holy folks, and particularly the biographies of ecclesiastical and secular leaders. See additionally ‘Legendarium’.
  • Hagioscope – additionally known as a ‘Squint.’ In architectural phrases a piercing in partitions which give a sure line of imaginative and prescient in any other case unobtainable. Generally discovered lined up in pairs; these allowed the excessive altar to be seen by church clerks, these with leprosy, and so on.
  • Haill – Entire (Scots).
  • Halberd – (additionally known as halbert or Swiss voulge) is a two-handed pole weapon that got here to distinguished use throughout the 14th and 15th centuries.
  • Halidome – an archaic time period for one thing held sacred; a church; a sanctuary; a holy relic.
  • Hallier – a sort of internet for catching birds.
  • Ham – outdated English for a village or homestead.
  • Hamesucken – the crime of violently assaulting a person in his own residence (Scots).
  • Hamlet – a small village.
  • Hammer-beam – it is a braced strut which tasks from a wall, supported by a brace put up that sits on a corbel. An upright hammer-post atpports the rafter above. Such roofs are present in church buildings, cathedrals and medieval nice halls, and so on.
  • Hand – the handwriting of an individual. References are made to the traits of the people penmanship.[18]
  • Hank – a standard measure of size for yarn. The size of yarn in a hank varies with the market and the fabric; for instance, a hank of cotton yarn historically included 840 yards (768 meters) of yarn, whereas a hank of wool yarn was 560 yards (512 meters). For each cotton and wool, these conventional hanks are equal to 7 leas or to 12 cuts. In retail commerce, a hank is commonly equal to six or 7 skeins of various dimension.
  • Happer – a basket through which the sower carries his seed (Scots).
  • Harl – an exterior rough-cast coating on buildings made out of lime, sand & gravel.
  • Harl – a filamentous substance; particularly, the filaments of flax or hemp.
  • Harp – one of many ten sections on a millstone with 4 furrows every, the flat surfaces, or lands mendacity in between (Scots).
  • Harrow – a heavy steel body with iron enamel dragged over ploughed land to interrupt up clods, take away weeds, and so on.
  • Hatchment – a funeral ‘escutcheon’ or armorial protect enclosed in a black lozenge-shaped body which was once suspended towards the wall of a deceased individual’s home. It was normally positioned over the doorway on the degree of the second ground, and remained for from six to 12 months, after which it was eliminated to the parish church. Generally two had been produced, one for the house and one for the church. Hatchments have now fallen into disuse, however many hatchments from former occasions stay in parish church buildings all through Britain. Queen Elizabeth, the Queen mom had a hatchment produced to be used at her funeral.
  • Hauberk – a shirt of chain mail armour. The time period is normally used to explain a shirt reaching a minimum of to mid-thigh and together with sleeves. Haubergeon (“little hauberk”) typically refers to a shorter variant with partial sleeves, however the phrases are sometimes used interchangeably. Slits to accommodate horseback-riding had been usually included beneath the waist. Most are placed on over the top. Hauberk also can confer with an analogous garment of scale armour.
  • Haugh – additionally ‘Hauch’ – a chunk of degree floor, typically alluvial, on the banks of a river, river-meadow land.
  • Hawker – an individual who travels about promoting items.
  • Hay – grass mown and dried for fodder / feed.
  • Haybote – additionally ‘Hedgebot’. The appropriate to gather wooden for fencing in medieval occasions.
  • Hayward – an official supervising spinneys, and so on. for hedging
  • Head Dyke – a turf or stone wall separating the infield and outfield of a township or farm from the grazings on the open hill.
  • Headrace – a watercourse directing water to a waterwheel or turbine.[19]
  • Hebdomadal – of or occurring each seven days.
  • Heck – a rack for retaining fodder, usually coupled with manger. ‘Meals and board’ in trendy phrases (Scots).
  • Hedgebote – see additionally ‘Haybote.’ The appropriate to gather wooden for fencing in medieval occasions.
  • Inheritor – an individual who succeeds, by the foundations of legislation, to an property upon the dying of an ancestor; one with rights to inherit an property (Authorized).
  • Inheritor obvious – by legislation an individual whose proper of inheritance is established, supplied she or he outlives the ancestor, see additionally primogeniture (Authorized).
  • Heirship – the situation of being an inheritor; proper to inheritance; heirdom.
  • Helm wind – a powerful wind which blows in particular airflow situations down the slopes of mountains. The winds may be harmful to crops and buildings and are named after the cloud caps which kind over the mountains.
  • Helve – a deal with of a software, similar to an ax, chisel, or hammer. Center English, from Outdated English hielfe.
  • Hemp – The principle makes use of of hemp fibre are rope, sacking, carpet, nets and webbing. Hemp can also be being utilized in growing portions in paper manufacturing. The cellulose content material is about 70%.
  • Henge – late Neolithic British earth enclosures of financial institution and ditch (normally inside). Class I has single entrance; Class II has two or extra entrances; in all probability used for ceremonial functions
  • Herald – an assistant to the Lord Lyon King of Arms in Scotland. They’re often called Marchmont, Rothesay, and Albany.
  • Heraldry – pertaining to the research or use of armorial bearings.
  • Herepad – an ‘military street’ from the Anglo-Saxon.
  • Heretic – an individual holding an unorthodox opinion or perception opposite to accepted doctrine.
  • Herezeld – see ‘Heriot’. From OE heregeat (“war-gear”), was at first a death-duty in Anglo-Saxon England, which demanded that at dying, a nobleman supplied to his king a given set of navy tools, usually together with horses, swords, shields, spears and helmets which had been loaned to him throughout his lifetime. In Scotland additionally a present or current made or left by a tenant to his lord as a token of reverence.
  • Hereditament – any sort of property that may be inherited. ‘Corporeal hereditaments’ are things like land held in freehold and ‘Incorporeal hereditaments’ are hereditary titles of honor or dignity, heritable titles of workplace, Prescriptive Barony, rights of method, tithes, advowsons, pensions, annuities, rents, franchises, and so on.
  • Heriot – additionally ‘Herezeld.’ One of the best beast on the land given to the owner on the dying of a tenant (Scots).
  • Heritour – The proprietor of a heritable property; an heir. Alteration of Center English heriter, from Anglo-Norman. Till 1925 the duty for constructing and sustaining church, manse and faculty lay with the heritours of a parish.
  • Hership – the crime of constructing away with cattle by power.
  • Heugh – a crag; a cliff; a glen with overhanging sides. Additionally a shaft in a coal pit; a hole in a quarry (Scots).
  • Hex – a curse or magical spell or a feminine caster of such.
  • Hexakosioihexekontahexaphobia – an irrational concern of the Satanically related quantity 666.
  • Cover – a really outdated English unit of land space, courting from maybe the Seventh-century. The disguise was the quantity of land that might be cultivated by a single ploughman and thus the quantity of land essential to help a household. Relying on native situations, this might be as little as 60 acres or as a lot as 180 acres (24-72 hectares). The disguise was roughly standardized as 120 acres (48.6 hectares) after the Norman conquest. The disguise continued in use all through medieval occasions, however it’s now out of date. The unit was often called a carucate within the Danelaw.
  • Hidage – a doc containing an evaluation of land, shires or cities, drawn up in hides.
  • Hinkypunk – within the West Nation (in all probability derived from the Welsh Pwca (Puck) the identify for a Will o’the Wisp.
  • Hippocras – a cordial made out of wine and flavored with spices, previously used as a medication.
  • Hippogriff additionally ‘Hippogryph’ – a monster having the wings, claws, and head of a griffin and the physique and hindquarters of a horse.
  • Hirsel – a Scottish and Northern English phrase that means your complete inventory of sheep on a farm or below the cost of a shepherd.
  • Histriography – the writing of historical past or the research of the writing of historical past.
  • Hoar – ice crystals forming a white deposit (particularly on objects exterior); Hoarfrost.
  • Interest lantern – utilized in Hertfordshire, East Anglia, and in Warwickshire & Gloucestershire as Hobbedy’s Lantern, in any other case the Will o’ the wisp.
  • Hobbledehoy – a gawky adolescent boy.
  • Hocktide – an historic basic vacation in England, celebrated on the second Monday and Tuesday after Easter Sunday. Hock-Tuesday was an necessary time period day, rents being then payable, for with Michaelmas it divided the agricultural 12 months into its winter and summer time halves. The derivation of the phrase is disputed: any analogy with Ger. koch, excessive, being typically denied. No hint of the phrase is present in Outdated English, and hock-day, its earliest use in composition, seems first within the 12th century. The attribute pastime of hock-tide was known as binding. On Monday the ladies, on Tuesday the boys, stopped all passers of the alternative intercourse and certain them with ropes until they purchased their launch with a small fee, or a rope was stretched throughout the highroads, and the passers had been obliged to pay toll. The cash thus collected appears to have gone in the direction of parish bills. Many entries are present in parish registers below Hocktyde cash. The hock-tide celebration turned out of date to start with of the 18th century.[20]
  • Hodge – a corruption of the private identify ‘Roger’, utilized in England by townsfolk to suggest that somebody was a country.[21]
  • Hogshead – a standard unit of quantity for liquids. Initially the hogshead diversified with the contents, usually being equal to 48 gallons of ale; 54 of beer; 60 of cider; 63 of oil, honey, or wine; or 100 of molasses. In the USA, a hogshead is outlined to carry 2 barrels, or 63 gallons; this was the standard British wine hogshead. It is the same as precisely 14 553 cubic inches, or about 8.422 cubic toes (238.48 litres). Within the British Imperial system, the hogshead equals half of butt, or 52.5 imperial gallons (8.429 cubic toes, or 238.67 litres). Thus the British Imperial and American hogsheads are nearly precisely the identical dimension. Nobody appears to know for positive how this unit obtained its uncommon identify.
  • Hollin – a woodland space the place holly was lower for fodder.[22]
  • Holm – low mendacity grassland floor neaxt to a river (Scots). Equal to a ‘Water Meadow’ in England.
  • Holofernes – an Assyrian basic of Nebuchadnezzar, who figures within the E book of Judith. The overall laid siege to Bethulia, and town nearly surrendered. It was saved by Judith, a fantastic Hebrew widow who entered Holofernes’s camp, seduced after which beheaded Holofernes whereas he was drunk. She returned to Bethulia with Holofernes head, and the Hebrews subsequently defeated the enemy.
  • Holographic will – additionally ‘olographic’ – handwritten and signed by the person that the need belongs to (Authorized).
  • Homeopathy – another medical apply based on resemblances. The underlying principle is that illness are cured by treatments which produce, on a wholesome individual, comparable results to the signs of the affected person’s grievance. “For instance, somebody affected by insomnia could also be given a homeopathic dose of espresso. Administered in diluted kind, homeopathic treatments are derived from many pure sources, together with crops, metals, and minerals.
  • Homologation – the act by which somebody approves of a written deed and binds themselves to fulfil its phrases (Authorized).
  • Hood-mould – a carved protruding ridge above a window designed to throw off the rain.
  • Hopper – a short lived storage container that feeds grain to the grindstones in a mill.
  • Horning – outlawed; additionally ‘Put to the horn’.
  • Horologe – a tool, similar to a clock or sundial, utilized in telling time.
  • Horologium nocturnum – the night-time equal of the sundial. The time was discovered from getting into the place of the celebrities onto the mechanisms dials and scales; the time was then learn off.
  • Horse gin or engine – a mechanical system, normally manufactured from cast-iron, with gearing that makes use of horse energy to drive a tool similar to a thresher, milk-churn, and so on., in a Horse mill. Donkeys or oxen had been typically used.
  • Hospice – the visitor home of an abbey, monastery, and so on.[23]
  • Hostelry – an inn; a lodge.
  • Hostler – or ‘Ostler’ – one who’s employed to have a tendency horses, particularly at an inn.
  • Scorching Trod – the recent pursuit of reivers and was allowed below the Border legal guidelines. It allowed for those who had been ‘spoyled’ to mount a pursuit inside six days of the raid and to cross the border, if needed, to comply with the raiders with hound and horn for the restoration of their items. It was the responsibility of all neighbors between the ages of 16 and 60 to hitch the Trod. A chunk of burning turf was held aloft on a spear level to let others know what was taking place. The posse in pursuit had the best to recruit assist from the primary city it got here to and the primary individual encountered was to bear witness {that a} lawful sizzling trod was being carried out. When instructed to hitch the recent trod, if an individual refused, he could be thought of to be a traitor and to be in cahoots with the enemy. That one that refused would even be pressured to turn into a fugitive.
  • Hovel – an animal home, normally a shelter shed.
  • Howlet – an owl (Scots).
  • Huit – a stack in a area (Scots).
  • Hulver – a holly (Ilex aquifolium).[7]
  • Hundred – a geographic division previously utilized in England, Wales, Denmark, South Australia and a few elements of the USA, Germany (Southern Schleswig), Sweden (and right this moment’s Finland) and Norway, which traditionally was used to divide a bigger area into smaller administrative divisions. The identify is derived from the primary hundred, and in some areas it might as soon as have referred to 100 males below arms. See ‘Wapentake.’
  • Humplock – additionally ‘Himplock’, a small heap or mound within the south-west, south and north (Scots).
  • Hurst – a hillock, sandbank in a river or the ocean or a wooded eminence which is embanked & used for coppicing.[24]
  • Hursting – a table-like construction on which millstones are mounted.[25]
  • Husbandland – a 26 acre sub-division of a ‘Ploughgate’ in Scotland.
  • Husbandman – somebody whose occupation is husbandry; a farmer.
  • Hushes – gullies through which erosion has been artificially inspired to show ores for mining.
  • Husk – the dry outer overlaying of some fruits and seeds.
  • Husbote – the best to collect wooden for home constructing in medieval occasions.
  • Hydronym – a correct identify of a physique of water; the research of hydronyms and of how our bodies of water obtain their names and the way they’re transmitted via historical past. The time period applies to rivers, lakes, and oceanic components.
  • Hypergamy – denotes the customized which forbids the wedding of a lady into a bunch of decrease standing than her personal.
  • Hypocorism – a shorter type of a phrase or given identify, when utilized in extra intimate conditions as a nickname or time period of endearment.
  • Hypothec – an understood safety, proper or declare which a creditor might need over one thing belonging to his precise or potential debtor, i.e. A landlord might be mentioned to have a hypothec over the crops grown by his tenants in any explicit 12 months, for the rents due for that 12 months. The legislation of agricultural hypothec lengthy brought about a lot discontent in Scotland.
  • Hysteria – a state of uncontrolled pleasure, anger, or panic believed to have been introduced on by a disturbance within the womb (Greek hustera)

I Phrases[edit]

A B C D E F G H I J Ok L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


  • Ibid – in the identical e book or passage and so on., so ‘Ibid’ serves an analogous function to ‘ditto marks’.
  • Ides – within the Roman calendar: the 15th of March or Might or July or October or the 13th of some other month.
  • Idiots – folks so deeply faulty in thoughts as to be unable to protect towards widespread bodily risks.
  • ignis fatuus or ‘Will-o’-the-wisp’ – the ghostly lights typically seen at night time or twilight that hover over damp floor in nonetheless air — usually over bogs. It appears like a flickering lamp, and is usually mentioned to recede if approached. A lot folklore surrounds the legend, however science has supplied a number of potential explanations
  • IHS – ‘Iesus Hominem Salvator’ or ‘Jesus the Saviour of mankind’ as carved on church lecterns, and so on.[26]
  • Ilk – a household. As in ‘of that Ilk’. This can be a uniquely Scottish time period which denotes the that the holder is chief of all of the clan of his personal surname. The lack of ancestral lands doesn’t negate the title and the holder has the best to supporters in his armorial arms. The title can’t be revoked. The Clan Chief could be referred by the clan identify alone, while different family members could be named after their lands, similar to within the case of Hessilhead, while Montgomerie of that Ilk could be straight Montgomerie, relatively than Eglinton.[27]
  • Imbeciles – not idiots, however individuals who had been incapable of managing themselves or their affairs, or, within the case of kids, of being taught to take action.
  • Imbolc – one of many 4 principal festivals of the Irish calendar, celebrated both initially of February or on the first native indicators of Spring. Initially devoted to the goddess Brigid, within the Christian interval it was adopted as Saint Brigid’s Day. In Scotland the competition is also called Là Fhèill Brìghde, and in Wales as Gwyl Ffraed.
  • Impanele – to enter in an inventory, or on a chunk of parchment, known as a panel; to kind or enroll, as an inventory of jurors in a courtroom of justice.
  • Imperium – absolute rule or supreme energy; a sphere of energy or dominion, an empire; in legislation the best or energy of a state to implement the legislation.
  • Impignorate – additionally ‘pignorate’ means to place up as safety or to pawn.
  • Implead – to sue (an individual, and so on.) in a courtroom of justice, increase an motion towards.
  • Impransus – a Latin time period neaning to go with out breakfast; to quick.
  • Imprecation – the act of cursing; a curse or malediction.
  • Imprimus – an archaic time period, that means ‘within the first place’.
  • Improbation – the act by which falsehood and forgery are proved; an motion introduced for the aim of getting some instrument declared false or solid.
  • Improper-feu – a holding that didn’t contain the supply of navy service. Holding a bason and towel to the KIng could be such an instance.
  • In-by – in northern England and Scotland the identify for the fields within the speedy neighborhood of the farmhouse. Such fields obtained nearly all of the manure. Out-by had been the extra distant fields.
  • In feodo et heriditate – a heritable fief for all times or for a time period of years.
  • In gremio legis – a authorized expression that means ‘Within the bosom of the legislation’. This can be a figurative expression, by which is supposed, that the topic is below the safety of the legislation; as, the place land is in abeyance.
  • In rem – a Latin time period in legislation for “towards a factor”. In a lawsuit, an motion in rem is directed in the direction of some particular piece of property,
  • Inclosure – the time period utilized in authorized paperwork in England and Wales for the method by which arable farming in open area methods was ended. It’s also utilized to the method by which some commons (a chunk of land owned by one individual, however over which different folks may train sure conventional rights, similar to permitting their livestock to graze upon it), had been fenced (enclosed) and deeded or entitled to a number of personal homeowners, who would then benefit from the possession and fruits of the land to the exclusion of all others.
  • Incorporeal – not hooked up to the ‘physique’ as is now the case for baronial titles.
  • Incountry – within the context of Scotland, these areas below full Crown management in feudal occasions.
  • Incunabula – books, pamphlets, calendars & indulgences printed earlier than 1501. American Incunabula refers to books printed previous to 1701.[4] The Latin means ‘issues from the cradle’. The singular ought to be incunabulum, however most individuals say incunable.[18]
  • Indenture – a contract binding one get together into the service of one other for a specified time period. Typically used within the plural; a doc in duplicate having indented edges; a deed or authorized contract executed between two or extra events; an official or authenticated stock, checklist, or voucher.
  • Indentured servant – an individual who’s certain into the service of one other individual for a specified interval, normally seven years within the 18th and 19th centuries to pay for passage to a different nation.
  • Indicted – an individual accused by a invoice of indictment most well-liked by a grand jury.
  • Indictment – a proper accusation charging somebody of a criminal offense. Takes the type of a written doc containing transient particulars of the accusation.
  • Indigence – Poverty; neediness.
  • Indolent – disinclined to exert oneself; conducive to inactivity or laziness; torpid: humid, indolent climate. Inflicting little or no ache: an indolent tumour. Gradual to heal, develop, or develop.
  • Ineffable – incapable of being expressed; indescribable or unutterable; taboo.
  • Infangthief – the best of a lord to punish a thief caught inside the bounds of his property.
  • Infirmarian – an individual dwelling in, or having cost of, an infirmary, particularly in a monastic establishment.
  • Infirmary – a spot the place sick or eldery individuals are taken in abbeys, monasteries. and so on.
  • Ings – a standard identify within the north of England, and in another elements, for a meadow; esp. by the aspect of a river and roughly swampy or topic to inundation.
  • Ingeniator – actually an engineer, however normally used within the sense of an individual who’s an knowledgeable within the talent of fortifying a spot.
  • Inglenook – the area inside the opening on both aspect of a giant fire.
  • Inhumation – burial of lifeless physique (versus publicity or cremation). Place could also be prolonged, flexed or crouched, and inclined, supine or on aspect.
  • Inspissate – to endure thickening or trigger to thicken, as by boiling or evaporation; condense.
  • Instrumentum – a proper deed, ready by a public official.
  • Insucken – grain liable to thirlage.
  • Insufflation – in ecclesiastical phrases that is the ritual act of respiratory on baptismal water or on the one being baptized.
  • Intaglio – is a household of printmaking methods through which the picture is incised right into a floor, often called the matrix or plate. Usually, copper or zinc plates are used as a floor, and the incisions are created by etching, engraving, drypoint, aquatint or mezzotint. To print an intaglio plate the floor is roofed in thick ink after which rubbed with tarlatan fabric to take away many of the extra. The ultimate easy wipe is normally completed by hand, typically with assistance from newspaper, leaving ink solely within the incisions. A moist piece of paper is positioned on high and the plate and paper are run via a printing press that, via strain, transfers the ink from the recesses of the plate to the paper.
  • Inter alia – amongst different issues.
  • Intercommune – to have mutual communication or intercourse by dialog.
  • Interlocutor – a proper decree in Scots legislation as made by a choose.
  • Interpellated – a Parliamentary process in European legislatures to query a member of the federal government on some extent of presidency coverage, usually interrupting the enterprise of the day.
  • Interregnum – the interval of time between the tip of a sovereign’s reign and the accession of a successor; a interval of non permanent suspension of the same old capabilities of presidency or management. In Scotland a big interregnum was that between the reign of Alexander III and the crowning of John Baliol as John II.
  • Intervisibility – a time period used to point out the mutual visibility between websites, normally with the corresponding type of monument. Might point out a social and political relationship between neighbouring monuments and their folks.
  • Intestate – an individual who dies and not using a will (Authorized).
  • Intoxicate – medical Latin from to poison. Initially meant to poison. Not till the late 16th century that it meant stupefy, madden or deprive of the strange use of the senses or motive with a drug or alcoholic liquor; inebriate, make drunk.
  • Intramural – actually ‘inside the partitions’ as in burial inside a church.
  • Invenire – a phrase that means the method of ‘discovering’ or ‘inventing’ blissful discoveries, developments and duplications of the relics of the previous. An instance could be the invention of the grave of King Arthur and Queen Guinevere at Glastonbury Abbey in 1191.[28]
  • Stock – an inventory of the property held by an individual on the time of his dying; normally compiled by a number of court-appointed folks, who submit the checklist to the courtroom for approval (Authorized).
  • Funding – the act of investing with the charge of an property or the authorized deed by which an individual was so invested.
  • Ionic column – a Roman type column with an ornate head, however much less embellished than a Corinthian column.
  • Irenic – additionally ‘Eirenic’, aiming or aimed toward peace. Part of Christian theology involved with reconciling completely different denominations and sects.
  • Iuga – a Roman fiscal unit of land upon which tax was paid. Its precise measurements differed in time and place.

J Phrases[edit]

A B C D E F G H I J Ok L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


  • Jackanape – an insolent individual or poorly behaved baby. It’s purported to confer with the Duke of Suffolk, whose badge was an ape’s clog and chain.
  • Jack-o’-the-clock – a painted picket determine with a hinged arm holding a hammer. A wire could be pulled to make the arm strike a bell to indicate the beginning of divine service. An instance at Blythburgh in Suffolk, England is ‘dressed’ in armour.[9]
  • Jacobean – pertaining to the reign of James I of England, in any other case also called James VI of Scotland.
  • Jacobite – a supporter of the declare to the English throne of the exiled Stuart household after 1688; help for this trigger.
  • Jade – an outdated or over-worked horse.
  • Jamm additionally Jamb – the projecting wing of a home.
  • Jeu de Mot – a pun; a play on some phrase or phrase. (French.) See ‘Rebus’.
  • Jointure – a provision for a widow, normally made in her marriage contract and consisting of an annual fee to be made to her in her lifetime; if such a jointure was appointed for a spouse, it will except in any other case supplied for deprive her of her widow’s terce, however she was higher off with the jointure, since if her husband died in debt or bankrupt, she could be reckoned as one in all his collectors and have the ability to make her declare first relatively than ready until the money owed had been settled and having to make do with a share of what was left.
  • Jointure-house – an association by which a husband grants actual property to his spouse for her use after his dying the property thus settled; widow’s portion.
  • Jonathan – the mill-dust, blended with husks and bought as an animal feed.
  • Jougs – additionally ‘Jugs’ – in Scots a steel hoop hooked up to a wall by way of a series. Used to punish varied misdemeanours within the 17th. and early 18th centuries.
  • Judex – a dempster; a choose; judicial energy, or the courtroom; a juror.
  • Julian Calendar – the calendar named for Julius Caesar and used from 45 B.C. to 1582, known as the “Outdated Fashion” calendar; changed by the Gregorian calendar with a ten day distinction.
  • Juniores Alumni – the scholars who ‘served’ on the lowest degree of the Celtic church.
  • Jure uxoris – a Latin time period meaning “by proper of his spouse” or “in proper of a spouse”, generally used to confer with a title held by a person whose spouse holds it in her personal proper, i.e. he acquired the title just by being her husband.
  • Jus primae noctis – within the European late medieval context, a widespread standard perception in an historic privilege of the lord of the manor or laird to share the marriage mattress along with his peasants’ brides.
  • Justice ayre – the medieval courtroom circuit that travelled round Scotland.
  • Justice Hill – See additionally ‘Moot and Mote’. A legislation, knowe or knoll the place proclamations of the native Barony Court docket’s judgements and sentence was carried out. For critical crimes the boys had been hung right here and girls had been drowned. This case, often called the feudal Barony proper of ‘pit and gallows’.
  • Justiciar – a medieval royal choose.
  • Jute – Jute is a protracted, delicate, shiny plant fibre that may be spun into coarse, sturdy threads. It is without doubt one of the least expensive pure fibres, and is second solely to cotton in quantity produced and number of makes use of. Jute fibres are composed primarily of the plant supplies cellulose and lignin.
  • Juvenis – a juvenile, minor, below authorized age (Authorized).

Ok Phrases[edit]

A B C D E F G H I J Ok L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


  • Kain – additionally ‘Cain’. Poultry or different animals paid by a vassal to a superior as a part of a feu-duty; poultry, eggs, butter and such issues similar to goose-feathers paid by a tenant to a landlord as lease.
  • Kebbuck – a cheese; additionally a portion or slice of cheese (Scots).
  • Keening – a type of vocal lament related to mourning that’s conventional in Scotland and Eire. Extinct as a practise following opposition from the established church.
  • Maintain – the principle tower inside the partitions of a medieval fortress or fortress. Initially the enclosing wall round a tower.[29]
  • Keld – a spring, fountain, head-spring.
  • Kell – a spring, fountain, head-spring. Additionally a kiln-house within the western dialect.
  • Ken – kenning of a widow to her terce; a authorized proper by the widow to her proper ot life-rent of her share of her lifeless husband’s lands (Scots legislation).
  • Kerb – in archaeology, a kerb or peristalith is the identify for a stone ring constructed to surround and typically revet the cairn or barrow constructed over a chamber tomb.
  • Kern – a medieval Gaelic, Scottish or Irish foot soldier; a loutish individual.
  • Keystone – centre stone or ‘voussoir’ on the head of an arch.
  • Kiln – a constructing or construction used to dry grain earlier than milling.
  • Kindly tenancy – a heritable tenure arising from the continued tenancy by forefathers and themselves (Scots) or the place the owner wished to point out favour.
  • King’s Freeway – additionally ‘Through regia’ – the idea of the King’s safety given to those that lawfully journey inside a kingdom.
  • King’s Host – feudal levies which shaped a military within the days earlier than a standing military was arrange throughout the reign of King Charles II.
  • King of Arms – the senior rank of an officer of arms. In lots of heraldic traditions, solely a king of arms has the authority to grant armorial bearings.
  • Kirk – a church in Scotland, normally a ‘Church of Scotland’ presbyterian denomination.
  • Kirktoun – a small village or hamlet round a kirk (Scots).
  • Kist – see ‘Cist’.
  • Knave – a servant boy or menial (Scots).
  • Knaveship – a servant to the miller, paid with a handful of cereal from every load milled (Scots).
  • Knight’s charge – a feudal time period utilized in medieval England and Anglo-Norman Eire to explain the worth of land. It’s also typically known as ‘scutage’. Feudalism was the change of land for navy service, thus all the pieces was based mostly on what was known as the knight’s charge, which was the sum of money and/or navy service a fief was required to pay to help one knight.
  • Knock – A small hill (Gaelic). Typically present in placenames, similar to Knockentiber in Scotland.
  • Knockit – cereal which has rubbed and crushed freed from its husks and left entire relatively than floor (Scots).
  • Knoll – a knowe or low rounded hill or hillock (Scots).
  • Knowe – a knoll or low rounded hill or hillock.[14] Typically included into placename, similar to ‘Huttknowe’, ‘Broomyknowe’, and so on. in Ayrshire, Scotland (Scots).
  • Knucker – a water monster, as within the Knucker Gap legend of Lyminster in West Sussex. The Outdated English ‘Nicor’ often is the origin of the time period, as used on this context within the epic poem Beowulf.

L Phrases[edit]

A B C D E F G H I J Ok L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


  • Labarum – a time period used for the Chi Rho monogram, one of many types of christogram as utilized by the early Christians. It’s shaped from the primary two letters within the Greek spelling of the phrase Christ, chi = ch and rho = r, in such a strategy to produce the monogram ☧. The Chi Rho invokes the crucifixion of Jesus in addition to symbolizing his standing because the Christ. This image was additionally utilized by pagan Greek scribes to mark, within the margin, a very beneficial or related passage; the mixed letters Chi and Rho standing for chrēston, that means “good.”
  • Labyrinth – a construction with an unambiguous through-route to the centre and again and never designed to be troublesome to navigate.
  • Lace – making – an historic craft. A lace cloth is light-weight openwork cloth, patterned, both by machine or by hand, with open holes within the work. The holes may be shaped by way of elimination of threads or fabric from a beforehand woven cloth, however extra usually lace is constructed up from a single thread and the open areas are created as a part of the lace cloth.
  • Lade – an open watercourse conducting water from a dam, weir or river to a mill wheel (Scots).
  • Ladester – somebody who helped with the unloading of carts and moved the sacks round a mill (Scots).
  • Laid paper – beforehand all the time handmade with ‘chains’ and ‘traces’ seen, now usually machine made or simply pressed on.[18]
  • Laigh – ‘low’; or by implication, lesser or much less necessary.
  • Laird – the proprietor of an property. A title of the gentry, relatively than the the Aristocracy, a Laird is related to the land that he (or she) owns relatively than being a part of the established hierarchy (or Peerage). The title is peculiar to Scotland. Up to now a Laird could have had feudal rights over those that lived on his land, and held courtroom from their fortress or mansion. A feminine Laird could also be informally titled ‘Girl’. The title transfers, or is inherited, with the land (Scots).
  • Laithe – a mixed barn and cattle-house.
  • Lancet – home windows that are tall and slender and typically grouped below a single arch.
  • Land-breast – the frontage or face of the wall which varieties a bridge-seating or abutment and acts as a retaining wall to the financial institution behind it. It consists of each the abutment-pier correct and the wing-walls at either side of it.
  • Lands – the flat surfaces between the harps on a millstone (Scots).
  • Lantern – additionally a ‘Cupola’ or ‘Glover’ – a canopy which gives an entrance / exit, however retains out the rain from a constructing or construction.
  • Lantern pinion – the vertical drive shaft taking energy off the mill wheel by way of cogs.
  • Lardiner – a Lardiner was the steward of the King’s larder, offering venison in addition to ‘tame beasts’ for the royal desk.
  • Late – denoting somebody who’s deceased, i.e., the late John Thomas.
  • Latten – the alloy of copper and zinc usually used to supply monumental brasses and different church articles, additionally some matrices for seals.
  • Laud – reward; glorification.
  • Laund – a compartment inside a park having few or no timber, as current inside deer parks.[7]
  • Lavatorium – a protracted trough within the cloisters of an abbey the place the monks washed their palms earlier than and after meals.
  • Lave – to scrub oneself; bathe.
  • Laver – an archaic time period for a vessel, stone basin, or trough used for laundry.
  • Regulation – a small however distinguished hill or burial mound. A often a part of place anmes, similar to Stacklawhill, Knockinlaw, Regulation mount, and so on. (Scots).
  • Lawburrows, letters of – letters within the monarch’s identify below the signet seal to the impact {that a} explicit individual had proven trigger to dread hurt from one other, and that subsequently this different complained of was commanded to seek out “ample warning and surety” that the complainer could be free from any violence on his half (Authorized).
  • Laying of the lintels – the traditional equal of a topping-out ceremony for a brand new constructing at which meat and drink had been supplied for the assorted craftsmen and labourers.
  • Lea – additionally ‘Leigh’ – see ‘Lye’.
  • Leach na Gruagach – Milk was poured as an providing to ‘Gruagach’, the Gaelic guardian-goddess of cattle, into hollows in stones known as Dobby stones or Leach na Gruagach.[30]
  • Leadenhaller – somebody who buys imported foxes from London’s Leadenhall market to promote to fox hunters.
  • Leaf – two pages.
  • Leat – an open watercourse conducting water from a dam, weir or river to a mill wheel.
  • Leatwright – an knowledgeable within the development of leats or lades.
  • Leaven – a component, affect, or agent that works subtly to lighten, enliven, or modify a complete.
  • Leech – a doctor or healer, as a result of medical doctors used leeches to attract blood from sufferers.
  • Legacy – property or cash bequeathed to somebody in a will (Authorized).
  • Legate – an official emissary, particularly an official consultant of the Pope.
  • Legatee – somebody who inherits cash or property from an individual who left a will (Authorized).
  • Legendarium – refers actually to writings as regards to such holy folks, normally saints. See additionally ‘Hagiography’.
  • Leman – archaic for “sweetheart, paramour,” from M.E. leofman (c.1205), from OE leof “expensive” + man “human being, individual.” Initially of both gender, although archaic utilization tends to restrict it to girls. Utilized by Sir Walter Scott within the Waverley Novel ‘Kenilworth’.
  • Lengthman – the individual answerable for the upkeep of the verges , and so on. of a given size of a canal, railway or street.
  • Lenition – a sort of consonant mutation that seems in lots of languages. Together with assimilation, it is without doubt one of the major sources of historic change of languages.
  • Leper stone – a bowl formed stone stuffed with bitter wine or vinegar into which lepers may both go away choices of cash for the church or extra possible take choices left for them. A really uncommon instance is to be discovered close to the church at Greystoke village, Penrith, Cumbria.
  • Lessee – individual leasing property from an proprietor (Authorized).
  • Lessor – proprietor leasing property to a tenant (Authorized).
  • Letters of fireplace and sword – commissions to named lords which instructed them to destroy by any means the topics of the fee. The fee which led to the ‘Bloodbath of Glencoe’ is a late instance (Authorized).
  • Letters Testamentary – a courtroom doc permitting the executor named in a will to hold out his or her duties (Authorized).
  • Leveret – a younger ‘Hare’, particularly in its first 12 months of life.
  • Levet – a trumpet name for rousing troopers; a reveille.
  • Ley line – Alfred Watkins introduced his discovery of a community of historic alignments criss-crossing the British countryside, these ley traces or outdated straight tracks are extremely controversial, nonetheless they could replicate sure genuinely historic practices.
  • Ley tunnel – delusion involving improbably lengthy subterranean passages and obstacles, distinguished buildings and infrequently monks or aristocrats.
  • Librate – to find out the load of an object.
  • licentia redeundi – the act of conferring the entire energy of Parliament upon a fee {Authorized}.
  • Lick of goodwill – additionally ‘lock’. The miller’s fee for grinding the cereal, and so on. (Scots).
  • Liege poustie – that state of well being which might give somebody full and undoubted energy to rearrange for the disposal of his heritable property within the occasion of his dying.
  • Lien – a declare positioned on property by an individual who’s owed cash (Authorized).
  • Lierne vaulting – these are ‘tie’ ribs between any ribs springing from a supporting rib and are purely ornamental.
  • Ligature – in writing and typography, a ligature happens the place two or extra graphemes are joined as a single glyph; usually utilized by masons to cut back the extent of carving wanted on gravestones.
  • Limekiln – a kiln for burning lime to supply quicklime, a fertilizer.
  • Liminal – a threshold, similar to in Celtic pagan and holy locations, e.g. between land and sea, salt water and recent, and so on.
  • Liminality – that non permanent state throughout a ceremony of passage when the participant lacks social standing or rank, is required to comply with specified types of conduct, and is anticipated to point out obedience and humility.
  • Limmer – a low, base fellow; additionally, a prostitute.
  • Limner – a painter or drawer of portraits.
  • Linden – a small-leaved lime tree (Tilia cordata).
  • Lineatore – the equal of city planners first encountered within the 12th century. Lineatores marked out burgage plots or tofts, outlined the boundaries of cities, laid out roads, and so on.
  • Linen – thread made out of fibres of the flax plant or fabric woven from this thread.
  • Linhay – a West Nation shelter shed with an open hayloft above.
  • Linn – a waterfall (Scots).
  • Lint – The flax plant as simply pulled or within the early levels of manufacture into yarn (Scots).
  • Lippie – a dry measure, usually the quarter of a ‘peck’ or ‘forpet’.
  • Litiscontestation – the place each events in a case have acknowledged their respective pleas in a courtroom, it being then understood that, by doing so, they’ve consented to abide by the choice of the choose within the case (Authorized).
  • Lithograph – actually ‘drawing on stone’ , however used for any print taken from a flat floor.
  • Litster – an individual who works within the dyer’s commerce.[31]
  • Littera – non-notorial deeds as in personal deeds or writings as distinguished from notarial writings (Scots legislation).
  • Livery Firm – Just like a ‘Guild’.
  • Livestock – the animals on a farm.
  • Mortgage – earlier than the enclosing of fields, a strip of grass of various breadth would run via the arable elements of a farm and often it will hyperlink with the widespread grazing floor of the group, serving as a pasture, a driving street and a milking place for the cattle of the farm or village and as a standard inexperienced (Scots).
  • Native Historical past – Native historical past is the research of the historical past of a comparatively small geographic space; sometimes a particular settlement, parish or county.
  • Locality, decree of – the allocation of a stipend on account of a minister in proportions among the many varied heritors liable to pay it.
  • Lock or sequals – a fee to a miller’s servant of an quantity of grain that might be heaped right into a pair of clasped palms (Scots).
  • Loco tutoris – within the place of (i.e. appearing as) tutor.
  • Locum tenens – an individual, particularly a doctor or cleric, who substitutes briefly for one more.
  • Locus amoenus – an earthy paradise. Such because the cave, spring and holy tree, refuge of Tristran and Iseult.[32]
  • Locus terribilis – a sacred place into which solely a divine or sacred individual may enter. Petrosomatoglyph foot prints for the ordination of kings could be an instance.[33]
  • Lodge – a constructing, usually ornate, on the entrance to the driveway of a rustic home or mansion through which the gatekeeper lived.
  • Logan stone – additionally ‘Rocking stone’ – a big boulder, usually a glacial erratic, which rocks when pushed. Such boulders usually have related people legends.
  • Lollard – a member of a sect of non secular reformers in England who had been followers of John Wycliffe within the 14th and 15th centuries.
  • Lombardic script – the nationwide hand of Italy; a improvement of the uncial and was first utilized in northern Italy. The Lombardic character has many & broad variations of it as developed by the scribes in numerous nations. It was the favourite kind chosen for initials & versals in manuscripts, which had been normally painted in, in colours and gold, the solidity of the physique strokes making it particularly adaptable for this function. At its finest this Lombardic letter preserves a lot of the sensation of the uncials of the sixth and seventh centuries.
  • Lone – a ‘lane’ in Scots.
  • Longhouse – a steading with the byre adjoining the farmhouse in a straight line.
  • Loosebox – an enclosure in a secure the place the horse just isn’t tide up and is subsequently free to maneuver round.
  • Lord Lyon King of Arms – the top of Lyon Court docket, probably the most junior of the Nice Officers of State in Scotland and the Scottish official with duty for regulating heraldry in Scotland, issuing new grants of arms, and serving because the choose of the oldest heraldic courtroom on the earth that’s nonetheless in every day operation. The put up was previously held by an necessary nobleman, whose capabilities had been in apply carried out by his assistant, the Lyon-Depute. The apply of appointing Lyon-Deputes, nonetheless, ceased in 1866. The Lord Lyon is answerable for the granting of recent arms to individuals or organisations, and for confirming given pedigrees and claims to present arms.
  • Lore – a physique of custom and information on a topic or held by a selected group.
  • Lorimer – A household identify derived from the Center English for the maker of bits, spurs, stirrup-irons, locks and different ‘horse’ furnishings. The Lorimers seem in Scotland throughout the 12th century as land homeowners within the Perth space. The identify is present in Midlothian within the 15th century, Stirlingshire within the 16th century and later in Dumfriesshire.
  • Lovite – a favorite of the King or a lawyer revered and trusted, normally by the aristocracy; time period utilized in charters, tendencies, proclamations and so on., expressive of the royal regard to the individual or individuals talked about or addressed.
  • Lucam – an extension operating outward from the wall of a constructing to permit supplies to be lowered by a hoist into or taken out of boats, carts, and so on. Watermills sometimes had these constructions, such because the mill at Houghton on the River Nice Ouse in England; now restored by the Nationwide Belief.[34]
  • Lucubration – laborious research or meditation; writing produced by laborious effort or research, particularly pedantic or pretentious writing.
  • Lughnasadh – one of many 4 principal festivals of the medieval Irish calendar: Imbolc initially of February, Beltane on the primary of Might, Lughnasadh in August and Samhain in November. The early Celtic calendar was based mostly on the lunar, photo voltaic, and vegetative cycles, so the precise calendar date in historic occasions could have diversified. Lughnasadh marked the start of the harvest season, the ripening of first fruits, and was historically a time of group gatherings, market festivals, horse races and reunions with distant household and buddies.
  • Luck or ‘lux’ – a reduction on a purchase order in return for a money fee.
  • Lukesmas – the feast day of Saint Luke, 18 October.[5]
  • Lunatic – in its authentic Latin it was a kind of periodic madness believed to be affected by the phases of the moon (luna), nevertheless it entered English legislation because the time period for such an unsoundness of thoughts as justified interfering with an individual’s civil rights, or contemplating their transactions invalid.
  • Lund – additionally ‘Lound’. A small wooden, from the Outdated Norse Lundr.
  • Lustral – Of, referring to, or utilized in a ceremony of purification.
  • Lustration – a purification by ablution in water. However the lustrations, of which we possess direct historic information, are all the time related with sacrifices and different non secular rites, and consisted within the sprinkling of water by way of a department of laurel or olive, and within the burning of sure supplies, the smoke of which was thought to have a purifying impact.
  • Lusus naturae– an individual or animal that’s markedly uncommon or deformed.
  • Lux or ‘Luck’ – a reduction on a purchase order in return for a money fee.
  • Lych or ‘Lyke’ – Anglo-Saxon for a corpse. Used within the context of Lych Gate or Lych Path. A corpse on its strategy to burial was beforehand carried alongside a Corpse of Lych Path and positioned on the Lych Gate simply previous to the burial.
  • Lye – additionally ‘lea’ or ‘leigh’ – pasture land, usually the primary space cleared from a woodland is named the ‘Leigh area’, as at Woodway Home in Teignmouth, Devon. The time period can also confer with woodland pasture land.
  • Lye – a preparation used along with animal fat within the pruduction of cleaning soap. Lye may be produced from sure seaweeds, saltworts, hardwood tree ashes or mined because the mineral kind. Sodium carbonate and Sodium hydroxiude are two examples of ‘lye’ chemical compounds.
  • Lymmares – villains or malefactors.
  • Lymphad – A ‘Birlinn’ comprised a category of small galleys with 12 to 18 oars, they seem in Scottish heraldry because the ‘lymphad’.
  • Lynchet – change in ground-level produced by the earth-moving motion of ploughs.

M Phrases[edit]

A B C D E F G H I J Ok L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


  • Macaroni – additionally ‘Maccaroni’. A modern one that dressed and spoke in an outlandishly affected method; a person who exceeded the strange bounds of style by way of garments, fastidious consuming and playing.
  • Mace – an emblem of energy and authority which developed from the struggle mace.
  • Macer – additionally a ‘Claviger’. A servant at a legislation courtroom, answerable for sustaining order.
  • Machiolation – opening between projecting parapet corbels via which objects had been dropped on invading troopers.
  • Mad – wag – a loopy individual in a jocular sense, from ‘Wag-halter’.
  • Magnanimous – courageously noble in thoughts and coronary heart. Beneficiant in forgiving; eschewing resentment or revenge; unselfish.
  • Magnate – an influential or rich individual, esp. in trade.
  • Maid – a feminine home servant.
  • Maiden – a younger single lady.
  • Maiden – a planted or self-sown tree which has not been coppiced or pollarded.
  • Maiden identify – a lady’s final identify previous to marriage.
  • Maill – tax, lease, tribute or fee as in ‘Black Mail’. A ‘maille’ was a silver coin.
  • Mains – the house farm of an property, domesticate by or for the proprietor.
  • Mairtis – additionally ‘Marts’. Cattle for fattening; cattle destined to be killed at Martinmas and salted for consumption throughout the winter.
  • Main – an individual who has reached authorized age (Authorized).
  • Majordomo – the top (main) individual of a home (domo) employees, one who acts on behalf of the (usually absent) proprietor of a sometimes massive residence. Comparable phrases embrace ‘castellan, chamberlain,’ ‘seneschal’, ‘maître d’, butler’ and ‘steward’. Normally rating above the butler, the majordomo is answerable for all managerial and monetary affairs regarding his employer’s households.
  • Majores – ancestors.
  • Majority – authorized age.
  • Majuscule – the bigger of two kind faces in a script. Within the Roman alphabet they’re A, B, C, D, and so on. They’re additionally known as capitals (caps) or higher case (uppercase).
  • Malmsey – a candy fortified wine initially made in Greece and now produced primarily in Madeira. Additionally known as malvasia, malvoisie.
  • Mana – a supernatural power believed to dwell in an individual or sacred object.
  • Manducation – the act of chewing.
  • Manège – the artwork of coaching and using horses; the actions and paces of a educated horse or a faculty at which equestrianship is taught and horses are educated.
  • Mangonel – a siege engine for catapulting stones weighing as much as 50 or 60 lb. every. The system had a picket arm, pivoted in the midst of a body, with a rope-torsioned mechanism at one finish because the supply of energy.
  • Manilla – a horse-shoe formed bracelet, manufactured from copper or brass, used as a type of cash in West Africa till round 1949.
  • Maniple – a decorative silk band hung as an ecclesiastical vestment on the left arm close to the wrist; a subdivision of an historic Roman legion, containing 60 or 120 males.
  • Manor – an property with land and juridiction over tenants.
  • Manse – the dwelling of the minister, equal to an English ‘vicarage’ (Scots).
  • Mansion – a big and stately dwelling home.
  • Manumission – the act of releasing a slave, completed on the will of the proprietor.
  • Manure – animal dung used for fertilising soil.
  • Maormor – the senior Celtic officer in a big district (Scots).
  • March – an property or property boundary, from the outdated English Mearc a mark.
  • March Tree – a tree which clearly marks a boundary or march; normally coppiced after which pollarded, thereby considerably growing its longevity.
  • Marginalia – handwritten notes within the margins of a web page across the textual content. These would normally cut back the worth of a e book, however not within the case of the well-known or the creator. The time period can also be used to explain drawings and prospers in medieval illuminated manuscripts. True marginalia is to not be confused with reader’s indicators, marks (e.g. stars, crosses, fists) or doodles in books. The formal method of including descriptive notes to a doc is named ‘annotation’.
  • Marian Interval – pertaining to the reign or time of Mary Queen of Scots and her mom, Mary of Guise, second spouse of James V of Scotland. Roughly 1542 to 1568.
  • Marita – a married lady, spouse.
  • Marque, letters of – royal letters authorising those that had been injured by foreigners and been unable to acquire satisfaction, to take reprisals.
  • Maritus – a bridegroom, married man.
  • Marriage bond – a wedding bond is doc obtained by an engaged couple previous to their marriage. It affirmed that there was no ethical or authorized motive why the couple couldn’t be married. As well as, the person affirmed that he would have the ability to help himself and his new bride (authorized).
  • Marriage stone – a stone lintel carved with the initials, coat of arms, and so on. of a newly married couple with the date of the wedding.
  • Marshalling – that is the artwork of appropriately arranging armorial bearings in heraldry. Two or extra coats of arms are sometimes mixed in a single protect to specific inheritance, claims to property, or the occupation of an workplace.
  • Mart – a buying and selling heart; a market; a spot the place items are bought; a retailer or within the archaic sense, a good.
  • Martingale – the strap of a horse’s harness that connects the girth to the noseband and is designed to forestall the horse from throwing again its head. Any of a number of elements of standing rigging strengthening the bowsprit and jib increase towards the power of the top stays. A technique of playing through which one doubles the stakes after every loss. A unfastened half-belt or strap positioned on the again of a garment, similar to a coat or jacket.
  • Marts – cattle for fattening; cattle destined to be killed at Martinmas and salted for consumption throughout the winter.
  • Mash – a combination of grains, peas, and so on. given to horses.
  • Mashlum – blended grains, typically peas or oats, and the bread made out of it.
  • Masonic Lodge – a gathering place for, or previously for Freemasons. Lodge ‘0’ at Kilwinning in Ayrshire is considered the ‘Mom Lodge’.
  • Mast – the fruit of beech, oak, chestnut and different forest-trees, particularly as meals for pigs. The phrase derives from the Outdated English for ‘meat’.
  • Mast Yr – a season through which so many seeds have been produced that they had been in a position to overwhelm the harmful feeding of animals, and so on. Ample seedlings are subsequently produced the next 12 months {that a} era of timber are produced, noticeable within the age construction of the wooden itself.
  • Maternal line – the road of descent traced via the mom’s ancestry.
  • Matrilinear succession – a line of descent from a feminine ancestor to a descendant (of both intercourse) through which the people in all intervening generations are feminine. In a matrilineal descent system (uterine descent), a person is taken into account to belong to the identical descent group as his or her mom. That is in distinction to the extra at present widespread sample of patrilineal descent. Patrilineal descent methods haven’t all the time been so widespread. On this system a son wouldn’t inherit, as a substitute a brother or nephew was extra more likely to. A Pictish princess is alleged to have commented to a Roman aristocrat that her system was finest, for one would all the time know who the mom of a kid was!
  • Matrix – the small, normally copper, block stamped with a single letter which inserts into the typefounder’s mould in preparation for printing.[18] Additionally the latten, gold, ivory, lead or silver stamp from which a ‘seal’ was produced.
  • Matron – an older married lady with kids.
  • Matronym – a element of a reputation based mostly on the identify of 1’s mom. It’s a technique of conveying lineage.
  • Maudlin – is Mary Magdalen.
  • Mavis – the Track-thrush, (Turdus philomelos).
  • Maze – a puzzle within the type of a posh branching passage via which the solver should discover a route.
  • Mazzard – one other time period for Cherry or Gean, archaic.
  • Meadow – grassland grown to be lower for hay.
  • Meal – the edible a part of any grain or pulse floor to a powder.
  • Mear – additionally ‘Mere’ – picket body on which wrongdoers needed to ‘trip’ as a public punishment in Scotland.
  • Medieval – additionally ‘Mediaeval’ – of, or within the syle of the Center Ages.
  • Meditatione fugae – ‘in meditatione fugae’ is a authorized time period in Scots Regulation that refers toa writ issued to forestall a debtor leaving the nation. Robert Burns was issued with one in relation to an affair he had with Margaret ‘Might’ Cameron.
  • Megalith – a big, single upright standing stone (monolith or menhir), of prehistoric European origin.
  • Megalithic yard – a unit of measurement used within the development of megalithic constructions. Found by Professor Thom.
  • Meith – in Scots, a boundary mark or line.
  • Meithed – Scots for the marking out of a boundary of land, as in stobbed, meithed and marched.
  • Melancholy – now known as despair. A phrase from the Greek shaped from becoming a member of the phrases for black and bile. Bile is a bitter fluid that the physique makes use of in digestion. It was often called choler (typically cholera) and was one of many 4 physique fluids (humours) thought to find out an individual’s bodily and psychological qualities. Choler made you indignant. Black bile, often called choler adust is a thick black fluid thought to make one unhappy. The opposite two fluids are blood and phlegm. Phlegm made you lazy or apathetic. Blood made you courageous, hopeful and amorous.
  • Melder – one milling of corn, oats, and so on. (Scots).
  • Menage – a social group dwelling collectively; a family. A type of pleasant saving society.
  • Mendicant – a beggar; dwelling solely on alms. Additionally a member of any of a number of orders of friars that initially forbade possession of property, subsisting totally on alms.
  • Menhir – a big, single upright standing stone (monolith or megalith), of prehistoric European origin.
  • Mensal – pertaining to or used on the desk; in Irish and early Scottish historical past mensal land was set aside for the availability of meals for the desk of the king, prince or such-like. In Scotland and Eire earlier than the Reformation, utilized to a church, benefice, and so on., appropriated to the service of the bishop for the upkeep of his desk.
  • Mensis – month.
  • Menstruum – a solvent, particularly one utilized in extracting compounds from plant and animal tissues and getting ready medicine.
  • Mercantilism – the financial doctrine that claims authorities management of international commerce is of paramount significance for guaranteeing the prosperity and safety of a state. It calls for a constructive steadiness of commerce. In thought and apply it dominated Western Europe from the 16th to the late-18th century. Mercantilism was usually a reason for frequent European wars and it was a motive for colonial growth.
  • Mercat – a market (Scots).
  • Mercer – a supplier in textiles, particularly silks. The etymology is Center English, from Outdated French mercier, dealer, from merz, merchandise, from Latin merx, merc-, merchandise.
  • Merchetum or Mercheta – the shopping for of freedom by a villain or bondsmen from his feudal lord. Additionally the high-quality paid by a sokeman or villain to his feudal lord if his daughter married with out the lord’s permission; fee for the lack of a employee on account of marriage of a daughter.
  • Mere – a small lake, pond, or marsh.
  • Merekin – a daughter or younger lady.
  • Meridies – pertaining to or of the ‘south’.
  • Mering – additionally ‘meryne’,’mearing’,’mearing’,’meering’ – the fixing of boundaries. In north Scotland: a strip of land marking a boundary, a ‘balk’ or ridge of uncultivated land serving as a boundary(Scots).
  • Merino – the Spanish identify for a breed of sheep, and therefore utilized to a woolen cloth.
  • Merk – in Scotland a land worth of two/Three of a Scot’s pound or 13 half of d. Additionally a measure of land that diversified with the standard of the land.
  • Merlon – a strong portion between two crenels in a battlement or crenelated wall.
  • Mesne lord – a lord within the feudal system who had vassals who held land from him, however who was himself the vassal of a better lord. A mesne lord didn’t maintain land immediately of the king.
  • Messuage – a dwelling-house, together with outbuildings, orchard, curtilage or court-yard and backyard. At one time messuage supposedly had a extra in depth that means than that comprised within the phrase home or web site, however such distinction, if it ever existed, now not survives (Authorized). The ‘Capital Messuage’ was the principle messuage of an property, the home through which the proprietor of the property usually lived.
  • Metes – a measurement of distance in toes, rods, poles, chains, and so on.; pertains to measuring path and distance.
  • Meum – mine; that which is mine.
  • Mezzotint – a method of copperplate engraving through which the entire floor of the plate is roughened to print strong black and the design is made by smoothing down once more to supply graded tones.
  • Miasma – from 1665: a noxious vapour that was thought to hold illnesses. The illnesses could be known as (18th century on) malarias.
  • Michaelmas – the Feast of Saint Michael, is a day within the Christian calendar, happening on 29 September. As a result of it falls close to the equinox, it’s related to the start of Autumn and the shortening of days. St. Michael, one of many principal angelic warriors, was seen as a protector towards the darkish of night time. Michaelmas has additionally delineated time and seasons for secular functions as nicely, significantly in the UK and Eire.
  • Midden – a dung heap or refuse heap close to to a dwelling.
  • Mien – dignified method or conduct. An air or bearing particularly as expressive of angle or character.
  • Milestone – a stone or cast-iron distance marker on a turnpike, used within the calculated of the toll cost.
  • Mill-bitch – a bag hung close to the millstones into which a dishonest miller would slip a handful of meal now & then (Scots).
  • Mill-ring – the area between the millstones and the picket body. This area inevitably collected meal and was enlarged by unscrupulous millers to extend the quantity (Scots).
  • Mill-steep – the identify for the lever which was used to carry millstones nearer collectively or additional aside (Scots).
  • Millstone – stones for grinding corn, and so on. The higher stone is the ‘Runner’ and the stationary decrease stone is the Bedstone.
  • Mill-wand – the rounded piece of wooden appearing as an axle with which a number of folks would function a millstone kind the quarry to the mill. The width of some roads had been set at a ‘mill-wand breadth’.]
  • Miln – the archaic type of ‘Mill’, nonetheless in use within the 18th century and located in some place names, i.e. Newmilns. Nonetheless present in use in surnames.
  • Milner – archaic type of ‘Miller’.
  • Minikin – an individual or object that’s delicate, dainty, or diminutive. Utilized by Sir Walter Scott in his Waverley novel ‘Kenilworth’.
  • Minster – the Outdated English, mynster or monastery, derived from Latin ministerium, the “workplace” or “service”, the canonical hours, which had been sung at set hours within the minster. Thus minster initially utilized to the church of a monastery or a chapter: it was an abbot who presided within the minster, relatively than a bishop, as at a cathedral.
  • Misericord – a tip-up picket seat with a ledge beneath to provide a priest some help while standing for lengthy durations of time. Typically carved with fascinating designs and an space of research in their very own proper.
  • Misk – a moist, bogey, low-lying stretch of grassland (Scots).
  • Misprision – neglect or fallacious efficiency of official responsibility; concealment of treason or felony by one who just isn’t a participant within the treason or felony; seditious conduct towards the federal government or the courts (Authorized).
  • Mistal – northern dialect for a cattle stall, synonymous with byre.
  • Moat – see Mote (Scots).
  • Moiety – half, one in all two equal elements.
  • Moldwarp – a mole.
  • Mommet – the Somerset identify for a scarecrow, which is a tool (historically a model) that’s used to discourage birds similar to crows from disturbing crops and feeding on just lately forged seed.
  • Monger – a supplier or dealer, i.e. Fishmonger.
  • Monition – a proper order from a bishop or an ecclesiastical courtroom to chorus from a specified offense.
  • Monolith – a big, single upright standing stone (additionally Menhir or megalith), of prehistoric European origin.
  • Monomachia – A duel; single fight.
  • Moot Hill – a ‘legislation’, ‘knoll’ or ‘knowe’ used as a gathering place for judgements, and so on.
  • Morally faulty – had been individuals who, from an early age, displayed some everlasting psychological defect coupled with sturdy vicious or felony propensities on which punishment had little or no impact.
  • Morganantic – a wedding between a person of exalted rank and a lady of decrease rank through which the spouse and her kids don’t share the rank or inherit the possessions of the husband.
  • Morthouse – a safe constructing into which just lately lifeless individuals had been as soon as positioned for a interval of round six weeks by which level they had been of no use to the bodysnatchers or resurrectionists.
  • Morion – a crested steel helmet with a curved peak in back and front, worn by troopers within the 16th and 17th centuries.
  • Mormaer – designates a regional or provincial ruler within the medieval Kingdom of the Scots. In principle, though not all the time in apply, a Mormaer was second solely to the King of Scots, and the senior of a toisech. The Gaelic time period means ‘Nice Steward.’
  • Morocco – tanned goatskin used for binding books, initially produced in North Africa.[18]
  • Mortmain – the standing of lands or tenements held inalienably by an ecclesiastical or different company (Authorized).
  • Mortsafe – a construction positioned on a grave to forestall the physique being exhumed and stolen.
  • Mortuary sytem – when a person died his finest beast went to the lord of the manor, the second finest to the church.
  • Moscow, Ayrshire – it is a village in Scotland. The identify is regarded as a corruption of ‘Moss-hall’ or ‘Moss-haw’ however its spelling was formalised in 1812 to mark Napoleon’s retreat from Moscow.
  • Moss – equal to morass or lavatory in England, accommodates black or dark-coloured substance shaped by stagnant water from rotting vegetation, typically in a fluid state (Scots).
  • Mote hill – see Moot Hill (Scots).
  • Motte – an earth mound on which a palisade or stone fortress tower was constructed. Normally Norman.
  • Mouler – a ‘rubber’ used to grind grain on a saddle or trough quern.
  • Mounts or ‘Roundels’ – largely round plantations planted to emphasize rising floor.
  • Muinntirs – a preaching station similar to established by St Ninian on his travels via Scotland.
  • Mulct – a high-quality imposed for an offence.
  • Multivallate Hillfort – a hillfort defences shaped by a sequence of banks and ditches.
  • Murmet – the Devonian identify for a scarecrow, which is a tool (historically a model) that’s used to discourage birds similar to crows from disturbing crops and feeding on just lately forged seed.
  • Muir – moist or poorly drained pasture, open moorland or heath (Scots).
  • Mullion – vertical framing member of a gap similar to a window.
  • Multure – pronounced ‘Mooter’. The fee, a set proportion of the tenants grain, paid to the miller by the suckener to grind the corn.
  • Mump – an archaic time period that means to be silent or to beg.
  • Mundungus – a stinking tobacco.
  • Muniments – documentary proof by which one can defend a title to property or a declare to rights (Authorized).
  • Muniment chest – a strongbox used to securely retailer deeds, wedding ceremony certificates and different written gadgets of worth.
  • Assassin – a big artillery piece, similar to Mons Meg. (Scots).
  • Mure – additionally ‘Muir.’ a moist or poorly drained pasture, open moorland or heath (Scots).
  • Murrain – a extremely infectious illness of cattle and sheep. The time period actually means ‘dying’ and was utilized in medieval occasions to characterize simply that. The farmers of that period had no method of figuring out particular illnesses of their livestock so that they put all sicknesses below one heading.
  • Muskeg – a swamp or lavatory shaped by an accumulation of sphagnum moss, leaves, and decayed matter resembling peat.
  • Muslin – any of varied sturdy cotton materials of plain weave, used particularly for sheets.
  • Mutchkin– additionally ‘Muchkine’ – a unit of liquid measure equal to 0.9 U.S. pints (0.42 liters) (Scots).
  • Myrmidon – the Myrmidons had been legendary folks of Greek historical past, courageous and expert warriors commanded by Achilles, recognized for his or her talent in battle and loyalty to their leaders. In pre-industrial Europe the phrase “myrmidon” carried lots of the identical connotations that “minion” does right this moment. Myrmidon later got here to imply ’employed ruffia’, a loyal follower, particularly one who executes orders with out query, protest, or pity – unquestioning followers.’

N Phrases[edit]

A B C D E F G H I J Ok L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


  • Naif – an harmless or inexperienced individual; marked by or exhibiting unaffected simplicity and lack of guile or worldly expertise. Additionally a variation of ‘neyf’, a slave or serf.
  • Narthex – A portico or foyer of an early Christian or Byzantine church or basilica, initially separated from the nave by a railing or display screen; an entrance corridor resulting in the nave of a church. The narthex was the entire width of the church and held the principal entrance.
  • Nativi – serfs who had been ‘native’ to the land on which they had been born; they went with the land; and the land might be given or bought with the ‘males, meadows and pastures.’
  • Natus – born.
  • Nave – the central a part of a church from the west door to the chancel, excluding the aspect aisles.
  • Neat – a cow or different home bovine animal.
  • Necessarium additionally a ‘Rere-dorter’ – constructed above the principle drain in an abbey; a number of rows of pierced seats with partitions for defecation and urination.
  • Necromancy – the prediction of the long run by the supposed communication with the lifeless. A type of witchcraft or black magic.
  • Nee – born, used to indicate a lady’s maiden identify, i.e., Anne Gibson née West.
  • Nemeton – a sacred grove used from time to time for performing ritual animal sacrifices, and different such rituals in Celtic nations. The grove itself could be personified as Nemetona, attested in votive and founding inscriptions. The phrase could also be traced within the Irish Nemed husband of Macha and in naomh (“holy”). Druids, in keeping with Roman writers Pliny or Lucan didn’t meet in stone temples or different constructions, however in sacred groves of timber. The identify is discovered as a component in a number of place-names, e.g. Roman Vernemeton, now Willoughby-on-the-Wolds, Nottinghamshire.
  • Nether – decrease or below.
  • Neuk – a nook or nook. Such because the ‘Cheepy Neuk’ in Perceton, North Ayrshire. This was a trysting place for courting {couples}.
  • Newe – a stair which winds spherical a central newel-post; a vertical help on the heart of a round staircase; a put up that helps a handrail on the backside or on the touchdown of a staircase.
  • Neyf – a slave, serf; unfree peasants below feudalism.
  • Niffer – to change or barter; haggling while bargaining (Scots).
  • Night time-soil – faeces and urine from human sources added to the midden earlier than the event of mechanical bathrooms.
  • Nimbus – a cloudy radiance mentioned to encompass a classical deity when on earth; a radiant mild that seems normally within the type of a circle or halo about or over the top within the illustration of a god, demigod, saint, or sacred individual similar to a king or an emperor; a splendid ambiance or aura, as of glamour, that surrounds an individual or factor.
  • Nip – an interruption or break, particularly in mining, marking the purpose at which a seam of coal tails off as if squeezed between the strata above and beneath it.
  • Nix – nothing.
  • No Canny – not free from threat, unsafe (Scots).
  • Nocturnal – the night-time equal of the sundial. The time was discovered from getting into the place of the celebrities onto the mechanisms dials and scales; the time was then learn off. Generally known as a “horologium nocturnum” (time instrument for night time) or nocturlabe.
  • Nolt – neat cattle.
  • Nonage – the interval throughout which one is legally underage.
  • Nonentres – in Scots feudal legislation, the failure of an inheritor to land to make an entry thereon and to acquire investiture of the feu from the superior; additionally the feudal casualty arising from such failure.
  • Nones – c.1420, in reference to the Roman calendar, “ninth day earlier than the ides of every month” (7 March, Might, July, October, fifth of different months), from the Latin nonæ (acc. nonas), female plural of nonus “ninth.” Additionally in an Ecclesiastical sense of “every day workplace mentioned initially on the ninth hour of the day” is from 1709; initially fastened at ninth hour from dawn, therefore about Three p.m. (now normally considerably earlier), from L. nona (hora) “ninth (hour),” from fem. pl. of nonus “ninth,” contracted from novenos, from novem “9” (see 9). Additionally utilized in a way of “noon”.
  • Notaries – legal professionals formally authorised to attract up sure authorized paperwork, icluding devices of sasine (Authorized).
  • Novodamus – a constitution in Scots legislation containing a clause through which the superior of a property grants it “of recent” due to a defect within the authentic title to the property or as a result of both the vassal or superior wished to get the situations of the unique grant altered.
  • Worthless – of little or no significance; trifling. Having no power; invalid.
  • Numinous – a Latin time period coined by German theologian Rudolf Otto to explain that which is wholly different. The numinous is the mysterium tremendum et fascinans that leads in numerous circumstances to perception in deities, the supernatural, the sacred, the holy, and the transcendent.
  • Nuncupative will – an oral will declared or dictated by the testator in his final illness earlier than a ample variety of witnesses and afterwards put in writing (Authorized).
  • Nuptial – of or referring to marriage or the marriage ceremony; of, referring to, or occurring throughout the mating season.
  • Nuttery – a hazel (Corylus avellana).

O Phrases[edit]

A B C D E F G H I J Ok L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


  • O – used as shorthand for ‘Son’.
  • Obeisance – gesture or motion of the physique, similar to a curtsy, that expresses deference or homage.
  • Obit – an obituary.
  • Oblation – the act of providing one thing, similar to worship or thanks, to a deity; the act of providing the bread and wine of the Eucharist; a charitable providing or reward.
  • Obol – additionally ‘Obolus’. A silver coin or unit of weight equal to at least one sixth of a drachma, previously utilized in historic Greece.
  • Obolary – possessing solely small cash; impoverished.
  • Obsidian – very exhausting volcanic glass used for instruments. It may be dated by measurement of thickness of its hydration layer on floor.
  • Obtemperate – to obey.
  • Obturate – to dam or impede. Obturation usually refers back to the strategy of a bullet or pellet, similar to Minie Ball, made of sentimental materials and infrequently with a concave base, flaring below the strain of firing to seal the bore and have interaction the barrel’s rifling.
  • Obverse – in a e book that is the right-hand web page, additionally known as the ‘recto’.
  • Occidens – pertaining to or of the west.
  • Octavians – the group appointed to manage the funds of King James VI of Scotland.
  • Oculi – ornamental carved or painted patterns that seem to characterize ‘eyes’. The Folkton Drums and Carved Stone Balls present ‘oculi’.
  • Odds bodkins – an oath mmeaning God’s physique. A bodkin is a small software for piecing holes in leather-based and so on. This time period borrows the phrase, not for its that means, however due to the alliteration with physique, to make a euphemistic model of the oath, in any other case it will have been unacceptable to a pious viewers.
  • Oeuvre – a murals or the sum of the lifework of an artist, author, or composer.
  • Ogee – a function exhibiting in part a double steady S-shaped curve. An S-shaped line or moulding.
  • Ogham – additionally Outdated Irish ‘Ogam’ – an Early Medieval alphabet used primarily to characterize Gaelic languages. Ogham is usually known as the “Celtic Tree Alphabet.” The phrase is pronounced [ˈɔɣam] in Outdated Irish and [oːm] or [oːəm] in Trendy Irish.
  • Outdated Melancholy – a nickname for the ‘Outdated Pretender’, James III of England or James VIII of Scotland. The Jacobite Stuart father of Charles or ‘Bonnie Prince Charles’. The flower ‘Melancholy Gentleman’ could also be named after him because it has flowers which resemble a white ‘brockade’.
  • Omnigenous – Consisting of all types.
  • Omphalos – the navel of the world. The religious or precise centre of a rustic, usually marked by a boulder or stone column.
  • Oneiromancy – the artwork of deciphering desires; a type of divination.
  • Onomatology – the research of correct names of all types and the origins of names.
  • Operarii – lay brothers within the Celtic church who carried out guide work.
  • Oral historical past – an oral historical past is a set of household tales instructed by a member of the household or by an in depth household pal. Usually, an oral historical past is transcribed onto paper, or is video or tape recorded. Oral histories can yield a few of the finest details about a household—the sorts of issues that you just will not discover written in information.
  • Ordinance – an authoritative command or order; a customized or apply established by lengthy utilization; a Christian ceremony, particularly the Eucharist; a statute or regulation, particularly one enacted by a metropolis authorities.
  • Oriens – pertaining to or of the ‘east’.
  • Oriflamme – an inspiring commonplace or image.
  • Orison – reverent petition to a deity; prayer.
  • Orthostat – a big stone set upright. ‘Menhirs’ and different standing stones are technically orthostats though the time period is barely utilized by archaeologists to explain particular person prehistoric stones that represent a part of bigger constructions. Frequent examples embrace the partitions of chamber tombs and different megalithic monuments and the vertical components of the trilithons at Stonehenge. Many orthostats had been a spotlight for megalithic artwork.
  • Osaris – osiers, a species of willow.
  • Oscillant – a periodically filling and emptying pool on the base of a wind-rocked tree
  • Ostensible – represented or showing as such; ostensive: His ostensible function was charity, however his actual purpose was recognition.
  • Ostler – or ‘Hostler’ – one who’s employed to have a tendency horses, particularly at an inn.
  • Oubliette – a dungeon with a trapdoor within the ceiling as its solely technique of entrance or exit.
  • Ourlop – the trespass of cattle om the pasture of a neighbour.
  • Outcountry – within the context of Scotland, these areas, such because the Highlands and the Borders, the place the Crown’s management was not absolute.
  • Outfangthief – the best of a lord to pursue a thief exterior the lord’s personal jurisdiction and produce him again inside his jurisdiction to be punished.
  • Outrecuidance – extreme presumption.
  • Out-by – in northern England and Scotland the fields distant from the farmhouse which had been hardly ever manured.
  • Outsucken – a mill which grinds corn from exterior its thirl or sucken (Scots).
  • Overmantel – normally a extremely decoratively carved ornamentation surmounting a fire in outdated buildings. Stokesay Fort in Salop, England has a high-quality oak instance courting from a minimum of 1648.[35]
  • Oversman – an overseer; a superintent; an umpire; a 3rd arbiter, appointed when two arbiters, beforehand chosen, disagree (Scots).
  • Overshot – a water wheel which is turned by the load of water falling on it. It’s a minimum of two and a half occasions as environment friendly as an undershot. It turns clockwise.
  • Owl-hole – an entrance, sq. or spherical, excessive up on a wall designed to permit owls to enter and catch rats and mice.
  • Oxgate – a measure of land also called a ‘bovate’. It was 1/Eight of a ‘ploughgate'(or as a lot land as one ox may plough in a 12 months). An oxgate diversified in acreage from Eight to 18 acres, relying on how arable the land was.
  • Oxter – armpit.

P Phrases[edit]

A B C D E F G H I J Ok L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


  • p-Celtic – the Brythonic (from Brython ‘Briton’) department of the celtic languages, which changed the q sound with a p sound. These are represented by Welsh, Cornish, and Breton. Irish, Manx and Scottish Gaelic retained the Goidelic q sound.
  • Pabulum – meals or fodder, significantly that taken in by crops or animals.
  • Packhorse – an animal used for carrying heavy roads, normally over tough terrain or on poorly surfaced roads.
  • Paction – an settlement; a compact; a discount.
  • Pad – dialect time period for a path, lane or street.
  • Paddles – the boards hooked up to a water wheel.
  • Paddy – stool – a toad-stool (Scots).
  • Pad-stone – flat stone appearing as a plinth, normally for a single timber put up.
  • Painted pebbles – a category of Pictish artifact distinctive to northern Scotland within the first millennium AD. The operate of those pebbles is unknown, nonetheless they’re most definitely to be linked to a operate in pagan magic, similar to therapeutic sick animals, and so on.
  • Palace – additionally ‘Place’ – a big dwelling with a central courtyard. Akin to Kilmaurs Place, East Ayrshire, Scotland.[36]
  • Pale – skinny planks of wooden from which a fence is made, normally surrounding a looking protect.
  • Paleography – the research of handwriting.
  • Palfrey – a saddle horse, particularly one for a girl to trip.
  • Palimpset – an editorial materials or manuscript on which the unique writing has been effaced to make room for different writing. It additionally refers to different scenario the place this precept holds, similar to ‘Rig & furrow’ nonetheless being seen regardless of later ploughing, afforestation, and so on.
  • Palinode – a poem through which the creator retracts one thing mentioned in a earlier poem; a proper assertion of retraction.
  • Palladium – a safeguard, particularly one considered as a assure of the integrity of social establishments: the Invoice of Rights, palladium of American civil liberties. A sacred object that was believed to have the ability to protect a metropolis or state possessing it. The Stone of Scone is considered a palladium by the Scots.
  • Palmer – a medieval European pilgrim who carried a palm department as a token of getting visited the Holy Land.
  • Palsy – utilized in 1611 Bible. A whole or partial muscle paralysis, usually accompanied by lack of sensation and uncontrollable physique actions or tremors.
  • Panache – initially a bunch of feathers or a plume, particularly on a helmet.
  • Pancarta – a e book containing charters or the official answerable for such a e book. See additionally chartulary or cartulary.
  • Panegyric – a proper eulogistic composition meant as a public praise or elaborate reward or laudation; an encomium.
  • Pannage – the fee made in return for permitting pigs to forage in woodland for acorns or beech mast.
  • Pannel – a sort of rustic saddle; in falconry, the abdomen of a hawk; militarily the carriage for transporting a mortar and its mattress, on a march; in Scots legislation an individual who has been indicted for a criminal offense.
  • Pannier – a big wicker basket, particularly one in all a pair of such baskets carried on the shoulders of an individual or on both aspect of a pack animal.
  • Panwood – poorer high quality coal, usually discovered close to the floor and utilized in early salt panning, and so on. (Scots)
  • Papingo – in widespread with most European nations one kind of goal apply was to tie a stay chook to a pole and permit the contestants to shoot at it. The identify given to this goal was the ‘popinjay’ or ‘papingo’. At a later date the stay chook was changed with a picket chook with removable wings. This sport continues in Kilwinning, Ayrshire, Scotland. The Annual Papingo Shoot is held within the grounds of the outdated Abbey on the afternoon of the primary Saturday in June when the picket chook is mounted on a pole suspended from the Abbey Tower. The non-public identify ‘Pobjoy’ derives from the game.
  • Paraclete – the Holy Spirit, thought of as comforter, intercessor, or advocate.
  • Paranomasia or ‘Pun’ – a determine of speech which consists of a deliberate confusion of comparable phrases or phrases for rhetorical impact, whether or not humorous or critical.
  • Parchment – a skinny materials made out of calfskin, sheepskin or goatskin. Its most typical use is because the pages of a e book, codex or manuscript. It’s distinct from leather-based in that parchment just isn’t tanned, however stretched, scraped, and dried below pressure, making a stiff white, yellowish or translucent animal pores and skin. The finer qualities of parchment are known as vellum. It is vitally reactive with adjustments in relative humidity and isn’t waterproof.
  • Parclose display screen – in Christian centres of worship these enclose a aspect chapel.
  • Pardoner– additionally a ‘Questor’. A friar or monk in Medieval days, ‘licensed’ by the Pope to promote indulgences which might free the purchaser of sins dedicated. This technique was enormously abused.
  • Parge – the plaster utilized to cottage partitions, and so on.
  • Pargeting – an ornamental plastering utilized to constructing partitions.
  • Parish – the ecclesiastical division or jurisdiction; the location of a church. The Civil parishes class additionally existed in England and Wales.
  • Park – an space of land, usually pasture with specimen timber, surrounding a mansion or nation home with a wall or fence boundary.
  • Parvenu – an individual who has instantly risen to the next social and financial class and has not but gained social acceptance by others in that class.
  • Parlance – a selected method of talking; idiom: authorized parlance.
  • Parliamentary Enclosure or ‘inclosure’ (the latter is utilized in authorized paperwork and place names) is the time period utilized in England and Wales for the method by which arable farming in open area methods was ended. It’s also utilized to the method by which some commons (a chunk of land owned by one individual, however over which different folks may train sure conventional rights, similar to permitting their livestock to graze upon it), had been fenced (enclosed) and deeded or entitled to a number of personal homeowners, who would then benefit from the possession and fruits of the land to the exclusion of all others.
  • Parlour – additionally ‘Parlor’ – a room in a non-public dwelling set aside for the leisure of tourists; a small lounge or sitting room affording restricted privateness, as at an inn or tavern.
  • Paroxysm – medical Latin from Greek roots. Initially, in late Center English, a extreme episode of a illness. By the 17th century additionally used for a match, a convulsion or an lively outburst of emotion or exercise.
  • Parricide – the murdering of 1’s father, mom, or different close to relative. Somebody who commits such a homicide.
  • Parterre – a degree area in a backyard occupied by flower-beds organized formally. An instance could be that to discovered at Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh, Scotland.
  • Partigeniture – the alternative from ‘Primogeniture’. All property and wealth had been equally divided on this system amongst the official offspring.
  • Parure – a set of matched jewellery or different ornaments.
  • Parvis – an enclosed courtyard or area on the entrance to a constructing, particularly a cathedral, that’s typically surrounded by porticoes or colonnades; one of many porticoes or colonnades surrounding such an area.
  • Paschal – of or referring to Easter.
  • Pasquinade – a satire or lampoon, particularly one which ridicules a particular individual, historically written and posted in a public place.
  • Pastoral – relating or related to shepherds and their flocks or herds.
  • Pasture – grassland grown for grazing by inventory.
  • Patchwork – a type of needlework or craft that entails stitching collectively small items of cloth and stitching them collectively into a bigger design, which is then normally quilted, or else tied along with items of yarn at common intervals, a apply often called tying. Patchwork is historically ‘pieced’ by hand, however trendy quiltmakers usually use a stitching machine as a substitute.
  • Patera – plural paterae. A saucerlike vessel of earthenware or steel, utilized in libations and sacrifices; in arcatecture, a round decoration, resembling a dish, usually labored in aid on friezes, and the like.
  • Paternal line – the road of descent traced via the daddy’s ancestry.
  • Patlander – slang for an Irish individual.
  • Patmos – an island within the Dodecanese Islands of the Aegean Sea. Saint John was exiled to the island c. a.d. 95 and in keeping with custom wrote the E book of Revelation right here. The time period is enerally used within the sense of a spot of secure exile.
  • Patrician – somebody who’s noble or aristocratic.
  • Patrilinear succession – (a.okay.a. agnatic kinship) is a system through which one belongs to at least one’s father’s lineage; it typically entails the inheritance of property, names or titles via the male line as nicely. A patriline is a line of descent from a male ancestor to a descendant (of both intercourse) through which the people in all intervening generations are male. In a patrilineal descent system, a person is taken into account to belong to the identical descent group as his or her father. That is in distinction to the much less widespread sample of matrilineal descent as practised by the Picts.
  • Patrimony – an inheritance from a father or different ancestor; an endowment or property belonging to an establishment, particularly a church
  • Patriot – one who loves, helps, and defends one’s nation. The Patriot – Andrew Fletcher, a terrific defender of Scotland’s independence.
  • Patronage – the system by which appointments to necessary public posts had been made by patrons who had been un-elected and subsequently didn’t characterize the democratic needs of the inhabitants. The appointment of kirk ministers by aristrocratic patrons in Scotland is an instance in level. Appointments to the Scottish Mint had been primarily via patronage within the 19th-century.[37]
  • Patronymics – the apply of making final names from the identify of 1’s father. For instance, Robert, John’s son, would turn into Robert Johnson. Robert Johnson’s son Neil would turn into Neil Robertson.
  • Pauldron – typically spelled pouldron or powldron, is a element of plate armour overlaying the armpit, and typically elements of the again and chest.
  • Pauper – (from Latin for poor) within the sense of a poor individual or somebody depending on charity. Later, narrower that means of somebody receiving poor legislation aid.
  • Pax intrantibusPeace to those that enter.
  • Pease – peas.
  • Peck – the measure of capability for dry items. In Scotland, a fourth a part of a ‘Firlot’ and amounting to 4 ‘Lippies’ or ‘Forpits’, and three ‘Grudgies’ (Scots).
  • Peculate– to embezzle funds or participate in embezzlement.
  • Peculium – in Roman Regulation, the saving of a son or a slave with the daddy’s or grasp’s consent; just a little property or inventory of 1’s personal; any unique private or separate property. A particular fund for personal and private makes use of. A slight peculium solely subtracted to produce his snuff field and tobacco pouch. – Sir W. Scott.
  • Pecuniary – of or referring to cash: a pecuniary loss; pecuniary motives. Requiring fee of cash.
  • Pedigree – an individual’s ancestry, lineage, household tree.
  • Pediment – a large, low-pitched gable surmounting the façade of a constructing within the Grecian type; a triangular aspect, much like or by-product of a Grecian pediment, used broadly in structure and ornament.
  • Peels – these had been the homes of the lesser gentry, value lower than £100.
  • Pelehouse – see ‘Bastle’.
  • Pend – a vaulted roof with out groining.
  • Pendicle – one thing depending on one other, similar to loans taken out towards property (Authorized).
  • Pennon – these are flags that had been initially borne on the finish of a lance.
  • Pentise – single-pitched roof hooked up to the aspect of a wall.
  • Peppercorn lease – a really low or nominal lease.
  • Per infortunium – a killing, per infortunium, or by misadventure, happens when an individual in doing a lawful act, with none intent to hurt, sadly kills one other.
  • Perambulation – a authorized doc defining a chunk of land by describing its boundaries.
  • Periegesis – an outline of an space, territory.
  • Peristalth – in archaeology, a ‘kerb’ or peristalith is the identify for a stone ring constructed to surround and typically revet the cairn or barrow constructed over a chamber tomb.
  • Perpetual Vicar – a secular priest set in a dwelling and paid a small wage to serve an area altar and granted safety of tenure. Solely a deputy to the vicar.
  • Perron– an out-of-door flight of steps, as in a backyard, resulting in a terrace or to an higher story; normally utilized to mediævel or later constructions of some architectural pretensions.
  • Petard – a small bell-shaped bomb used to breach a gate or wall.
  • Petroglyph – picture created by eradicating a part of a rock surfaces by incising, pecking, carving, and abrading.
  • Petrosomatoglyph – a ‘petroglyph’ representing a part of a human or an animal’s physique, similar to eyes, toes, palms, and so on.
  • Petrosphere – any of the courses of round stone balls of wholly or partly man-made origin, similar to ‘Carved Stone Balls’, ‘Painted Pebbles’, and so on.
  • Pettifogger – a petty, quibbling, unscrupulous lawyer; somebody who quibbles over trivia.
  • Pew – a bench in a church and so on. for the congregation who had been initially segregated by gender. These had been usually rented out to rich parishioners.
  • Photogravure – a way of reproducing paintings or pictures from a photographically produced intaglio plate.
  • Piano nobile – the principal or ‘noble ground’ of an aristocratic proprietor in a fortress, nation home chateau, and so on. The ground the place the most effective rooms could be and the place friends could be entertained.
  • Pickthank – one who strives to place one other below obligation; an officious individual; a flatterer.
  • Pict’s Home – additionally ‘fogou’ in Kernow / Cornwall, ‘Earth home’ or ‘Souterrain’, primarily within the east of Scotland.
  • Pig – initially a child ‘pig’, the grownup being known as a ‘Swine’.
  • Pight – pitched; fastened; decided.
  • Pignorat – Given or taken in pledge; pawned (Scots).
  • Pikeman – a miller’s assistant (Scots).
  • Pillory – a tool manufactured from a picket or steel framework erected on a put up, with holes for securing the top and palms, previously used for punishment by public humiliation and infrequently additional bodily abuse, typically deadly; associated to the shares.
  • Pinery – one other identify for a pineapple rising pit.
  • Pinnacle – a decorative pointed cap to a buttress, and so on. Present in church buildings.
  • Pinsel – a triangular heraldic flag, 4 ft 6in X 2 ft, on which is embroidered or painted the crest-badge in its belt and buckle, with motto of a clan, and so on.
  • Pipe rolls – a sequence of economic information from England, starting in 1130 and lasting, largely full, till 1833. They had been utilized by the Exchequer (treasury) and recorded things like audits of kings’ incomes and bills. They’re named after the “pipe” form shaped by a rolled up piece of parchment on which information had been initially saved. The Exchequer and Pipe Rolls had been a terrific innovation in authorities; nothing else prefer it existed in Europe. Pipe Rolls present invaluable information for historians for all the pieces from the composition of a looking get together, the contents of a king’s kitchen to the monitoring of historic figures.
  • Pique – arouse anger or resentment in or to excite or arouse particularly by a provocation, problem, or rebuff.
  • Piquet – a card recreation for 2 folks, performed with a deck from which all playing cards beneath the seven, aces being excessive, are omitted. A lot performed in Sir Walter Scott’s ‘St. Ronan’s nicely’ novel.
  • Pis aller – the ultimate recourse or expedient; the final resort.
  • Piscina – a stone drain in monasteries, abbeys, and so on., used to wash the chalice after mass or for disposal of baptismal water.
  • Pit – a jail cell.
  • Pit & Gallows – the feudal proper of a baron or vassal of the monarch to hold out executions following judgment. The ‘pit’ aspect refers back to the proper of the baron or laird to arrest and detain a person in a ‘pit’ or jail cell.[38]
  • Pitch-hole – a window-like opening in barns, lined by picket shutters, used for pitching in corn or hay from a cart standing exterior. They might additionally give air flow and lightweight if the barn was not full. After 1825 round pitch-holes turned widespread.
  • Pixie or ‘Pisky’ as they’re usually recognized in Cornwall, are legendary creatures of folklore, thought of to be significantly concentrated within the areas round Devon and Cornwall, suggesting some Celtic origin for the assumption and identify. They’re normally depicted as wingless, with pointed ears, and infrequently carrying a inexperienced outfit and pointed hat. Generally their eyes are described as being pointed upwards on the temple ends.
  • Place – see ‘Palace’.
  • Plain an Gwarry – Cornish for a taking part in place. These websites had been open air efficiency areas used for traditionally for leisure and instruction.
  • Plain coat – in heraldry the coat of arms utilized by the oldest surviving member of a armigerous household, subsequently ineffected by brisures.
  • Plaistow – an open area used for leisure, akin to the village inexperienced. Anglo-Saxon in origin, it has given rise to position names.
  • Plantiecrui – additionally ‘Planticrub’, ‘Plantiecote’, or ‘Plantiecruive.’ In Shetland, a small drystone enclosure inside which younger crops similar to cabbage are planted in an setting shielded from the winter and the wind.
  • Plashing – hedge laying.
  • Pleach – to coach timber right into a raised hedge or to kind a quincunx.
  • Pleas of the Crown – these previously signified offences of a better magnitude than mere misdemeanors. The latter had been left to be tried within the courts of the barons, whereas the better offences, or royal causes, had been to be tried within the king’s courts.
  • Pleasance – a secluded backyard or landscaped space.
  • Plenipotentiary – from the Latin, plenus + potens, full + energy; it refers to an individual who has “full powers”. Particularly, the time period generally refers to a diplomat who’s totally authorised to characterize their authorities as a prerogative (e.g. ambassador).
  • Plenish – to furnish & match out.
  • Ploughbote – the best to gather wooden for plough making in medieval occasions.
  • Ploughgate – as a lot land as one ox may plough in a 12 months.
  • Poetaster – a author of insignificant, meretricious, or shoddy poetry.
  • Poind – seize, impound or distrain.
  • Poke – a bag or sack.
  • Poleyn – a chunk of armour for safeguarding the knee.
  • Insurance policies – the property lands of a rustic home, normally implying the improved or cultivated lands within the speedy neighbourhood. From the Latin phrase ‘politus’ that means embellished. Planting intentionally put in for its visible impact.
  • Polity – a state or one in all its subordinate civil authorities, similar to a province, prefecture, county, municipality, metropolis, or district.
  • Pollard – a woodland administration methodology of encouraging lateral branches by slicing off a tree stem or minor branches two metres or so above floor degree.
  • Pont, Timothy – a cartographer who surveyed and mapped a lot of Scotland within the late 16th and early 17th centuries.
  • Pontage – the best of charging a toll on a bridge; the grantee, or individual to whom the tax was granted, certain themselves to in retirn to make all the mandatory repairs.
  • Popinjay – in widespread with most European nations one kind of goal apply was to tie a stay chook to a pole and permit the contestants to shoot at it. The identify given to this goal was the ‘popinjay’ or ‘papingo’. At a later date the stay chook was changed with a picket chook with removable wings. This sport continues in Kilwinning, Ayrshire, Scotland. The Annual Papingo Shoot is held within the grounds of the outdated Abbey on the afternoon of the primary Saturday in June when the picket chook is mounted on a pole suspended from the Abbey Tower. The non-public identify ‘Pobjoy’ derives from the game.
  • Portal stones – a pair of Megalithic orthostats, normally flanking the doorway to a chamber tomb. They’re generally present in ‘dolmens’.
  • Portico – a porch supported by columns. Discovered in lots of public buildings and typified by the acroplolis in Greece.
  • Portitorium – see ‘Breviary.’
  • Portcullis – a grille or gate manufactured from wooden, steel or a mixture of the 2. Portcullises fortified the entrances to many medieval castles, appearing as a final line of defence throughout time of assault or siege. Every portcullis was mounted in vertical grooves in fortress partitions and might be raised or lowered rapidly by way of chains or ropes hooked up to an inside winch.
  • Portress – a lady doorkeeper or porter, particularly in a convent.
  • Posse comitatus – concerning authority to conscript for legislation enforcement.
  • Posset – a spiced drink of sizzling sweetened milk curdled with wine or ale.
  • Publish-chaise – a fast-traveling carriage of the 18th and early 19th centuries. It was enclosed and four-wheeled for 2 or 4 horses and with the driving force using postillion.
  • Publish mill – a kind of windmill the place the entire field physique is mounted a couple of central pivot put up.
  • Posthumous – a baby born after the dying of the daddy.
  • Postillion – the rider on the close to (left-hand aspect) horse drawing a coach and so on. when there is no such thing as a coachman.
  • Postnati – used within the context of Scotsmen born after the accession of James VI / I having twin nationality as a part of the combination of England and Scotland.[39]
  • Postprandial – after lunch or dinner.
  • Postulant – a candidate, particularly for admission into holy orders.
  • Potence – system which permits a ladder to pivot across the within a Dovecot so that every one the nest holes may be reached.
  • Poudrette – a manure made out of night time soil, dried and blended with charcoal, gypsum, and so on.
  • Pounce – a high-quality powder previously used to easy and end writing paper and absorb ink.
  • Pound – an enclosure for impounding stray or trespassing animals. Typically constructed by the native parish, a high-quality was required of the proprietor to get better the animals.
  • Energy of lawyer – a written instrument the place on individuals, as principal, appoints somebody as his or her agent, thereby authorizing that individual to carry out sure acts on behalf of the principal, similar to shopping for or promoting property, settling an property, representing them in courtroom, and so on. (Authorized).
  • Powrie – also called a ‘Redcap’ or ‘Dunter’, is a kind of malevolent murderous goblin, elf or fairy present in British folklore. They inhabit ruined castles discovered alongside the border between England and Scotland. Redcaps are mentioned to homicide vacationers who stray into their properties and dye their hats with their victims’ blood (from which they get their identify (Scots).
  • Pox – additionally ‘pock / pocks’ which turned pox: eruptions on the pores and skin filled with pus and likewise sure illnesses that produce these, significantly smallpox. The pox (16th century on) is syphilis, usually distinguished as the good pox, or French pox. Later, chickenpox and cowpox. Smallpox is attributable to a virus: syphilis by a bacterium.
  • Prebend – a stipend drawn from the endowment or revenues of an Anglican cathedral or church by a presiding member of the clergy; a cathedral or church benefice; the property or tithe offering the endowment for such a stipend.
  • Prebendary – a member of the Anglican clergy who receives a prebend; an Anglican cleric holding the honorary title of prebend and not using a stipend.
  • Precentor – an individual who helps facilitate worship. The main points differ relying on the faith, denomination, and period. The Latin derivation is from cantor, that means “the one who sings earlier than” or first.
  • Principle – a type of mandate, thus named as a result of the textual content all the time commenced with the Latin phrases, Praeceipimus tibi, that means We direct you; a rule or precept prescribing a selected plan of action or conduct; a licensed path or order; a writ.
  • Preclair – shining, lustrous, famend, magnificent, splendid within the panorama.
  • Precognition – a written report of the proof of witnesses to an alleged crime, upon which a choice to prosecute is made and used within the preparation of the case if it goes to trial.
  • Prelate – a member of the clergy who both has strange jurisdiction over a bunch of individuals or ranks in priority with ordinaries. A high-ranking member of the clergy, particularly a bishop.
  • Prepositi / Prepositus – brokers of the Crown, similar to sheriffs or bailies, answerable for amassing revenues as a result of Crown.
  • Presbyterianism – a church ruled by elders who’re the entire identical rank, subsequently with out Bishops, Deans and different such posts (Scots).
  • Presentment – the act of presenting or laying earlier than a courtroom or individual in authority a proper assertion of some matter to be legally handled. An announcement on oath by a jury of a truth inside their very own information.
  • Press-gang – a physique of males employed to press males into service in both the military or the navy.
  • Prima facie – a Latin time period that means ‘at first sight’. In trendy authorized English it implies that on first examination, a matter seems to be self-evident from the details. In widespread legislation jurisdictions, prima facie denotes proof which – except rebutted – could be ample to show a selected proposition or truth.
  • Main supply – information that had been created on the time of an occasion. For instance, a major supply for a start date could be a start certificates. Whereas you’ll find start dates on different paperwork, similar to marriage certificates, they might not be major sources for the start date, as a result of they weren’t created on the time of the start.
  • Primogeniture – insures the best of the eldest son to inherit your complete property of his mother and father, to the exclusion of youthful sons (Authorized).
  • Printer’s satan – an individual employed in a printing works to hold out menial duties.
  • Prithee – from the phrase (I) pray thee.
  • Privy Council – a council of the British sovereign that till the 17th century was the supreme legislative physique, that now consists of cupboard ministers ex officio and others appointed for all times, and that has no necessary operate besides via its Judicial Committee, which in sure circumstances acts as a supreme appellate courtroom within the Commonwealth.
  • Professional indivisio – authorized expresssion that means ‘For an undivided half’. The possession or occupation of lands or tenements belonging to 2 or extra individuals, and consequently neither is aware of his a number of portion until divided.
  • Proavus – a great-grandfather.
  • Probate – the authorized course of by which the property of a deceased intestate particular person is dispersed.
  • Proceres – prelates, chiefs, or magnates.
  • Proctor – an English variant of the phrase procurator, is an individual who takes cost or acts for one more. The phrase proctor is often used to explain somebody who oversees an examination or dormitory. Within the church a proctor represents the clergy in Church of England dioceses. In schooling a Proctor is the identify of necessary college officers in sure universities, for instance on the universities of Oxford and Cambridge.
  • Progeniture – a direct ancestor.
  • Proletariat – a time period used to establish a decrease social class; a member of such a category is proletarian; from Latin proles, “offspring.” Initially it was recognized as these individuals who had no wealth aside from their sons.
  • Prolocutor – one who speaks for one more; spokesman; presiding officer ; chairman.
  • Propinquity – Proximity; nearness; Kinship or similarity in nature.
  • Propitiate – to conciliate an offended energy, similar to a god.
  • Propone – to suggest; to carry ahead.
  • Prorogation – the interval between two classes of a legislative physique. When a legislature or parliament is prorogued, it’s nonetheless constituted (that’s, all members stay as members and a basic election just isn’t needed), however all orders of the physique (payments, motions, and so on.) are expunged.
  • Proselyte – a brand new convert to a doctrine or faith.
  • Protocol – a e book of clean paper given to a newly certified notary public into which an actual copy of each instrument was made.
  • Psychosisa extreme psychological… dysfunction involving a lack of contact with actuality, often with hallucinations, delusions, or altered thought processes, with or and not using a recognized natural origin.
  • Puck – a mischievous pre-Christian nature spirit and trickster, reborn in Outdated English puca (Christianized as “satan”) as a sort of half-tamed woodland sprite, main people astray with echoes and lights (‘Jack o’lanterns’ or ‘Fox fires’) in night-time woodlands, or coming into the farmstead and souring milk within the churn.
  • Pudding – The rule of kitchen financial system is to not waste. (The phrase comes initially from a phrase for bowel). Once you kill an animal you’ll use all of it. The abdomen and gut make helpful skins to comprise the suet (fats), blood, and so on. for boiling. This makes pudding. Black pudding is a sausage-shaped pudding made with blood and suet. Suet pudding doesn’t want a pores and skin: You combine the suet with flour. By the nineteenth century a pudding might be normally one thing made by mixing with flour and cooking: suet pudding and plum pudding being well-known.
  • Puddling – a course of of constructing iron utilizing coke as gas. Henry Cort of Fareham in Hampshire first devised the strategy.
  • Puddock – in Scots, a toad.
  • Puerperal – referring to, related with, or occurring throughout childbirth or the interval instantly following childbirth.
  • Puissance – energy; may.
  • Puisne – a mainly British time period that means decrease in rank or junior, particularly an affiliate choose.
  • Puissant – archaic. Poetically highly effective, mighty.
  • Pulse – the edible seeds of the assorted leguminous seeds, similar to peas, beans, lentils, and so on.
  • Punctilio – a high-quality level of etiquette. Exact observance of formalities.
  • Pundlar – one who assesses damages completed by straying inventory.
  • Purblind – missing in perception or discernment; completely blind.
  • Purlieu – a chunk of land on the sting of a forest; an outlying or neighboring space; the environs; a spot that one frequents.
  • Purpresture – the wrongful enclosure of or intrusion upon lands, waters, or different property rightfully belonging to the general public at massive.
  • Pursuivant – an assistant ‘herald’ to the ‘Lord Lyon King of Arms’ in Scotland. They’re often called Dingwall, Kintyre, and Unicorn. Extra appropriately a pursuivant of arms, most pursuivants are hooked up to official heraldic authorities, such because the Faculty of Arms in London or the Court docket of the Lord Lyon in Edinburgh. Within the mediaeval period, many nice nobles employed their very own officers of arms. In Scotland a number of pursuivants of arms have been appointed by Clan Chiefs. These pursuivants of arms take care of issues of heraldic and genealogical significance for clan members.
  • Purveyor – an individual who purveys, gives, or provides: a purveyor of meals; an officer who supplied or acquired provisions for the sovereign below the prerogative of purveyance.
  • Putlog – small holes to obtain the ends of logs or squared picket beams within the partitions of buildings, similar to castles and church buildings, particularly within the Center Ages.

Q Phrases[edit]

A B C D E F G H I J Ok L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


  • q-Celtic or ‘Goidelic’ (from Goidel ‘Gael’) – Celtic languages which retained the unique Indo-European q sound, represented by Scottish Gaelic, Manx and Irish. See ‘p-celtic’.

Indo-european to irish flow-chart.png

  • Qu- – usually discovered rather than a ‘w’ or absent from the fashionable spelling. For instance ‘Umquihile’ was pronounced ‘Umwhile.’ Quha is ‘who’, and quilk is ‘which’, and quhill (whereas) is ’till’.
  • Quadrate – in heraldry, a tool inside a coat of arms is described as quadrate when it has a sq. central boss.
  • Quaker – that means one who quakes (shakes or trembles) was utilized to folks (quakers) who shook (had matches) below the affect of the spirit of God in and round them. George Fox says it was first used (October 1650) as a result of he instructed a Justice to tremble. The time period arose at a time when many anticipated nice quakes within the political and bodily universe as God re-established his kingdom on Earth. The Quakers turned the casual identify for the non secular organisation that developed out of the motion.
  • Quarrel – a stone-quarry. ‘Coral’ as in ‘Coral Glen’ in Maybole, Ayrshire, Scotland is an instance (Scots).
  • Quarter – a district of a city; normally the place a selected minority stay or a selected commerce is carried out.
  • Quarter days – the 4 dates in annually on which servants had been employed, and rents and charges had been due in English, Welsh and Irish custom. The Quarter Days fell on 4 non secular festivals roughly three months aside and near the 2 solstices and two equinoxes. See ‘Time period days’ for the Scottish custom.
  • Quartermaster – a time period normally referring to a navy particular person, or unit, who makes a speciality of supplying and provisioning troops, however It might additionally confer with a helmsman at sea.
  • Quarter seal – the highest half of the Nice Seal, as used to authenticate royal charters. The quarter seal was used for extra routine royal administrative paperwork.
  • Quarto – a bibliographical time period for a e book with 4 leaves in every quire; eight pages.
  • Quatrefoil – in structure and conventional Christian symbolism it is a symmetrical form which varieties the general define of 4 partially – overlapping circles of the identical diameter.
  • Queen regnant – (plural “queens regnant”) a feminine monarch who reigns in her personal proper, in distinction to a “queen consort”, who’s the spouse of a reigning king.
  • Quern – a hand-powered system like two small millstones used to grind cereals for consumption by people or inventory animals. Typically discovered damaged on account of thirlage legal guidelines prohibiting their use.
  • Questor – additionally ‘Pardoner’. A friar or monk in Medieval days, ‘licensed’ by the Pope to promote indulgences which might free the purchaser of sins dedicated.
  • Quey – the Scots time period for a heifer till she had birthed a calf (Scots).
  • Quicken – a rowan tree (Sorbus aucuparia).
  • Quicquid – the time period has many meanings, primarily: whoever, no matter, in any respect, something in any respect.
  • Quidam – anyone; unknown individual.
  • Quidity – quintessence; equivocation; triviality.
  • Quidnunc – gossiper; inquisitive individual.
  • Quillon – on a sword or some knives, the crossguard is also called the quillon; it’s a bar of steel at proper angles to the blade, positioned between the blade and the hilt. The quillon stops the wielder from punching shields whereas swinging the weapon, thereby defending the consumer’s hand. It additionally prevents different blades from sliding down onto the hand of the weapon wielder throughout fight.
  • Quincunx – a geometrical sample consisting of 5 factors, 4 of them forming a sq. or rectangle and a fifth at its centre.
  • Quintain – a tun stuffed with water, which, if the blow from a mounted horseman was a poor one, was emptied over the striker, while a later kind was a put up with a cross-piece, from which was suspended a hoop, which the horseman endeavoured to pierce along with his lance whereas at full pace.
  • Quinzaine – the fifteenth day after a feast day, together with each within the reckoning, such because the Quinzaine of Michaelmas.
  • Quire – the group of leaves that are folded collectively earlier than a e book is certain. Additionally known as the ‘part’, ‘gathering’ or ‘signature’.
  • Quitclaim – a authorized course of by which a feudal superior renounces sure rights or companies beforehand due from his vassal.
  • Quisquis – the time period has many meanings, primarily: whoever, no matter, in any respect, something in any respect.
  • Stop lease – a type of tax or land tax imposed on freehold or leased land by the next landowning authority. Below feudal legislation, the fee of stop lease freed the tenant of a holding from the duty to carry out such different companies as had been compulsory below feudal tenure.
  • Quodlibet – a theological or philosophical subject offered for formal argument or disputation; a proper disputation of such a difficulty.
  • Quod vide – or ‘QV’ – directs the reader to look in one other a part of the e book for additional info.
  • Quoit – also called ‘Cromlechs’ or ‘Dolmen’, are a kind of single-chamber megalithic tomb, normally consisting of three or extra upright stones (megaliths) supporting a big flat horizontal capstone. Principally courting from the early Neolithic interval in Britain (4000 BC to 3000 BC). They had been normally lined with earth or smaller stones to kind a barrow, although generally that overlaying has weathered away or eliminated for drystone dyking, and so on.
  • Quondam – that after was; former. Robert Burns refers back to the Quondam Mrs. Oswald of Auchencruive.
  • Quot – the 20 th a part of the moveable property of a deceased individual, which was initially the due of the bishop in whose diocese he had resided; it continued to be paid after the Reformation, however to the commissaries.

R Phrases[edit]

A B C D E F G H I J Ok L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


  • Rabbit – initially the identify for a child rabbit. A Coney was the identify for an grownup.
  • Rack lease – an extortionate lease.
  • Ragman Rolls – the identify given to the gathering of devices by which the the Aristocracy and gentry of Scotland had been compelled to subscribe allegiance to King Edward I of England between the Convention of Norham in Might 1291 and the ultimate award in favor of Baliol in November 1292 and once more in 1296.
  • Rag paper – paper made out of a pulp of mashed rags.
  • Rannsaich – the ability of an official to seek for and arrest accused malefactors (Scots).
  • Raised Band – the raised areas on the backbone of a e book containing the wire which is hooked up to the covers.
  • Rapture (from rapt) – seizure and finishing up of (bodily) or rape (late 16th century). Early 17th century: a state of pleasure, a match, exaltation on account of non secular expertise, enthusiasm. Mid 17th century:the transporting of believers to heaven on the second coming of Christ.
  • Rath – a hill or mound; a sort of historic fortification present in Eire.
  • Ratiocinate – to motive methodically and logically.
  • Actual property – land and something hooked up to it, similar to homes, constructing, barns, rising timber, rising crops, and so on. (Authorized).
  • Actual tennis – additionally Royal tennis a preferred leisure exercise of the aristocracy of Scotland within the 16th-century. An instance of the courtroom used survives at Falkland Palace in Scotland and a contemporary one is in use at Troon in North Ayrshire.
  • Reaper – an individual or machine that cuts or gathers within the harvest.
  • Reaves – stone banks as related to Neolithic area methods.
  • Rebec – a pear-shaped, two-stringed or three-stringed medieval instrument, performed with a bow.
  • Rebus – Using a pictoral rhyming pun, quite common on coats of arms. Subsequently it refers to using a pictogram to characterize a syllabic sound. One instance is that of a seal with a barrel (or tun) engraved on it, the barrel transfixed with an arrow. This turns into ‘A Tun Pierced’ or Piercetun, Piercetoun, Pearston or Perceton. This can be a hamlet in North Ayrshire, Scotland.
  • Receiver – an individual appointed by courtroom to carry property till a swimsuit is settled (Authorized).
  • Reconveyance – property bought to a different individual is transferred again to the unique proprietor (Authorized).
  • Recreant – untrue or disloyal to a perception, responsibility, or trigger; Craven or cowardly.
  • Recusancy – resistance to authority or refusal to adapt, particularly in non secular issues, used of English Catholics who refuse to attend the companies of the Church of England.
  • Crimson Tape – initially the purple ribbon used to bind collectively authorized paperwork.
  • Reddendo – the responsibility or service to be paid by the vassal to the superior. The reddendo clause in a feu deed gives the main points of the responsibility or service, e.g. financial fee (feu responsibility), a pair of silver spurs, and so on.
  • Reeve – a churchwarden; early identify for sheriff in England.
  • Refectorian – one who had cost of the frater, or refectory and its furnishings, together with things like crockery, cloths, dishes, spoons, forks, and so on.
  • Refectory– the room the place monks, and so on. take their meals.
  • Regality – a territorial jurisdiction of a royal nature conferred by the sovereign.
  • Regiam Majestatem – an historic legislation e book ascribed to David I of Scotland.
  • Regnal 12 months – a 12 months of the reign of a sovereign. From Latin regnum that means kingdom, rule. The date was an ordinal, not a cardinal quantity as monarch may have a primary 12 months of rule, a second 12 months of rule, and so forth, however a zero 12 months of rule could be nonsense.
  • Regrating – the crime of shopping for items on the way in which to a market with the intention of promoting them at an inflated worth.
  • Reid Frier – the Crimson Friars or Knights Templar (Scots).
  • Reif – theft; spoil.
  • Relict – a widow (authorized).
  • Relicta – a widow.
  • Relictus – a widower.
  • Reliquary – additionally known as a shrine, chasse or monstrance, is a container for holy relics. These often is the bodily stays of saints, similar to bones or shreds of clothes, or some object. A well-known examples in Scotland is the Eighth-century Monymusk reliquary.
  • Remembrancer – an officer of the British judiciary answerable for amassing money owed owed to the Crown.
  • Renaissance – the interval of revival of artwork and literature below the affect of classical fashions within the 14th to 16th-centuries.
  • Repone – to interchange.
  • Rere-dorter additionally known as a Necessarium – constructed above the principle drain in an abbey; a number of rows of pierced seats with partitions for defecation and urination.
  • Reredos – a carved display screen backing the altar in some church buildings.
  • Reply – the ‘column’ portion of a door jamb.
  • Resurrectionist – a physique snatcher. Auchenharvie fortress exterior of Irvine, North Ayrshire, in Scotland was used to retailer resurrected our bodies previous to their elimination to the college in Glasgow.
  • Retable – a framed altarpiece, raised barely above the again of the altar or communion desk, on that are positioned the cross, ceremonial candlesticks and different ornaments.
  • Retinencia – a sum paid to a person in respect of the service he would carry out. Sir John de Eglinton was paid such for service he would perform for the King and his heirs if known as upon.
  • Retour – to make a return in writing as to the service of an inheritor, or the worth of lands. Because of a profitable search an inheritor was legally recognised as rightful heir to lands owned by his deceased ancestor. The authorized return made to a short issued from Chancery, or as to the worth of land (Scots)(authorized).
  • Retour Brieve – a requirement for an area official to ship to chancery the results of an area inquiry below a seal and later below the seal of a jury (Scots) (Authorized).
  • Revenant – corpses that come again from the lifeless. Medieval tales of revenants have widespread options. Those that return from the lifeless are wrong-doers of their lifetime, usually described as depraved or useless or unbelievers. Typically revenants are related to the spreading of illness among the many dwelling and response is normally exhumation, adopted by some type of decapitation, and burning or elimination of the center. The phrase “revenant” is derived from the Latin and French, revenir, “to return.”
  • Reversion – an settlement such that one get together (grantee) takes possession of a chunk of property from one other (grantor) below the understanding that the possession will “revert” again to the grantor on the expiration of the grantee’s curiosity. The most typical type of reversion settlement is for one individual to permit one other to personal a home till their dying, upon which period it reverts to reversion holder.
  • Revestry – additionally ‘Revestiary’ – the condominium, in a church or temple, the place the vestments, and so on., are saved; – now contracted into sacristy.
  • Reynard – a fox. Generally used as a correct identify in tales. A really early publication by Caxton was ‘Reynard the Fox’.
  • Rheged – a Darkish Ages kingdom dominated by Urien. Numerous references are made within the Mabinogion and within the poems of Taliesin. It in all probability lay in Dumfries and Galloway. Dunrigit on this space means the ‘fortress of Rheged’. The ‘Rheged centre’ is a contemporary improvement situated in an outdated quarry simply exterior Penrith, Cumbria, England.
  • Rheum – a watery or skinny mucous discharge from the eyes or nostril.
  • Ribbed vault – by bridging the diagonal corners with slender arches, ribs, a lighter vault may be constructed. The areas between the ‘ribs’ are stuffed with skinny stonework.[40]
  • Rick – a stack of hay, corn, and so on., constructed into a daily form and normally thatched or lined in a roundabout way.
  • Riddle – a course sieve.
  • Rig and Furrow – a way of agriculture the place land was labored in lengthy skinny strips with drainage channels in between.
  • Rig or Ridge – a kind of cultivation practiced in upland areas typically and in Scotland specifically, which differs barely from the extra widespread ridge / rig and furrow in that it was created via excavation by spade relatively than plough. The method improved drainage by creating raised areas of cultivation and furrows to hold away water. The centre might be a metre excessive and the width was that to which seed might be sown by hand. Additionally ‘rig and rennet’.
  • Rill – a stream.
  • Rind – the image of a miller, similar to that seen on gravestones, the iron ‘half’ that helps the higher millstone in a mill.
  • Ring the mill – to cheat. See ‘Mill-ring’.
  • Rivulet – a small river, such because the Tour rivulet in Kilmaurs, Ayrshire.
  • Rochet – a white ceremonial vestment manufactured from linen or garden, worn by bishops and different church dignitaries.
  • Rocking stone – additionally ‘Logan stone’ – a big boulder, usually a glacial erratic, which rocks when pushed. Such boulders usually have related people legends.
  • Rodden – in Scots a tough monitor, sheep path or proper of method.
  • Rogation – in ecclesiastical phrases a solemn prayer or supplication, particularly as chanted throughout the rites of a Rogation Day; the formal proposal of a legislation in historic Rome by a tribune or consul to the folks for acceptance or rejection.
  • Rogation Day – in western Christendom, prescribed days of prayer and fasting historically for the harvest, normally the three days earlier than Ascension Day.
  • Rogue-money – in Scotland this was a tax for the apprehension and punishment of offenders.
  • Rokelay – a kind of brief cloak.
  • Rond-points – normally plantations situated on rising floor with a number of vistas radiating from a central level.
  • Rondellis – small spherical shields or bucklers.
  • Rood – refers back to the True Cross, the particular picket cross utilized in Christ’s crucifixion.
  • Rood display screen – in Christian centres of worship these are picket or stone screens which run throughout the chancel and divide the clergymen from the congregation, thereby setting them aside. Many had been destroyed on the Reformation.
  • Roundels or mounts – largely round plantations planted to emphasize rising floor.
  • Roup – A sale of farm items by public sale.
  • Rowme – an property or farm (additionally a Room).
  • Royal tennis – additionally Actual tennis a preferred leisure exercise of the aristocracy of Scotland within the 16th-century. An instance of the courtroom used survives at Falkland Palace in Scotland and a contemporary one is in use at Troon in North Ayrshire.
  • Rubber – a ‘Mouler’ used to grind grain in a saddle or trough quern.
  • Rubric – part of a manuscript or e book, similar to a title, heading, or preliminary letter, that seems in ornamental purple lettering or is in any other case distinguished from the remainder of the textual content; a title or heading of a statute or chapter in a code of legislation; in ecclesiastical phrases a path in a missal, hymnal, or different liturgical e book; an authoritative rule or path.
  • Rundale – a system of land tenure, usually inside clachans, whereby farmers inside the clachan had scattered plots of fine, medium and poorer high quality land.
  • Runes – a set of associated alphabets utilizing letters (often called runes), previously used to jot down Germanic languages earlier than and shortly after the Christianization of Scandinavia and the British Isles. The Scandinavian variants are also called Futhark (or fuþark, derived from their first six letters: F, U, Þ, A, R, and Ok); the Anglo-Saxon variant as Futhorc (on account of sound adjustments undergone in Outdated English by the identical six letters).
  • Runner – a runner stone is the upper-most of a pair of working millstones.
  • Rustica – a rustic woman
  • Rusticus – a rustic boy.

S Phrases[edit]

A B C D E F G H I J Ok L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


  • Sabaton – armour plate that protects the foot; consists of mail with a strong toe and heel.
  • Sabbat – the Wheel of the Yr is a Wiccan and Druid metaphor and calendar for the cycle of the seasons. It consists of eight festivals, spaced at roughly even intervals all year long and these festivals are known as Sabbats.
  • Sacerdote – a priest.
  • Sacrarium – additionally ‘Chancel.’ The a part of a Christian church close to the altar, reserved for the clergy, the choir, and so on. They’re normally enclosed by a display screen or separated from the nave by steps.
  • Sacrist – additionally ‘Sacristan’ – an official or cleric appointed curator of the vestments, sacred vessels, and relics of a spiritual physique, church, or cathedral.
  • Sacryn bell – a bell rung on the elevation of the host within the mass.
  • Sagittary – a centaur; a wonderful being, half man, half horse, armed with a bow and quiver; pertaining to, or resembling, an arrow.
  • Sailzie – something that tasks out from a constructing. i.e. Sally.
  • Saint Anne – the supposed mom of the Virgin Mary. Utilized in placenames such because the Burn Anne in Ayrshire, Scotland.
  • Saint Anthony’s cross – a cross within the type of a ‘T’. Additionally known as a ‘Tau cross’.
  • Sake – a lawsuit; the best to carry a courtroom. Used within the expression ‘sake and soak.’
  • Saker – a brief barrelled artillery piece of the 16th century.
  • Salic legislation – a legislation, thought to derive from the code of legal guidelines of the Salian Franks, prohibiting a lady from succeeding to a throne. Queen Victoria was unable to succeed to the throne of Hanover for that reason.
  • Salina – medieval salt works, particularly of monastic origins.
  • sallet – additionally known as salade and schaller, was an in depth becoming struggle helmet, prolonged on the again, forming a pointed tail.
  • Samhain – the Irish Gaelic phrase for November. The Scottish Gaelic spelling is Samhainn or Samhuinn (for the feast), or an t-Samhain (for the month). The Competition of Samhain is a celebration of the tip of the harvest season in Gaelic tradition, and is usually considered ‘The Celtic New Yr’, normally celebrated on the 31st October – 1 November.
  • Sampler – a posh train in needlework, together with the letters of the alphabet, numbers, patterns, identification and courting of the piece, and so on. Ladies produced such decorative gadgets throughout the 17th., 18th and early 19th-centuries.
  • Sanctuary – a proper to be secure from arrest within the sanctuary of a church or temple, acknowledged by English legislation from the fourth to the seventeenth century.
  • Sand-glass – a timing system shaped from two flasks sealed along with a waxed wire. A pin gap allowed sand high move from one to the opposite. The timing was normally 15, 30, 45 or 60 minutes.
  • Sapor – a high quality perceptible to the sense of style; flavour.
  • Sarsen – a sandstone boulder carried by ice throughout a glacial interval.
  • Sasine – the register of land possession (Authorized), pronounced sayseen. This act was initially effected by the handing over of a bowl filled with soil from the land or a stone of the home by the proprietor or vendor to his inheritor or the customer, who was then mentioned to be seized of the land or home. All land was held by the Crown below the feudal system and heritable land holdings had been recorded within the ‘Register of Sasines’ from 1617 and its successors (Scottish).
  • Sate – to fulfill an urge for food totally; to fulfill to extra.
  • Satyr – wild and orgiastic drunken Greek followers of Dionysus. Satyrs have horns and resemble goats beneath the waist, people above. Sure genetic situations trigger mutations which can have led to the parable of Satyrs.
  • Sauchen – additionally ‘Sauch-tree’. Scots for a willow.
  • Saugh – Scots for a willow.
  • Sawney – the English phrase for ‘Alexander’. Used generally of Scots basically, as with ‘Jock’.
  • Scale-and-platt stair – stairs that rise in straight flights (scales) with platforms (platts).
  • Scandalam Magnatum – a legislation by which any one that made a scandalous declare towards a peer was fined or jailed.
  • Scappler – one who works materials roughly, or shaping with out ending, similar to stone earlier than leaving the quarry.
  • Scappling – the hewing of a spherical log right into a sq. beam.
  • Scarcement – a ledge shaped by the setting again of a wall, buttress or financial institution.
  • Scarecrows – life-size fashions of a males or girls made to be positioned in fields to scare away birds which might in any other case eat the crops.
  • Schiltron – the massive formations of foot-soldiers, drawn from the strange people & armed with lengthy (14 ft/4M.) pikes and combating in intently packed ranks to supply an unwielding wall of spear factors towards any enemy. Solely archers had been actually efficient towards them.
  • Scholium (plural ‘scholia’) – a grammatical, crucial, or explanatory remark, both authentic or extracted from pre-existing commentaries, which is inserted on the margin of the manuscript of an historic creator as a gloss.
  • Scion – a descendent; a youthful member , usually of a noble household.
  • Scir – the derivation of the phrase ‘shire’.
  • Scir-gerefa – the officer often called a shire reeve or sheriff.
  • Scold – a lady whose speech was ‘riotous’ or ‘troublesome’.
  • Scold’s Bridle – recognized in Scotland as a ‘brank’, consists of a locking steel masks or head cage that accommodates a tab that matches within the mouth to inhibit speaking.
  • Scoopwheel – a kind of water-lifting waterwheel, used primarily for land drainage.
  • Scots’ Dike or ‘Dyke’ is a 3 and a half mile / 5.25 km lengthy linear earthwork, constructed by the English and the Scots within the 12 months 1552 to mark the division of the Debatable lands and thereby settle the precise boundary between the kingdoms of Scotland and England.
  • Scrag – a variant of the commoner Scot’s phrase ‘Scrog’ or ‘Scroag’, that means a gnarled or stunted tree or tree-stump, particularly a crab-apple tree or its fruit, beforehand known as scrag-apples.
  • Scry – ro see or predict the long run by way of a crystal ball.
  • Scutifer – a shield-bearer; one who holds the protect for his Lord.
  • Sea – trow – human-like creature from the Shetland Isles, carrying seal pores and skin, which if misplaced by them, then they can not return to the ocean.
  • Sealing wax – most frequently used for seals. Constituted of Venice turpentine, beeswax and colouring, normally vermillion. Extra just lately shellac has changed the wax element.
  • Seals – in sealing wax, lead, gold, lacquer or embossed on paper, to authenticate paperwork; a apply as outdated as writing itself. Seals had been utilized on to the face of doc and manuscripts or hooked up to the by cords by the proprietor’s, or to a slender strip of the doc sliced and folded down as a tail however not indifferent from the doc. Authenticity was thus maintained by not permitting the reuse of the seal. If a forger tried to take away the seal within the first case, it will break. Within the different circumstances, though the forger may take away the seal intact by ripping the cords from the paper, he’d nonetheless must separate the cords to connect it to a different doc, which might destroy the seal as nicely as a result of the cords had knots tied in them contained in the wax seal. Some seals even had an edge inscription.
  • Seck – barren or unprofitable. As in ‘Hire seck’.
  • Second Property – in feudal occasions this ‘class’ was the The Aristocracy, i.e. those that fought; the knights). It was widespread for aristocrats to enter the Church and thus shift from the second to the First Property.
  • Secondary proof – proof that’s inferior to major proof or the most effective proof.
  • Secondary supply – a report that was created a big period of time after an occasion occurred. For instance, a wedding certificates could be a secondary supply for a start date, as a result of the start passed off a number of years earlier than the time of the wedding. Nevertheless, that very same marriage certificates could be a major supply for a wedding date, as a result of it was created on the time of the wedding.
  • Secundum artem – a Latin phrase that means “in keeping with the artwork,” often used to doing one thing within the accepted method of a talent or commerce.
  • Secundum naturam – in keeping with nature, pure.
  • Sedile – pl. sedilia. Considered one of a set of seats, normally three, supplied in some Roman Catholic and Anglican church buildings for using the presiding clergy, historically positioned on the epistle aspect of the choir close to the altar, and in Gothic-style church buildings usually constructed into the wall.
  • Sedulously – persevering and fixed in effort or software; assiduous.
  • Selion – a brief piece of land in arable ridges and furrows, of half an acre in extent and measuring one furlong by two perches (220 yards by 11 yards); additionally, a ridge of land mendacity between two furrows.
  • Sempster – a seamster or tailor.
  • Senchus Fer nAlban – the ‘Historical past of the Males of Scotland’. The report of the genealogies of the ruling households of Dal Riata with a census of navy and financial reserves of the dominion in AD 500.
  • Seneschal – an officer within the family of necessary nobles within the Center Ages. Probably the most primary operate of a seneschal was to oversee feasts and home ceremonies; on this respect, they had been equal to stewards and majordomos. Generally, seneschals got extra obligations, together with the meting out of justice and excessive navy command.
  • Seniores – elders within the Celtic church who had been devoted to prayer and instructing.
  • Sensu lato – that means ‘within the broad sense’.
  • Septentrio – pertaining to or of the ‘north’.
  • Sequestration – the act of eradicating, separating or seizing something from the possession of its proprietor, of the taking possession of property below strategy of legislation for the good thing about collectors or the state.
  • Sequals or lock – a fee to a miller’s servant of an quantity of grain that might be heaped right into a pair of clasped palms (Scots).
  • Serf – a labourer not allowed to depart the land on which he labored, a villein; an unfree peasants below feudalism.
  • Serge – a sturdy twilled worsted and so on. cloth.
  • Serjeanty – the farmer or vasal paid no lease however needed to carry out some private/official service on behalf of his lord, together with in occasions of struggle. This was stopped in 1746 following the Jacobite rising of 1745.
  • Seotinal – pertaining to or occurring in late summer time.
  • Serplait – a measure of weight equal to eighty stones (Scots).
  • Servi – a slave.
  • Servitrice – additionally ‘Servitrix’. A feminine servant or private attendant (Scots).
  • Set – Additionally ‘Sett’ – a lower stone block, usually of granite.
  • Sewer – a medieval servant who supervised the serving of meals.
  • Shak – to shake as within the threshing of grain (Scots).
  • Shambles – an Abattoir/slaughterhouse. A street containing such a constructing.
  • Shaw – a small pure wooden (Scots).
  • Sheela na Gig – (or Sheela-na-Gigs) are figurative carvings of bare girls displaying an exaggerated vulva. They’re discovered on church buildings, castles and different buildings, significantly in Eire and Britain,
  • Shelling lint bows – extracting the oil from lint seeds (Scots).
  • Shepherd – an individual employed to have a tendency sheep, particularly at pasture.
  • Sheriff – ‘shire reeve’, a Royal official answerable for a shire.
  • Shieling – a roughly constructed constructing utilized by shepherds in summer time pastures.
  • Shieling Hill – a windy hill upon which the ‘shelling’ of the husk from cereals was carried out. Many such hills had been a part of the property of mills.
  • Shippon – western dialect for a cattle shed, synonymous with a byre.
  • Shire or ‘County’ – an English administrative district, uniting a number of smaller districts known as a whole bunch, dominated collectively by an ealdorman and sheriff, who presided within the shire-moot. Moot Corridor or Mote Home turned the identify for what we now name a City Corridor (See 1890 romanticisation by William Morris). The Normans (from 1066) continued to rule England in shires, utilizing Anglo-French counté, Anglo-Latin comitatus to explain them. These phrases had been absorbed into English as county.
  • Shredding – a sort of ‘pollarding’ through which all of the aspect branche are eliminated and solely a tuft on the high left. Such timber supplied fodder and forged much less shade when in hedgerows.
  • Shrievalty – the workplace, or sphere of jurisdiction, of a sheriff.
  • Shrine – earlier than the reformation in England these had been extremely carved and ornate constructions which held the physique or elements/relicts of a saint. They had been a terrific supply of earnings as pilgrims would go to them within the hope of a remedy, and so on.
  • Shrove – is a previous tense of the English verb ‘shrive’ which suggests to acquire absolution for one’s sins by confessing and doing penance. Shrove Tuesday will get its identify from the shriving (confession) that Anglo-Saxon Christians had been anticipated to obtain instantly earlier than Lent.
  • Shrub – a drink made out of rum and fruit juice. It’s talked about as having been consumed by Alexander MacDonald of Glenalladale, the builder of the well-known Glenfinnan Monument to the Jacobite rising of 1745.
  • Shyster – typically a slang phrase. An unethical, unscrupulous practitioner, particularly of legislation.
  • Sibling – a brother or sister, individuals who share the identical mother and father in widespread.
  • Sic – a Latin time period signifying a replica reads precisely as the unique; signifies a doable mistake within the authentic.
  • Sicca – a seal; a coining die.
  • Sidhe or Siodhe – refers first to earthen mounds that had been regarded as dwelling to a supernatural race associated to the fey and elves of different traditions, and later to those inhabitants themselves. The Daoine Sídhe or Daoine Sìth are variously believed to be the ancestors, the spirits of nature, or the goddesses and gods themselves (Sidhe).
  • Sids – the interior husks of oats after grinding, often containing particles of the meal which haven’t been sifted and from which Sowans are made (Scots).
  • Sigilliography – the research of seals, e.g. the Ragman Roll’ of Edward I of England.
  • Signet – the royal seal previously used for particular functions in England and Scotland, and in Scotland later because the seal of the Court docket of Session; additionally any seal used as authentication.
  • Signet ring – such a seal set in a hoop.
  • Sike – additionally syke. A small rill; a marshy backside or hole with a number of small streams. Utilized in Scotland and Northern England; Cumbria.
  • Simony – the ecclesiastical crime of paying for places of work or positions within the hierarchy of a church, named after Simon Magus, who seems within the Acts of the Apostles. Simon Magus supplied the disciples of Jesus, Peter and John, fee in order that anybody he would place his palms on would obtain the ability of the Holy Spirit. That is the origin of the time period.
  • Simulacrum (plural: -cra), from the Latin simulacrum which suggests “likeness, similarity”; used to explain a illustration of one other factor, similar to a statue or a portray, particularly of a god; it has a secondary affiliation of inferiority: a picture with out the substance or qualities of the unique.
  • Sin-eating – an individual who, via ritual means, would tackle by way of foods and drinks the sins of a deceased individual, thus absolving his or her soul and permitting that individual to relaxation in peace. Sin-eating is a type of non secular magic, a part of the research of folklore.
  • Singular successor – somebody who has acquired title to a property by another means than being the inheritor to it, for instance, via buy.
  • Siodhe or ‘Sidhe’ – refers first to earthen mounds that had been regarded as dwelling to a supernatural race associated to the fey and elves of different traditions, and later to those inhabitants themselves. The Daoine Sídhe or Daoine Sìth are variously believed to be the ancestors, the spirits of nature, or the goddesses and gods themselves (Gaelic).
  • Skein – a coil of yarn or wire. In retail commerce, a skein is a extremely variable unit, various from one kind of yarn to a different and infrequently from one producer to a different.
  • Skep – a kind of primitive beehive made out of coiled up straw and tied with wire. Stored in Bee boles.
  • Slack – a gap between hills; a go; a hole; a dip within the floor (Scots).
  • Slap – a slender go between two hills; a spot or non permanent opening in a hedge, fence, and so on. (Scots).
  • Sledge – a ‘cart’ with out wheels. Used earlier than good roads had been constructed or throughout snowy climate situations.
  • Sleeching – a way of acquiring salt for consumption from tidal sand by filtering it.
  • Slipcase – a cardboard case usually lined with paper, fabric or leather-based which holds a e book with solely the backbone uncovered.
  • Slipe – additionally ‘Slype’ – a picket platform or drag of tow poles with out wheels, used for transferring heavy or cumbersome a great deal of stones, hay, peat, and so on., over tough floor; a sort of sledge.
  • Slype – a lined passage, particularly one between the transept and chapter home of a cathedral or abbey.
  • Small beer – a drink for kids made out of a second brewing after the sturdy beer had been drawn off.
  • Smallholding – an agricultural holding smaller than a farm.
  • Smiddy – a Blacksmith’s workshop.
  • Smock mill – a kind of tower windmill having a tower that’s primarily constructed of wooden.
  • Snap-maker – a maker of firelocks / flintlocks or pistols.
  • Snod – lower, easy or trim (Scots). Discovered within the surname and placename ‘Snodgrass.’ A Snodgrass holm used to exist close to Irvine and the identify is linked with the onetime homeowners of Cunninghamhead home in North Ayrshire.
  • Snood – a small netlike cap worn by girls to maintain the hair in place or a headscarf or fillet.
  • Socage – one of many feudal duties and therefore land tenure varieties within the feudal system. A farmer, for instance, held the land in change for a clearly-defined, fastened fee to be made at specified intervals to his feudal lord, who in flip had his personal feudal obligations to the Crown. In principle this may contain supplying the lord with produce however most normally it meant an easy fee of money, i.e., lease.
  • Socman – Additionally ‘Sokeman’ – One who holds lands or tenements by socage; a socager.
  • Sod – a turf or a chunk of turf.
  • Soffit – the beneath of an arch.
  • Soke – land hooked up to a central manor or barony for fee of dues and for judicial functions. Typically fairly massive areas. Additionally the best to carry a courtroom. Typically discovered within the phrase ‘sake and soke.’
  • Sokeman – Additionally ‘Socman’ – One who holds lands or tenements by socage; a socager; a ‘freeman’ in a position to go away his land; usually owing companies or rents and having to attend his lord’s courtroom.
  • Solander – a closed field for a e book made in two elements which match into each other.
  • Photo voltaic – a non-public room for the homeowners of medieval homes and castles.
  • Solatium – (plural solatia) is a type of compensation for emotional relatively than bodily or monetary hurt.
  • Solecism – a non-standard utilization or grammatical development; a violation of etiquette or an impropriety, mistake, or incongruity.
  • Soliton – a self-reinforcing solitary wave that maintains its form whereas it travels at fixed pace. The soliton phenomenon was first described by John Scott Russell (1808–1882) who noticed a solitary wave within the Union Canal in Scotland, reproduced the phenomenon in a wave tank, and named it the “Wave of Translation”.
  • Sowming and rowming – a authorized motion to find out the variety of cattle allowed to be pastured on a standard by every of the folks having a proper to take action (Authorized).
  • Sophism – a believable however fallacious argument.
  • Sopite – to put asleep; to place to sleep; to quiet.
  • Sorner – one who obtrudes himself on one other for mattress and board.
  • Sorning – taking meat and drink by power or menaces, and with out paying.
  • Soubrette – a saucy, coquettish, intriguing maidservant in comedies or comedian opera; a younger lady considered flirtatious or frivolous.
  • Soum – an space of land in a position to maintain the annual grazing of both one cow or 4 sheep (Scots).
  • Souming – the quantity or proportion of cattle which every tenant was entitled to maintain on the widespread grazing.
  • Supply – the doc, report, publication, manuscript, and so on. used to show a truth.
  • Souter – in Scotland and Northern England the time period for a maker of footwear, a cobbler.
  • Souterrain – a reputation given by archaeologists to a kind of underground construction related to the Atlantic Iron Age. Regional names embrace earth home, fogou and Picts home.
  • Southron – Of individuals: belonging to or dwelling in England, English (Scots).
  • Sow – a siege engine consisting of a tower which might be moved as much as a wall and allowed besieging troops to achieve entry. For instance, as used at a siege of Berwick by the English within the 14th-century.
  • Sowans – the meals made out of the husks left over from the milling strategy of oats (Scots).
  • Sowchis – haystacks (Scots).
  • Sowmes girs – a sowm of grass is ample pasture for one cow and 5 sheep (Scots).
  • Spalt – brittle timber that’s liable to interrupt or cut up.
  • Span – chips of wooden, as in ‘Spick & span.’
  • Spandrel – additionally ‘Spandril’ – the roughly triangular area between the left or proper exterior curve of an arch and the oblong framework surrounding it; the area between two arches and a horizontal molding or cornice above them.
  • Spavined – stricken with spavin; marked by injury, deterioration, or destroy, e.g. a junkyard filled with spavined automobiles.
  • Specie – in coin; in an analogous method; in type or in authorized phrases – In the identical type or form; as specified.
  • Spelt cereal – cereal seeds, usually wheat, which don’t detach simply from the husk.
  • Spick and span – this alliteration principally means ‘in good situation’ ‘as new.’ One of many two phrases alludes to cleanliness and freshness and the opposite simply adopted alongside. Which one is most related to the qualities of spick and span? Spick is a variant of spike or nail and within the 16th-century nails had been manufactured from iron and shortly tarnished. It’s believable that new nails would have turn into synonymous with cleanliness; the phrase as neat as a brand new pin, has simply that that means. The outdated Dutch phrase spikspeldernieuw refers to newly made ships. The OED means that that is the origin of spick, though they provide no motive for that perception and not one of the early citations of the phrase confer with delivery. As for Span, that means chips of wooden, these additionally show the identical recent, sharp-edged qualities and appear to be a supply for using the phrase right here.
  • Spinney – a wooden which consists, or has previously consisted, of thorns (Latin spinae, whence spinetum).
  • Spiritualities – the teinds or tithes as a result of Church.
  • Sponsor – a sponsor is a person aside from the mother and father of a kid that takes duty for the kid’s non secular schooling. Sponsors are normally current at a baby’s baptism. Sponsors are also known as godparents.
  • Partner – a husband or spouse.
  • Sprechery – movables of an inferior description; particularly, similar to have been collected by depredation.
  • Spring – in a woodland that is an space just lately coppiced and nicely fenced as a result of vulnerability of younger shoots.
  • Sprite – a broad time period referring to numerous preternatural legendary creatures. The time period is usually utilized in reference to elf-like creatures, together with fairies, dwarves, and the likes of it; however also can signify varied religious beings, together with ghosts. The time period is mainly utilized in regard to elves and fairies in European folklore, and in trendy English isn’t utilized in reference to spirits or different legendary creatures. The phrase “sprite” is derived from the Latin “spiritus” (spirit). Variations on the time period embrace “spright” (the origin of the adjective “sprightly”, that means “spirited” or “full of life”) and the Celtic “spriggan”.
  • Spulyie – see ‘Spulzie’.
  • Spulzie – additionally ‘Spulyie’. Spoliation/Expoliation. To rob, despoil, plunder, an individual or place (Scots).
  • Spurtle – a brief, spherical stick used for stirring porridge, soup, and so on., a pot-stick, however was initially a flat, picket, spatula-like utensil, used for flipping oatcakes in a sizzling oven. (Scots).
  • Squadrone – anti-government Scottish Whigs, striving for a Protestant succession in Scotland with a union of parliaments with England.
  • Squadrone Volante – pro-government Scottish ‘Torys’ Jacobites, striving for a Catholic succession in Scotland and not using a union of parliaments with England.
  • Squinch – a construction, similar to a piece of vaulting or corbeling, set diagonally throughout the inside angle between two partitions to supply a transition from a sq. to a polygonal or extra almost round base on which to assemble a dome.
  • Squint – additionally known as a ‘Hagioscope’ – in architectural phrases a piercing in partitions which give a sure line of imaginative and prescient in any other case unobtainable. Generally discovered lined up in pairs; these allowed the excessive altar to be seen by church clerks, these with leprosy, and so on.
  • Secure – a constructing put aside and tailored for housing horses.
  • Stack-yard – an enclosure for stacks of hay, straw, oats, and so on.
  • Staddle stones – constructions, formed like a mushroom, used to help a framework upon which a granary, rick or different meals stuffs might be saved.
  • Employees and baton – (fustum et baculum). The symbols used to characterize a vassal’s resignation of his lands into the lands of his superior.
  • Staging – the construction for facilitating entry to windmill sails and typically caps.
  • Stall – a partitioned off area for an animal in a secure, and so on. the place its is tied up.
  • Stanchion – an upright pole, put up, or help; a framework consisting of two or extra vertical bars, used to safe cattle in a stall or at a feed trough.
  • Standalane — a reputation used for a property set in a lonely or solitary place or a dwelling simply exterior a village or city.
  • Stathel – a cast-iron construction used to help and elevate a granary, rick or different saved meals supplies. Outdated English stathol base, help, tree trunk.
  • Statute – a legislation (Authorized).
  • Steading – farm buildings, with or with out the farmhouse.
  • Steelbow items – corn, cattle, ploughs and comparable implements which could be given by a landlord to his tenant farmer to allow him to inventory and sustaining the lands leased by him; for this, the tenant was certain to return items of equal high quality and amount on the expiry of his lease.
  • Stent – the ‘poor tax’ in Scotland on the time of Robert Burns.
  • Stentor – the legendary Greek warrior with an unusually loud voice who died after dropping a shouting contest with Hermes.
  • Stere – a unit of quantity within the authentic metric system equal to at least one cubic metre, mostly used to measure portions of wooden.
  • Sterte – a rump or tail as in ‘Redstart’; from the Outdated English ‘Steort’.
  • Stewarton hive – a hectagonal hive, the primary to permit for separation of the honey combs and brood combs, permitting for the elimination of honey with out the necessity to kill the bees.
  • Stewartry – in Scotland, the jurisdiction of a steward; additionally, the lands below such jurisdiction.
  • Stig – a footpath from the Anglo-Saxon.
  • Stigma – developed from a Greek phrase for “to prick”, a stigma was a model or lower inflicted on the pores and skin as a mark of shame. From the 17th century, the plural, stigmata, additionally described miraculous marks showing on an individual’s physique suggesting the injuries of the crucified Jesus. By the mid 19th century, stigma was used typically for any seen or obvious signal that there’s something disgraceful about an individual.
  • Stile – an association which allows folks via an entrance however which blocks the passage of animals.
  • Stocking – Felled land with stumps grubbed up. From the Outdated English Stoccing.
  • Stockman – an individual answerable for livestock.
  • Storth – a spot with brushwood, maybe with timber planted. From the Outdated Norse.
  • Stound – from the Center English stond, stound(e) an archaic time period for hour, time, season, second.
  • Stoup – an ecclesiastical A basin or font for holy water on the entrance of a church; a ingesting vessel, similar to a cup or tankard.
  • Stouthrief – a type of theft dedicated by power.
  • Streamlet – a small stream.
  • Road – from the Outdated English ‘stræt’ a ‘paved street, Roman street’, from West Germanic, from late Latin strata, used as a brief type of by way of strata ‘paved street’. The West Germanic kind additionally gave Dutch straat, German Straße (Scandinavian varieties are borrowed from Outdated English); cognates from Latin embrace Portuguese estrada, Italian strada.
  • Stubbing – Land with tree stumps. From the Outdated English Stubb.
  • Sty – a pen or enclosure for pigs.
  • Stylobate – in structure the speedy basis of a row of classical columns. Additionally known as stereobate.
  • Subinfeudation – the apply by which tenants in England, holding land below the superior, carved out by sub-letting or alienating part of their lands new and distinct tenures.
  • Suborned – to induce (an individual) to commit an illegal or evil act; to induce (an individual) to commit perjury.
  • Succour– help in time of problem; “the contributions supplied some succour for the victims.”
  • Succursal – serving to assist or assist; serving as a chapel of ease; tributary.
  • Sucken – the realm over which a mill held thirlage over tenants (Scots).
  • Suckener – a tenant thirled to a mill (Scots).
  • Suddenty – suddenness. One other one of many obscure phrases utilized by Sir Walter Scott.
  • Swimsuit of Court docket – one of many feudal burdens upon land through which the tenant might be known as upon to provide his lord help and counsel in administrative and judicial issues (Scots authorized).
  • Sulung – an archaic measure of land space, consisting of 4 ‘yokes’, which was bigger than the ‘Cover’ and from time to time handled as equal to 2 hides. It was primarily utilized in Kent.
  • Sumpter – a driver of a packhorse or any pack animal.
  • Sumptuary legislation – a legislation imposing restraint on luxurious, esp by limiting private expenditure or by regulating private conduct in non secular and ethical spheres.
  • Sundial – an historic clock that measures time by the place of the solar. Probably the most generally seen designs, such because the ‘strange’ or commonplace backyard sundial, forged a shadow on a flat floor marked with the hours of the day. Because the place of the solar adjustments, the time indicated by the shadow adjustments.
  • Sunk – a straw pad or cushion, used as an alternative choice to a saddle, often in a pair slung on both aspect of the horse; turf seat.
  • Superfoetation – the successive fertilization of two or extra ova of various ovulations ensuing within the presence of embryos of not like ages in the identical uterus. Additionally used as a literary system.
  • Supporters – are human or animal figures positioned on both aspect of a heraldic coat of arms as if supporting it. In lots of traditions, these have acquired strict pointers to be used by sure social courses.
  • Susurrate – to make a delicate rustling sound; whisper; murmur.
  • sutler – a military camp follower who peddled provisions to the troopers.
  • Suzerain – a feudal overlord.
  • Suzerainty – a scenario the place a sovereign or state has some management over one other state that’s in any other case internally autonomous. An instance could be the management that Edward I of England had over Scotland previous to William Wallace and in the end Robert the Bruce’s institution as king of Scotland.
  • Swainmote – in historic English forest legislation a courtroom held earlier than the verders of the forest as judges, by the steward of the courtroom, thrice yearly, the swains, or freeholders, inside the forest comprising the jury.
  • Swee – a hinged bracket for suspending a pot or kettle over an open hearth.
  • Swine – initially the identify given to the grownup ‘pig’.
  • Switzer – a Swiss; Swiss Guard.
  • Syke – additionally ‘sike’. A small rill ; a marshy backside or hole with a number of small streams (Scots).
  • Symbols – the giving of sasines was a ceremony deriving from a time when it was essential to have symbols that allowed anybody to recognise what was happening. The baillies of each events would meet on the bottom of the lands being granted, with a number of witnesses and a notary. The granter’s baillie would give sasine by presenting the grantee’s baillie with an emblem acceptable to what was being granted. Earth and stone had been mostly used for the giving of sasine in lands’ if what was granted was an annual lease from lands, these could be handed over along with “a penny cash”. If sasine was given in fishings the symbols had been a internet and coble; if within the patronage of a church, a psalm e book and the church keys, if in a mill, the clap and happer of the mill, if in teinds, a sheaf of corn, if a jurisdiction, the courtroom e book, if property in a burgh, a hasp and staple, and mixtures of those could be used. Lastly, if lands had been resigned to a superior, the image handed over had been the employees and baton (Authorized).
  • Symposion – a ingesting collectively.
  • Syth – a strainer or filter for milk.

T Phrases[edit]

A B C D E F G H I J Ok L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


  • Pill sundial – a pocket-sized sundial with a high that opened with a chunk of stretched twine throughout. The highest’s angle corresponded with the angle of the Earth’s axis and the inbuilt compass dial was oriented in order that the time might be learn off from the shadow forged by the twine onto a dial.
  • Tabroner – a drummer.
  • Tacit – not spoken: indicated tacit approval by smiling and winking. Implied by or inferred from actions or assertion.
  • Tack – a lease.[14] Normally paid yearly.
  • Tacksmen – somebody who leases land, a tenant farmer, or one who leases land to sublet, additionally a lessee of property, mills, fishings, the gathering of customs, teinds, dues, and so on. (Scots).
  • Tailrace – the watercourse taking water away from a waterwheel or turbine.[41]
  • Tailzie – additionally ‘Tailyie’ or ‘Taillie’ – an entail, the settlement of heritable property inalienably on a specified line of heirs, not heirs at legislation, a apply modified by varied statutes since 1685 and eventually made incompetent after 1914. The legislation books favour the spelling tailzie (Authorized).[11]
  • Tallage – an occasional tax levied by the Anglo – Norman kings on crown lands and royal cities.
  • Tambour – a drum or drummer; a small picket embroidery body consisting of two concentric hoops between which cloth is stretched; embroidery made on such a body.
  • Tannistry – additionally ‘Tanistry’ – the traditional Celtic methodology of selecting a King. The brand new King would typically be a Kinsman of the earlier monarch nonetheless the the Aristocracy would determine which candidate was finest suited to the duty. This technique was changed by the system of ‘primogeniture’ in Scotland within the Center Ages.Primogeniture meant that the succession went to the eldest male inheritor of the earlier monarch. Tannistry had the benefit of typically guaranteeing that nobody dynasty may dominate the monarchy and likewise tended to make sure that the candidate with the best means ascended the throne nonetheless it was incompatible with a feudal system and thus was changed.
  • Tasset’ – armour defending the decrease trunk and thigh, one in all a sequence of jointed overlapping steel splints hanging from a corselet.
  • Tau – a cross within the type of a ‘T’. Additionally known as Saint Anthony’s cross.
  • Tegular – referring to or resembling a tile.
  • Tegument – a pure outer overlaying.
  • Teins – a tenth of the earnings of a property, payable to the church.
  • Teltown marriage – a wedding of a 12 months and a day through which both get together may return to the spot a 12 months later, surrender the wedding and stroll away from the stone and their accomplice.[42]
  • Temple – lands belonging to the Knight’s Templar.
  • Temporal – Of, referring to, or restricted by time; of or referring to the fabric world; worldly: the temporal possessions of the Church; secular or lay; civil: lords temporal and religious.
  • Temporalities – the land and different propertys belonging to the Church, besides glebes, manses and teinds, these being spiritualities.
  • Tenandry – land and different property, and so on. which was let for lease, relatively than retained within the homeowners or superior’s personal palms.
  • Tenant – additionally Tenand, an individual who rents land or property from a landlord.
  • Tenement – land constructed on and held in tenure.
  • Tentering – the adjusting of the hole between millstones in keeping with the water move, the kind of grain being milled, and the grade of flour required.
  • Terce – a widow’s authorized entitlement to a life-rent of one-third of her husband’s heritable property, (her entitlement in respect of his moveable property being the jus relictae). If a particular, various provision had been made for her in her marriage contract (the jointure), she would, after 1681, have misplaced her proper to a terce, except it had been specified within the contract that she ought to have that as nicely.
  • Tergiversation – evasion of easy motion or clear-cut assertion; desertion of a trigger, place, get together, or religion.
  • Time period days – holy days for the folks of the Kingdom of Scotland within the Center Ages. Just like the Kingdom of England’s quarter days, they had been the 4 days dividing the authorized 12 months, when lease and curiosity on loans, and ministers’ stipends had been due, and when servants had been employed and paid. The Time period Days had been Whitsun and Martinmas. Along with Candlemas and Lammas they constituted the Quarter Days. Additionally on lately contracts and leases would start or finish. 1886 noticed the time period dates for removals and the hiring of servants in cities modified to 28 February, 28 Might, 28 August and 28 November. The unique dates are actually known as Outdated Scottish Time period Days. The dates had been regularised by the Time period and Quarter Days (Scotland) Act 1990.
  • Termagant – a quarrelsome, scolding lady; a shrew.
  • Terminus advert quem – the ending level of a interval, argument, coverage, and so on.
  • Terminus put up quem – the start line of a interval, and so on.
  • Testate – died leaving a legitimate will (Authorized).
  • Testis – a witness (Authorized).
  • Testator – a person who writes a legitimate will (Authorized).
  • Testatrix – a lady who writes a legitimate will (Authorized).
  • Tetragrammaton – the 4 Hebrew letters which make up the holy identify of God; written on paper and carried as a allure to forestall a wound bleeding.y a thane. The time period could have changed the Gaelic time period ‘toiseach’.
  • Thanage – the land held b
  • Thane – additionally ‘Thegn’. In Early Medieval Scandinavian and Anglo-Saxon tradition, a thane was an attendant, servant, retainer, or official.
  • Thane – an early feudal Lord or Baron (Scots).
  • Thegn – pre-conquest nobles in England who had been beneath the extent of earls. Thegns held a minimum of 5 hides of land and held a residence; they had been the spine of the military. additionally see ‘Thane.’
  • Factor – an meeting, (additionally transliterated as ting or þing), historic governing assemblies in early Scandinavian society. The Tynwald within the Isle of Man might be the oldest surviving instance.
  • Third Property – this was the social class recognized in feudal occasions because the ‘Peasantry’ (those that produced the meals which supported those that prayed and those that fought, the members of the First and Second Estates).
  • Third half – additionally ‘Thirdings’ and later ‘Ridings’. Massive territories within the Danelaw had been too huge for a single council and so they had been damaged up into Third Components for administrative functions. The time period happens in Scotland as a farm identify, additionally ‘Fourth Half’ on events.
  • Thirds – additionally ‘Thirds of benefices’. The property of the medieval Church was out there to laymen after the Reformation, the king took over one-third of the revenues of all church benefices to ensure that one thing would nonetheless be left for the ministers of the reformed church; acceptable elements of those revenues had been assigned to the ministers, and any surplus was retained by the Crown. This was not ample and the Teind Court docket got here into being to manage the system.
  • Thirlage was the feudal legislation by which the laird (lord) may power all these vassals dwelling on his lands to pay a portion of their grain to his miller no matter whether or not the grain was milled there. Moreover they needed to perform repairs on the mill, keep the lade and weir in addition to conveying new millstones to the location.
  • Thold – endured.
  • Thrall – one, similar to a slave or serf, who’s held in bondage; one who’s intellectually or morally enslaved.
  • Three estates – the social courses. The “First Property” was the Church (clergy = those that prayed). The “Second Property” was the The Aristocracy (those that fought = knights). It was widespread for aristocrats to enter the Church and thus shift from the second to the primary property. The “Third Property” was the Peasantry (everybody else, a minimum of below feudalism: those that produced the meals which supported those that prayed and those that fought, the members of the First and Second Estates).
  • Threnody – a track or hymn of mourning composed or carried out as a memorial to a lifeless individual. The time period originates from the Greek phrase threnoidia, from threnos (a “lament”) + oide (“track”)
  • Thresher – an individual or machine which separates the grain from the straw or husk.
  • Thurible – a censer utilized in sure ecclesiastical ceremonies or liturgies.
  • Thurifer – an acolyte who carries a thurible.
  • Thuthark – the Anglo-Saxon runic alphabet.
  • Tiber – a spring or nicely, as used within the placenames ‘Auchentiber’ and ‘Knockentiber’ (Scots).
  • Tide – an out of date time period for time, interval or season.
  • Tiend – in Scots, one tenth of one thing. Equal to ‘Tithe’.
  • Tierce – additionally ‘Terce’ or ‘Terce.’ The third of the seven canonical hours, however now not in liturgical use. The time of day appointed for this service, normally the third hour after dawn.
  • Tiercon vaulting – these are intermediate ribs utilized in ceiling vaulting to provide further help and to make the panels smaller.
  • Tilery – a spot the place tiles are made or burned; a tile kiln.
  • Tillage – the cultivation of land; land that has been tilled.
  • Tinchel – a circle of sportsmen, who, by surrounding an intensive area and regularly closing in, carry numerous deer and recreation inside a slender compass. Utilized by Sir Walter Scott in his novel ‘Waverley’.
  • Tincture – in heraldry, tinctures are the colors used to blazon a coat of arms.
  • Tineman – in outdated Eng. Forest Regulation a ‘Tineman’ was an officer of the forest who had the care of vert and venison by night time.
  • Tinsel of the feu – the identify for forfeiture of landed property brought about not simply by failure to pay feu-duty or render service to the superior, however by the fee of penal offence.
  • Tipped-in – the plates, autograph, letter, picture, and so on., glued right into a e book. Such gadgets are glued in alongside one edge solely.
  • Tippet – a overlaying for the shoulders, as of fur, with lengthy ends that hold in entrance; a protracted stole worn by members of the Anglican clergy; a protracted hanging half, as of a sleeve, hood, or cape.
  • Tir nan Og – the ‘Land of Youth’ the place folks and non-human beings stay resistant to the passage of time. It’s mentioned to exist on the backside of sure lakes.[43]
  • Tithe – in English legislation, the tenth a part of one’s annual enhance paid to help noblemen and clergy; quantity of annual ballot tax.
  • Tocsin – a sign sounded by a bell or bells, particularly an alarm
  • Tod – a fox (Scots).
  • Toft – a homestead, the location of a home and its out-buildings; a home web site. Typically within the expression toft and croft, denoting the entire holding, consisting of the homestead and hooked up piece of arable land.
  • Toiseach – a Gaelic phrase for an early holder of lands below the tenure of the King; changed by the time period ‘Thane’.
  • Toll – in England, much like thirlage.
  • Tolmen – a holed stone, presumably a ‘bullaun’, similar to the instance on the North Teign river on Dartmoor.
  • Tomfoolery – Tom, an abbreviation of Thomas, was used from late Center English as a time period for a standard (of the folks) man. Tomfool developed on the identical interval as a time period for fool or madman. So the time period could have the inference that the tomfool is the widespread folks’s jester. Idiot acquired the that means of mad or idiotic individual in the identical interval. Tom of Bedlam. was present from the mid-16th to late 17th centuries. The feminine equal within the people track is Mad Maudlin. This time period is heavy with that means. Maudlin is Mary Magdalen. The Mary could hyperlink to the unique identify of “Bedlam” St Mary of Bethlehem (That Mary, presumably, being the mom of Jesus).
  • Tontine – named after Lorenzo Tonti, a Neapolitan banker who began such a scheme in France in 1653. Every subscriber paid a sum into the fund, and in return obtained dividends from the capital invested; as every individual died his share was divided amongst all of the others till just one was left, reaping all the advantages. The concept was taken up enthusiastically in France and later in Britain and the USA; it was used to fund buildings and different public works. There are nonetheless a number of accommodations and different buildings in Britain and the USA with the phrase of their names. Later there have been personal schemes through which the final survivor obtained the capital as nicely. Tontines had been ultimately banned in Britain and the USA, as a result of there was an excessive amount of incentive for subscribers to bump one another off to extend their share of the fund, or to turn into the final survivor and so declare the capital.
  • Toper – a drunk.
  • Toponymy – the scientific research of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use and typology.
  • Tor – plenty of rock or boulders crowning a hill. Tors are widespread in Devon and Cornwall on upland moorlands.
  • Torc – a physique decoration worn on the arms or neck within the form of a curved rod with similar free ends that face each other, nearly touching. typically of Celtic origins.
  • Tory – a member of a British political get together, based in 1689, that was the opposition get together to the Whigs and has been often called the Conservative Celebration since about 1832; member of a Conservative Celebration; an American who, throughout the interval of the American Revolution, favoured the British aspect. Additionally known as Loyalist. Typically a supporter of conventional political and social establishments towards the forces of democratization or reform; a political conservative.
  • Tosspot – a drunkard.
  • Contact Piece – cash and medalets which have attracted superstitious beliefs, similar to these with ‘holes’ in them or these with explicit designs. Such ‘items’ had been believed to remedy illness, carry good luck, affect peoples behaviour, perform a particular sensible motion, et
  • Toun – additionally ‘Ton’ or ‘City’ – a farm and its outbuildings, initially an space fenced or walled off with a dwelling inside. A typical medieval sub-division of land was by the ploughgate (104 acres), the extent of land which one plough tesm of oxen may until in a 12 months. This space was once more subdivided into 4 husbandlands, every of 26 acres, every husbandland may present two oxen and eight oxen had been want for a plough-team. This association led to small farm cities being established with lodging for a minimum of 4 males of six to eight homes, taking sensible issues into consideration. A quite common placename.
  • Tourn – a courtroom leet; from the tour, flip, or circuit made by the sheriff of a county twice within the 12 months, through which he presided on the hundred-court in every hundred of the county, or the good courtroom leet of the county, held by him on these events.
  • Tout – to solicit clients, votes, or patronage, particularly in a brazen method.
  • Tout ensemble – all the pieces thought of; all in all; the entire impression or impact.
  • Tower mill – a kind of windmill through which the tower was completely manufactured from brick or stone and typically tarred to assist hold out the rain.
  • Transept – a transverse arm off the nave of a church, abbey, and so on.
  • Transhumance – the vertical seasonal livestock motion, sometimes to greater pastures in summer time and to decrease valleys in winter. Herders have a everlasting dwelling, sometimes in valleys. Solely herds and a subset of individuals essential to have a tendency them journey.
  • Transom – a horizontal bar set throughout a gap similar to a window.
  • Transumpt – a replica or exemplification of a report; a transcript.
  • Trebuchet – a siege engine invented by the French within the 12th-century. A counterweight at one finish was launched and the opposite finish was flung up, permitting missiles of as much as half a ton to be hurled on the enemy.
  • Tree Calf – a binding of a e book through which the calf leather-based has been handled with dilute acid over its floor to supply a grained impact, typically just like the grain of high-quality wooden.
  • Tregetour – a juggler who produces illusions by way of elaborate equipment.
  • Triforium – an arcaded wall space above the nave and beneath the clerestory. A passage normally runs behind the arcading and was usually used to accommodate the library.
  • Trilithon – additionally ‘Trilith’. A construction consisting of two massive vertical stones supporting a 3rd stone set horizontally throughout the highest. Generally used within the context of megalithic monuments probably the most well-known trilithons are these at Stonehenge and people discovered within the prehistoric temples in Malta. The phrase is derived from the Greek ‘having three stones’ (Tri – three, lithos – stone) and was first utilized by William Stukeley.
  • Trist – see ‘Tryst.’
  • Triune – the Trinity, the Godhead in Christianity, or one other of the triple deities.
  • Troc – the medieval apply of change for items in type with out using cash.
  • Trod – within the West of England it is a straight line or Fairy Path within the grass of a area with a special shade of inexperienced to the remainder. Folks with rheumatism sought aid by strolling alongside these tracks, although animals are thought to keep away from them. Nice hazard was related to utilizing these paths when a supernatural procession was utilizing them. Fairy rings have sure components in widespread with this phenomenon.[44]
  • Tron – a Scottish measure for the sale of products used till 1618. Its nature is now not recognized. Names similar to ‘Trongate’ in Glasgow are derived from it.[45]
  • Troner – the officer answerable for the official weighing balance (the tron) in a burgh.
  • Troth – a betrothal; one’s pledged constancy; Good religion; constancy.
  • Trouse – lower thorns grown for filling gaps in hedges, typically in a thorn woods or spinneys.
  • Trow – in Orkney a ‘Trow’ is the identify for a ‘Troll’.[46]
  • Trowse – additionally ‘Trouse’ – a grating of wooden or iron which might be raised or lowered to permit water out of a dam right into a mill lade (Scots).
  • Truck – the outdated system by which workers had been paid largely with tokens that might solely be exchanged on the employers retailers the place items had been adulterated and underweight measures had been used.
  • Tryst or ‘Trist’ – a time and a spot for a gathering, particularly of lovers. In Outdated French the phrase meant an appointed station in looking. A spot the place hounds had been posted in a deer drive.
  • Trysting day – an organized day of assembly or assembling, as of troopers, buddies, lovers and the like.
  • Trysting Tree – many timber have via their isolation, look or place been chosen as a preferred assembly place for younger courting {couples}, troopers known as to collect at a particular venue previous to battle, and so on.
  • Tulchan – a calf’s pores and skin stretched on a picket body and laid beneath a cow to extend the milk yield (Scots).
  • Tulchan Bishop – between 1572 – 9 a bishop who obtained his rank via buy; a time period of derision (Scots).
  • Tulyie – a avenue combat or quarrel, scuffle, broil, skirmish, wrestle, turmoil (Scots).
  • Tumulus (plural tumuli or tumuluses, from the Latin phrase for mound or small hill) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Tumuli are also called ‘Barrows’, ‘Burial mounds’, or ‘Kurgans’.
  • Turbary – land, or a chunk of land, the place turf or peat could also be dug or lower; the best to chop turf or peat on a standard land or on one other individual’s land. ‘Feal and divot’ was the best to take turf in Scotland.
  • Turf – a layer of grass and so on. with earth & matted roots because the floor of grassland.
  • Turnpike – a street on which a toll or charge was charged at a toll-gate.
  • Turnpike – a spiral stone stairway in a fortress tower, church wall, and so on.[47]
  • Turnegreis – additionally ‘Turnpike’ – a spiral stone stairway in a fortress tower, church wall, and so on.[48]
  • Tutelar – a tutelary spirit is a god, normally a minor god, who serves because the guardian or watcher over a selected web site, individual, or nation. Perception in tutelary gods or spirits usually displays a practice of animism.
  • Tutory dative – in medieval Scottish legislation a baby below the age of maturity who had misplaced his father might be positioned below the guardianship of the subsequent male agnate within the household over the age of 21, whatever the mom’s needs.
  • Tuum – thine; that which is thine.
  • Twill – a cloth so woven as to have a floor of diagonal parallel ridges.
  • Tympanum – The principally semicircular space enclosed by the arch above the lintel of an arched entranceway, usually stuffed with carvings or different ornamentation.
  • Tynwald – the Isle of Man ‘Parliament’, normally mentioned to be the oldest parliament in steady existence on the earth, having been established by 979 (although its roots could return to the late 800s because the factor of Norse raiders not but completely resident on the Isle of Man) and having continued to be held since that point with out interruption. The veracity of Tynwald’s declare to steady existence as a legislative physique is disputed. From the 11th to the 15th centuries, Tynwald was arguably a judicial courtroom and didn’t fulfill capabilities of making laws. In the course of the 15th and 16th centuries the method of making laws diversified between events and, as famous beneath, Tynwald doesn’t seem to have functioned as a single legislative physique throughout that interval both.
  • Typography – printing from movable kind; additionally the aesthetics of arranging the phrases and different ornamentation on the printed web page.[49]

U Phrases[edit]

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  • Udal legislation – a near-redundant Norse derived authorized system, which is present in Shetland and Orkney, Scotland and in Manx legislation on the Isle of Man. It’s intently associated to Odelsrett. Udal legislation was codified by the kings Magnus I of Norway “the great” and Magnus VI of Norway the “lawmender”. The Treaty of Perth transferred the Outer Hebrides and Isle of Man to Scots legislation whereas Norse legislation and rule nonetheless utilized for Shetland and Orkney.
  • Ullage – the quantity of liquid inside a container that’s misplaced, as by leakage, throughout cargo or storage; the quantity by which a container, similar to a bottle, cask, or tank, falls in need of being full.
  • Ultimo – the previous month (Authorized).
  • Ultimogeniture – also called ‘Postremogeniture’ or ‘Junior proper’ – the custom of inheritance by the last-born of everything of, or a privileged place in, a mother or father’s wealth, property or workplace. The custom recognises that the elder kids have had time to succeed and supply for themselves – or having obtained a few of their share earlier.
  • Ultimus haeres – actually the “final inheritor”; the best of the Crown to succeed to all heritable property the place no different inheritor, successor or assignee to the property may be recognized (Authorized).
  • Umbo – the boss, a raised central space on a protect or buckler.
  • Umwhile – see ‘Umquhile.’
  • Umquhile – see additionally ‘Umwhile.’ A while in the past; previously; beforehand;(Scots).
  • Uncial script – written completely in capital letters and generally used from the third to Eighth centuries AD by Latin and Greek scribes.
  • Unction – the act of anointing as a part of a spiritual, ceremonial, or therapeutic ritual; an ointment or oil – a salve; affected or exaggerated earnestness, particularly in selection and use of language.
  • Uncut – a e book through which the sides of the leaves haven’t been lower by a plough.
  • Below canine – the person in a noticed pit who was within the pit itself. The ‘Prime Canine’ was the extra lucky particular person on high of the log.
  • Undershot – the place a water wheel is turned by water operating beneath it. The turning is led to by the power of the water relatively than the quantity.
  • Unforisfamiliat – additionally ‘Unforisfamiliate’. Not separated from the daddy’s household, nonetheless dwelling at dwelling.
  • Unopened – the leaves of a e book which have by no means been lower on the folds.
  • Unprobated will – a won’t ever submitted for probate (Authorized).
  • Unsolemn will – a will through which an executor just isn’t named (Authorized).
  • Ursine – of or attribute of bears or a bear.
  • Uruisg – a goblin or brownie in Gaelic.
  • Usucapio – additionally ‘Usucaption.’ Phrases for lengthy, uninterrupted and unchallenged possession of a factor or a proper, which conferred an entitlement to that property or proper (Authorized).
  • Use and wish – established customized.
  • Ustrinum – was the location of a historic funeral pyre; a crematorium.
  • Usufruct – the best to make use of and derive revenue from a chunk of property belonging to a different, supplied the property itself stays undiminished and unhurt in any method.
  • Usary – the apply of lending cash and charging the borrower curiosity, particularly at an exorbitant or illegally excessive charge; an extreme or illegally excessive charge of curiosity charged on borrowed cash; an archaic for curiosity charged or paid on a mortgage.
  • Utencilis & domiceillis – family items.
  • Uterine – ancestry of a person is an individual’s pure feminine ancestry, i.e. ‘matrilineal’ main from a feminine ancestor to that particular person.
  • Uxor. – a spouse, partner, consort (Authorized).
  • Uxorius – excessively submissive or devoted to at least one’s spouse.

V Phrases[edit]

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  • Vaccary – a medieval cattle farm, significantly a monastic one.
  • Vade mecum – a referential e book similar to a handbook or guide; a helpful object, continuously carried on one’s individual.
  • Vade retro satanaReturn, Devil or Step again, Devil – a Medieval Catholic system for exorcism, recorded in a 1415 manuscript discovered within the Benedictine Metten Abbey in Bavaria.
  • Vails – a tip or drink cash (Scots).
  • Legitimate – that which is authorized and binding.
  • Vambrace – tubular or gutter formed armour defences for the forearm.
  • Vanguard or Van – the main models transferring on the head of a military.
  • Varlet – a knight’s attendant, later a menial or rascal.
  • Vassal – a holder of land by feudal tenure on situations of homage and allegiance.
  • Vaticination – the act of prophesying; a prediction; a prophecy.
  • Vaunt – an ostentatious show.
  • Vellum – a skinny sheet of specifically ready pores and skin of calf, lamb, or child used for writing or printing, or for the quilt of a e book or authorized doc.
  • Venal – open to bribery; mercenary; able to betraying honor, responsibility, or scruples for a worth; marked by corrupt dealings, particularly bribery.
  • Venery – indulgence in or pursuit of sexual exercise (archaic) or the act or sport of looking; the chase.
  • Vennel – an alley or slender lane.
  • Verderer – a person serving as an official answerable for the royal forests of medieval England. Verderers had been initially a part of the traditional judicial and administrative hierarchy of the huge areas of English forests put aside by William the Conqueror for looking. The title Verderer comes from the Norman phrase ‘vert’ that means inexperienced and referring to woodland. These forests had been divided into provinces every having a Chief Justice who travelled round on circuit coping with the extra critical offences. Verderers investigated and recorded minor offences and handled the each day forest administration.
  • Vermiculate – embellished with wormlike tracery or markings, e.g. vermicular stonework.
  • Vernacular – an area constructing type utilizing native supplies and conventional strategies of development and ornamentation, particularly as distinguished from historic architectural types. One definition states {that a} constructing is vernacular if all of the supplies had been obtained from inside 400 yards of the location – except a river had been close by.
  • Vert – Inexperienced vegetation that may function cowl for deer. Utilized in English forest legislation; the best to chop such vegetation.
  • Vesica – a pointed oval form used for some ecclesiastical seals or an aureole in medieval sculpture or portray.
  • Vestment – the ritual robes worn by the clergy and/or assistants at non secular ceremonies. Particularly one worn on the celebration of the Eucharist.
  • Sacristy – a room for retaining garments or vestments, additionally an administrative group inside a parish; the ruling physique of a church. Beforehand ‘Revestry’ or ‘Revestiary’.
  • Vexillology – the scholarly research of flags. The time period was coined in 1957 by the American scholar Whitney Smith, the creator of many books and articles on the topic. It was initially thought of a sub-discipline of heraldry, and remains to be often seen as such.
  • Viaduct – a viaduct is a bridge composed of a number of small spans. The time period viaduct is derived from the Latin by way of for street and ductus to conduct one thing.
  • Through regia – see ‘King’s Freeway’.
  • Vicar – the priest of a parish within the Church of England who receives a stipend or wage however doesn’t obtain the tithes of a parish.
  • Vicinage – a restricted area round a selected space; numerous locations located close to one another and regarded as a bunch. A restricted area round a selected space; the residents of a selected neighborhood; the state of dwelling in a neighborhood; proximity.
  • Victual – meals or provisions.
  • Vide – in a UK authorized context this time period means “see”.
  • Vidette or Vedette – a mounted sentinel stationed prematurely of an outpost or a small scouting boat used to watch and report on an opposing naval power.
  • Vidua – a widow.
  • Viduus – a widower.
  • Vigesimal – a numeral counting system based mostly on twenty (in the identical method through which the strange decimal numeral system relies on ten). Twenty is the sum of all fingers and toes on a human being’s palms and toes, and is the product of 5 and 4.
  • Vigiles – an evening watchman, particularly in a fortress. A ‘Garitour’ was a day watchman.
  • Vignette – an ornamental design positioned initially or finish of a e book or chapter of a e book or alongside the border of a web page; an unbordered image, usually a portrait, that shades off into the encircling shade on the edges; a brief, normally descriptive literary sketch.
  • Vill – a time period utilized in English historical past to explain a land unit which could in any other case be described as a parish, manor or tithing.
  • Villein – a feudal tenant completely topic to a lord or hooked up to a manor; usually holding between 30 and 100 acres of land. Above villeins within the social order had been ‘Freemen’ and ‘Sokemen’.
  • Vintner – a wine service provider.
  • Violent earnings – dues payable by anybody possessing lands illegally; as with a tenant who didn’t go away his holding on the finish of a lease; he could be accountable for the earnings the owner may have made if he had resumed management of the lands himself or leased them to a different tenant (Authorized).
  • Virgate – 1 / 4 disguise of land; usually 20 or 30 acres.
  • Virgo – used to explain an single lady in English and European marriage information.
  • Visnomy – face; countenance.
  • Vitiation – the alteration of a doc with out the consent of all of the events to the doc; to cut back the worth or impair the standard of; to deprave morally; to make ineffective.
  • Volant – flying or able to flying; transferring rapidly or nimbly; in Heraldry Depicted with the wings prolonged as in flying.
  • Volte-face – a whole reversal of place in argument or place.
  • Voussoir – wedge-shaped components in an arch, together with the Keystone.
  • Vulgate – an early fifth century model of the Bible in Latin which is essentially the results of the labours of Jerome, who was commissioned by Pope Damasus I in 382 to make a revision of the outdated Latin translations. The Vulgate was a considerable enchancment over these earlier translations. Its Outdated Testomony is the primary Latin model translated immediately from the Hebrew Tanakh relatively than from the Greek Septuagint. It turned the definitive and formally promulgated Latin model of the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church and in the end took the identify versio vulgata, which suggests merely “the revealed translation”.

W Phrases[edit]

A B C D E F G H I J Ok L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


  • Wadset – a mortgage; a deed from a debtor to a creditor giving over the rents of land till a debt is paid; a pledge.
  • Wadsetters – additionally ‘Wedsetter’. Not put in pledge. A consolidation of the property which was wadset with the prevalence, which remained unwadset and undisponed.
  • Waggon – a four-wheeled horse drawn car for heavy hundreds, usually with a canopy.
  • Wag-halter – One who strikes or wears a halter; one more likely to be hanged.
  • Wain – a kind of horse-drawn, load-carrying car, used for agricultural functions relatively than transporting folks, for instance a haywain. It usually has 4 wheels however the time period has now acquired barely poetical connotations so just isn’t all the time used with technical correctness. Nevertheless, a two-wheeled ‘haywain’ could be a hay cart. Constable’s well-known portray is the principle motive for the phrase’s survival in on a regular basis utilization into the 21st century.
  • Wair – to provide or expend. As in to “wair upon land”
  • Wanton – immoral or unchaste; lewd. Gratuitously merciless; cruel. Marked by unprovoked, gratuitous maliciousness; capricious and unjust: wanton destruction.
  • Wapenshaw – actually a “present of weapons”; referring to the periodic muster of the able-bodied males of a barony or different space (in principle, twice a 12 months), to show the possession of appropriate weapons and had been (fairly) competent of their use.
  • Wapentake – a time period derived from the Outdated Norse vápnatak, the tough equal of an Anglo-Saxon hundred. The phrase denotes an administrative assembly place, sometimes a crossroads or a ford in a river. The Danelaw counties of Yorkshire, Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Northamptonshire, Nottinghamshire, Rutland and Lincolnshire had been divided into wapentakes, simply as many of the the rest of England was divided into a whole bunch.
  • Wapper – to trigger to shake; to tremble; to maneuver tremulously, as from weak point; to totter.
  • Ward – additionally ‘waird’ – feudal land tenure rights conferred via navy service obligations of tenants. Land held throughout the minority of a vassal and returned on the coming of age, along with a high-quality imposed.
  • Ward-holding – tenure of lands via ward rights.
  • Warding – imprisonment.
  • Ward land – lands held in ward.
  • Warping – a way of reclamation of marshland by proscribing sea water move to trigger deposition of silt and concomitant elevating of floor degree, producing very fertile farmland.
  • Warrandice – an enterprise, normally within the type of a “clause of warrandice ” in a grant, whereby the individual making the grant promised to keep up and help the grantee within the property or proper granted him, towards all challenges made to his proper or impediments regarding it which could come up after the grant was made (Authorized).
  • Guarantee deed – ensures a transparent property title from the vendor to the customer (authorized).
  • Washer-woman – or ‘Bean Nighe’. The “lady of the fairy mounds” is a feminine spirit in Scottish mythology, normally seen as an omen of dying and a messenger from the Otherworld. Her Irish counterpart is the ‘Banshee’.
  • Wassail – a sizzling, spiced punch usually related to winter celebrations of northern Europe, normally these related with holidays similar to Christmas, New Yr’s and Twelfth Night time. Significantly standard in Germanic nations, the time period itself is a contraction of the Outdated English toast wæs þu hæl, or “be thou hale!” (i.e., “be in good well being”).
  • watch and ward – the written report or ‘return’ made to a superior by those that held property in burghs.
  • Water bouget – a pair of leather-based baggage for carrying water at both finish of a pole
  • Water Finances – a pair of leather-based baggage for carrying water at both finish of a pole
  • Watermark – the trademark of a papermaker, made by wire design fastened to a mould; seen when the paper is held as much as the sunshine.[49]
  • Water Wall – the substantial wall constructed of dressed stones, fastidiously mortared with lime, which withstood the fixed speeding of water and the vibrations of the turning water wheel.
  • Wattshode – a kind of blue fabric standard across the 16th Century. Additionally used as a spot identify.
  • Waulk – mill. From ‘stroll’ – a ending course of fulling on fabric (Scots).
  • Wealdh – the Saxon phrase for the native inhabitants of Britain. The phrase got here to imply ‘slave’ or ‘bondman’. Such names as Wales and Cornwall are derived from this phrase.
  • Webster – an individual concerned within the weaving commerce.
  • Weg – a minor street from the Anglo-Saxon.
  • Weir – an overflow-type dam generally used to boost the extent of a river or stream. Historically been used to create mill ponds. Water flows excessive of a weir, though some weirs have sluice gates which launch water at a degree beneath the highest of the weir.
  • Welkin – An archaic time period for the vault of heaven; the sky, deriving from the Center English ‘welken’, a cloud. The time period also can imply the obvious floor of the imaginary sphere on which celestial our bodies seem like projected.
  • Weltering – to wallow, roll, or toss about, as in mud or excessive seas; to lie soaked in a liquid, similar to blood; To roll and surge, as the ocean.
  • Wench – a younger lady; a feminine servant; a lewd lady. Etymology: Center English wenche, brief for wenchel baby, from Outdated English wencel; akin to Outdated Excessive German wankon to totter, waver and possibly to Outdated Excessive German winchan to stagger.
  • Weregild – additionally ‘Cro’. The assythement on account of be paid to the buddies or household of somebody who had been killed, by the killer.
  • Wester – western, mendacity extra to the west; utilized to the extra westerly of two locations (Scots).
  • Weyve – a feminine outlaw; deserted with out the safety of the legislation.
  • Wheelwright – somebody who makes or repairs, particularly picket wheels.
  • Whig – a member of an 18th- and 19th-century British political get together that was against the Tories; a supporter of the struggle towards England throughout the American Revolution.
  • Whiggamore – Whig; – a cant time period utilized in contempt to Scotch Presbyterians.
  • White lease – blackmail; lease to be paid in silver.
  • Whitsunday – the Sunday of the feast of Whitsun or Pentecost within the Christian liturgical 12 months, noticed 7 weeks after Easter. Additionally one of many Scottish ‘Time period Days’ or British ‘Quarter Days.’
  • Wicca – quite a lot of pagan practices based on non secular and magical ideas, and most of its adherents establish as witches. As such it’s distinguished not solely by its non secular beliefs, however by its initiatory system, organisational construction, secrecy, and apply of magic. British Conventional Wiccans typically won’t proselytise, and will even deny membership to some people, since as soon as initiated an individual is taken into account to be a priest or priestess and is anticipated to develop the abilities and duty that that entails.
  • Wilding – a Crab apple (Malus sylvestris).[7]
  • Will – a doc stating how an individual desires actual and private property divided after dying.
  • Will-o’-the-wisp or ‘ignis fatuus’ – refers back to the ghostly lights typically seen at night time or twilight that hover over damp floor in nonetheless air — usually over bogs. It appears like a flickering lamp, and is usually mentioned to recede if approached. A lot folklore surrounds the legend, however science has supplied a number of potential explanations
  • Winnowing – utilizing wind to separate the chaff from the grain. A uncommon instance of a ‘winnowing byre’ survives largely intact at The Hill in Dunlop. Ayrshire. This was the house of Barbara Gilmour of Dunlop cheese fame, circa 1990.
  • Wire traces – the intently spaced horizontal traces in ‘laid’ paper.
  • Want Tree – a person tree, normally distinctive on account of species, place or look, and recognized as being of particular non secular worth or religious identification. By custom, folks making needs and choices to the tree in a roundabout way thought the ritual votive providing will increase the probabilities of the want being granted. This behaviour, utilizing dwelling timber, is one in all making an providing to the character spirit or goddess of the tree with the hope of gaining profit.
  • Wisp – a bundle of hay or straw typically used as a torch.
  • Wit – blame or fault, from the Anglo-Saxon wit.[5]
  • Witness – a witness is a person current at an occasion similar to a wedding or the signing of a doc who can vouch that the occasion passed off (authorized).
  • Wodehouse – additionally ‘Woodwose’ or ‘Woodhouse’ – the aboriginal Wild man or lady of medieval lore. Lined in shaggy hair, dwelling in primitive communities within the forests and deeply silly.
  • Wodwo – See ‘Wodehouse.’
  • Wold – a wooden, normally of some appreciable dimension. Used as a spot identify element in Southwold, Stow within the Wold, and so on.
  • Woodland Insurance policies – woodlands, normally broadleaved and actively managed as a part of an property.
  • Woodward – a “ward of the wooden” or “guardian of the wooden”. See Verderer’.
  • Workhouse – as soon as simply that means someplace work was completed. From the mid- 17th century, a spot set as much as present work for the unemployed poor. Later, a spot the place the destitute may stay and be fed, normally in return for work.
  • Workhouse Asylum / Lunatic Wards– some workhouses contained wards completely used for lunatics and in some locations a separate constructing (belonging to and administered by the native Poor Regulation authority) was used completely for the lunatics, or as a basic hospital with lunatic wards.
  • Worsted – a high-quality easy yarn spun from combed lengthy staple wool.
  • Wove paper – paper which has no chain traces or wire traces, normally made on a woven wire mesh.[49]
  • Wraith – an apparition of a dwelling individual that seems as a portent simply earlier than that individual’s dying, additionally the ghost of a lifeless individual.
  • Writ of attachment – a courtroom order authorizing the seizure of property ample to cowl money owed and courtroom prices for not showing in courtroom (Authorized).
  • Writ of summons – a doc ordering an individual to look in courtroom (authorized).
  • Author to the signet – initially clerks who ready letters below the king’s signet seal. When the signet got here into widespread use because the technique of sealing all summonses to the king’s courtroom and all diligences issued by it, they elevated in quantity and, as writers to the signet, not solely ready all summonses and diligences, however acted as brokers or attorneys in presenting circumstances within the Court docket of Session.
  • Wrythen – ornately twisted.
  • Wych – as in Wych Elm. The Hwicce (additionally spelt Hwicca or Wiccia) had been one of many peoples of Anglo-Saxon England.
  • Wynd – an alley (Scots).

X Phrases[edit]

A B C D E F G H I J Ok L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


  • Xenia – presents to a visitor or friends.
  • Xoanon – a primitive, normally picket picture of a deity purported to have fallen from heaven.
  • Xylography – the method of printing from wooden blocks, and so on.[49]
  • Xystus – an historic Greek portico.

Y Phrases[edit]

A B C D E F G H I J Ok L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


  • Yair – a fish lure of stones, usually on a seashore.
  • Yapp edges – the turn-in on the fore fringe of some vellum bindings.
  • Yard – a time period utilized in Scotland to cowl the assorted walled courtyards, service yards, walled gardens and orchards that unfold in each path from a home.
  • Yare – nimble, brisk; prepared.
  • Yclept – (archaic) to name by the identify of.
  • Yealm – a bundle of tightly certain ‘straw’ as utilized in thatching.
  • Yeoman – a self-sufficient farmer; freeholder who works a small property of about 30 acres; they had been ranked beneath gentleman. They had been compelled by legislation to personal a bow and arrow and needed to combat for the lord when required.
  • But – additionally ‘Yat’. A gate in Scotland, Cumbria and elsewhere, e.g. Yetts O’Muckart’.
  • Yogh – a letter (Ȝ ȝ; Center English: yoȝ), utilized in Center English and Center Scots, the place it represented y. In Center Scots the character yogh got here to be confused with a cursive z and the early Scots printers usually used z; in consequence just a few Lowland Scots phrases have a z rather than a yogh, similar to Culzean, Dalziel, and Drumelzier.
  • Younker – a younger man; baby.
  • Yoke – an archaic measure of land space; consisting of 4 yokes to the ‘Sulung’, which was bigger than the ‘Cover’ and from time to time handled as equal to 2 hides. It was primarily utilized in Kent.

Z Phrases[edit]

A B C D E F G H I J Ok L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


  • Zealot – an uncompromising or excessive partisan; a fanatic.
  • Zeitgeist – the spirit of the occasions or the development of thought and feeling in a interval.
  • Zenith – the very best level in a single’s fortune; a time of nice prosperity, and so on.
  • Zeppelin – a big German dirigible airship of the early 20th century.
  • Zetetic – continuing by inquiry.
  • Zodiac – derived from the Greek phrase for animals. The Zodiac is an astronomical association of the planets described by way of twelve equal areas with the determine of an animal assigned to every, the ‘Indicators of the Zodiac’.
  • Zounds – an exclamation derived from God’s wounds.

References[edit]

  1. McKean, Charles (2001). The Scottish Chateau. Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-2323-7. P. 53.
  2. Mackenzie, W. Mackay (1927). The Mediaeval Fort in Scotland. Pub. Methuen & Co. Ltd., London. P. 120
  3. Rackham, Oliver (1976). Timber and Woodland within the British Panorama. Pub. J.M.Dent & Sons Ltd. ISBN 0-460-04183-5. P. 194.
  4. abc Rees-Mogg, William (1988). The right way to Purchase Uncommon Books. Pub. Phaidon. Christie’s. ISBN 0-7148-8019-1. P.144. Invalid tag; identify “Rees-Mogg” outlined a number of occasions with completely different content material
  5. abcdef Corsehill Baron-Court docket E book. Archaeological & Historic Collections referring to the counties of Ayr and Wigton. Pub. Ayr & Wigton Arch Assoc. 1884.
  6. Mackenzie, W. Mackay (1927). The Mediaeval Fort in Scotland. Pub. Methuen & Co. Ltd. P. 29.
  7. abcde Rackham, Oliver (1976). Timber and Woodland within the British Panorama. Pub. J.M.Dent & Sons Ltd. ISBN 0-460-04183-5. Invalid tag; identify “Rackham” outlined a number of occasions with completely different content material Invalid tag; identify “Rackham” outlined a number of occasions with completely different content material Invalid tag; identify “Rackham” outlined a number of occasions with completely different content material Invalid tag; identify “Rackham” outlined a number of occasions with completely different content material
  8. MacBride, MacKenzie (1910). Arran of the Bens, the Glens and the Courageous. Pub. Foulis. P. 76 – 80.
  9. abc The Previous throughout us. (1979) Pub. Reader’s Digest. Invalid tag; identify “The Previous” outlined a number of occasions with completely different content material
  10. Hansell, Peter and Jean (1988). Dovecotes. ISBN 0-85263-920-1 P. 5.
  11. ab Sinclair, Cecil (1996), Tracing Scottish Native Historical past. Scottish Report Workplace. HMSO, Edinburgh.
  12. The Previous throughout us.(1979) Pub. Reader’s Digest. P.146
  13. Gap, Christina (1950). English Customized & Utilization. Pub. Batsford.
  14. abcde Warrack, Alexander (1982).”Chambers Scots Dictionary”. Chambers. ISBN 0-550-11801-2.
  15. The Previous throughout us.(1979) Pub. Reader’s Digest. P. 138.
  16. ab Rees-Mogg, William (1988). The right way to Purchase Uncommon Books. Pub. Phaidon. Christie’s. ISBN 0-7148-8019-1. P.145.
  17. Beare, Beryl (1996), Scotland. Myths & Legends. Pub. Parragon, Avonmouth. ISBN 0-75251-694-9. P. 65.
  18. abcde Rees-Mogg, William (1988). The right way to Purchase Uncommon Books. Pub. Phaidon. Christie’s. ISBN 0-7148-8019-1. P.146.
  19. Bryan, Anthony (2006). Francis Frith’s Windmills & Watermills. Pub. Frith Assortment. ISBN 0-7537-1404-3. P. 114
  20. Gap, Christina (1950). English Customized & Utilization. Pub. Batsford. P. 53 – 55.
  21. E book of the British Countryside. Pub. London : Drive Publications, (1973). p. 239.
  22. Muir, Richard (2008). Woods, Hedgerows and Leafy Lanes. Pub. Tempus, Stroud. ISBN 0-7524-4615-8 Invalid ISBN. P. 52.
  23. The Previous throughout us.(1979) Pub. Reader’s Digest. P. 156.
  24. Rackham, Oliver (1976) Timber and Woodland within the British Panorama. Pub. J.M.Dent & Sons Ltd. ISBN 0-460-04183-5. P. 147 – 148.
  25. Bryan, Anthony (2006). Francis Frith’s Windmills & Watermills. Pub. Frith Assortment. ISBN 0-7537-1404-3. P. 114
  26. Transactions of the Dumfrieshire and Galloway Pure Historical past and Antiquarian Society. LXXIII. 1999. Two Medieval inscribed stones from Dumfries. P. 224 – 225.
  27. Paterson, James (1866), Historical past of the Counties of Ayr and Wigton. Vol. III. – Cunninghame. Half I. Pub. James Stillie, Edinburgh. P. 131.
  28. Donnelly, J. (2000). Within the territory of Auchencrow: lengthy continuity or late improvement in early Scottish area -systems? PSAS, 130, 743 – 772.
  29. Mackenzie, W. Mackay (1927). The Mediaeval Fort in Scotland. Pub. Methuen & Co. Ltd. P. 81.
  30. Pennick, Nigel (1996). Celtic Sacred Landscapes. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-01666-6. P. 42.
  31. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Vol. 129. (1999). P. 803.
  32. Pennick, Nigel (1996). Celtic Sacred Landscapes. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-01666-6. P. 103.
  33. Pennick, Nigel (1996). Celtic Sacred Landscapes. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-01666-6. P. 134.
  34. Bryan, Anthony (2006). Francis Frith’s Windmills & Watermills. Pub. Frith Assortment. ISBN 0-7537-1404-3. P. 23.
  35. The Previous throughout us. (1979) Pub. Reader’s Digest. P. 335.
  36. McKean, Charles (2001). The Scottish Chateau. Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-2323-7. P. 159.
  37. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Vol. 129. (1999). P. 872.
  38. Mackenzie, W. Mackay (1927). The Mediaeval Fort in Scotland. Pub. Methuen & Co. Ltd., London. P. 107
  39. Chambers, Robert (1885). Home Annals of Scotland. Edinburgh : Chambers. p. 177.
  40. The Previous throughout us. (1979) Pub. Reader’s Digest. P. 323.
  41. Bryan, Anthony (2006). Francis Frith’s Windmills & Watermills. Pub. Frith Assortment. ISBN 0-7537-1404-3. P. 114.
  42. Teltown marriage
  43. Pennick, Nigel (1996). Celtic Sacred Landscapes. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-01666-6. P. 110.
  44. Pennick, Nigel (1996). Celtic Sacred Landscapes. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-01666-6. P. 132.
  45. Smith, John. Cheesemaking in Scotland – A Historical past. Scottish Dairy Affiliation. ISBN 0-9525323-0-1.
  46. Beare, Beryl (1996), Scotland. Myths & Legends. Pub. Parragon, Avonmouth. ISBN 0-75251-694-9. P. 78.
  47. Mackenzie, W. Mackay (1927). The Medieval Fort in Scotland. Pub. Methuen & Co. Ltd., London. P. 127.
  48. Mackenzie, W. Mackay (1927). The Mediaeval Fort in Scotland. Pub. Methuen & Co. Ltd., London. P. 127.
  49. abcd Rees-Mogg, William (1988). The right way to Purchase Uncommon Books. Pub. Phaidon. Christie’s. ISBN 0-7148-8019-1. P.148.


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