Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Nature/Flowers – Advanced

Flowers – Superior
Basic Convention
Talent Stage 3 Answer-Keys 06.jpg
Yr of Introduction: 1949

1. Have the Flower Honor.[edit]

Directions and ideas for incomes the Flowers honor could be discovered within the Nature chapter.

2. {Photograph}, accumulate photos of or sketch 75 species of flowers. Make a scrapbook from these and appropriately label every flower.[edit]

Quite than discovering a specimen and evaluating it to 1000’s of images in a Area Information, the candidate for the Flowers – Superior honor will want a extra systematic strategy to subject identification if there’s ever to be any hope to find 75 species. A very powerful software to the budding botanist is a key, which is a collection of questions, the solutions to that are mutually unique, and result in one other set of questions. See requirement Four for extra particulars on utilizing a key.

As soon as the Pathfinder has a key in hand, it’s time to set out in the hunt for wildflowers. The vital factor to recollect right here is that the time period wildflowers covers a lot of various crops, not simply those with showy blossoms. Many flowering crops bloom for under a short while, and fortunately, the blossom (although helpful) will not be the one indicator of its identification. Wildflowers within the context of this honor are any flowering crops which are neither timber nor grass. This excludes ferns (which don’t flower) and mushrooms (which aren’t crops, however fairly, are fungi). This definition does embody what most individuals would name “weeds”.

Along with having key, the Pathfinder will even want a digicam or a sketch pad. Be aware that this honor doesn’t require the gathering of the crops themselves. The truth is, this follow is strongly discouraged, as a troop of Pathfinders in the hunt for wildflowers can rapidly remove them from a heretofore thriving habitat. If the Pathfinder opts to make use of a digicam, keep in mind that there isn’t a requirement for the images to be professional-grade prize-winning entries in a world competitors.

Even when the Pathfinder will not be artist, there’s nonetheless a lot worth in making an attempt to sketch a plant. Sketching requires consideration to the main points, and because the Pathfinder spends time recording these particulars within the type of a sketch, the data will work its means into the reminiscence. Afterwards, the Pathfinder will be capable of take a look at the sketch – nonetheless badly drawn it could be – and recall a vivid picture of the plant because it actually was.

Regardless of this, we nonetheless advocate {that a} good key be taken alongside within the subject and that the Pathfinder try and establish the plant whereas there. In any other case, the important thing could ask a query that can not be answered by wanting on the sketches (and even images) and the Pathfinder can have no recourse apart from to return to the sector to assemble the required info, or surrender on figuring out that specimen.

3. Give the distinguishing traits of the flowers of every of the 12 frequent plant households.[edit]

The Orchid household is the most important household of flowering crops, containing some 25,000 species.
Orchids, just like the grasses and the palms, which they resemble in some methods—for example the type of their leaves—are monocotyledons. They’ve one cotyledon, or embryonic leaf, in distinction to the 2 of most flowering crops. Orchids have easy leaves with parallel veins. Their form is extremely variable between species.

  • Vanilla
  • Girl’s Slipper
  • Orchid

Vegetation on this household have linear leaves, largely with parallel veins, and flower components in threes.

  • Turk’s Cap Lily
  • Wild Garlic
  • Onion
  • Trillium
  • Fawn Lily
  • Tulip
  • Hyacinth


The household was previously named Cruciferae (“cross-bearing”), as a result of the 4 petals of their flowers are paying homage to crosses.

  • Cabbage
  • Broccoli
  • Cauliflower
  • Brussels sprouts
  • Mustard
  • Horseradish
  • Watercress

The leaves are nearly at all times reverse, hardly ever whorled. The blades are complete, petiolate and sometimes stipulate. These stipules will not be sheathforming. The flowers are common and largely have 5-way symmetry, i.e. with 5 petals and 5 sepals, however generally with Four petals. The sepals are free from each other or united. The petals are fringed or deeply cleft on the finish.

  • Carnation
  • Bladder Campion
  • Swamp Milkweed
  • Frequent Milkweed
  • Butterfly Plant
  • Sand Milkweed
  • Whorled Milkweed
  • Deptford Pink


Vegetation within the Buttercup household are largely herbaceous crops, however with some woody climbers (corresponding to Clematis) and subshrubs (e.g. Xanthorhiza). Leaves are fairly often roughly palmately compound. The flowers have many free stamens organized in a spiral and normally many free pistils. Flowers are most frequently grouped in terminal racemes, panicles or cymes.

  • Delphinium
  • Columbine
  • Marsh Marigold
  • Thimbleweed
  • Clematis
  • Hellbore
  • Larkspur
  • Buttercup

Cacti are distinctive and weird crops, that are tailored to extraordinarily arid and sizzling environments, displaying a variety of anatomical and physiological options which preserve water. Their stems have expanded into inexperienced succulent constructions containing the chlorophyll essential for all times and development, whereas the leaves have turn out to be the spines for which cacti are so well-known.

  • Saguaro
  • Barrel Cactus
  • Prickly Pear
  • Rabbit Ear

Members of the Rose household have 5 sepals and 5 petals that are flat and wavy on the margins. Every flower has at the very least ten stamens. All members of the rose household have a hypanthium, which is a bowl-shaped a part of a flower consisting of the bottoms of the sepals, petals, and stamens caught collectively.

  • Rose
  • Apple
  • Blackberry
  • Strawberry
  • Raspberry
  • Apple
  • Plum
  • Peach
  • Cherry
  • Pear

All members of this household have five-petaled flowers wherein the superior ovary ripens to kind a “pod”, technically referred to as a legume, whose two sides break up aside, releasing the seeds that are hooked up to 1 or each seams. A major attribute of legumes is that they host micro organism of their roots, inside constructions referred to as root nodules. These micro organism have the power to take nitrogen gasoline out of the air and convert it to a type of nitrogen that’s usable to the host plant. This course of is named nitrogen fixation.

  • Bean
  • Lupins
  • Clover
  • Alfalfa
  • Peas
  • Peanuts
  • Soybeans
  • Lentils
  • Mimosa
  • Kudzu


The parsley household has flower clusters being within the type of a compound “umbel”. The small flowers are radially symmetrical with 5 small sepals, 5 petals and 5 stamens.

  • Cumin
  • Parsley
  • Carrot (Queen Anne’s Lace)
  • Dill
  • Caraway
  • Fennel
  • Angelica


Plant stem with a distinguished ocreae

The seeds of the crops belonging to the smartweed household have a triangular form. Leaves of those crops have a peculiar pair of sheathing stipules often called ocreae.

  • Buckwheat
  • Sorrel
  • Rhubarb
  • Knotgrass


The Bellflower household consists largely of herbs, shrubs, and extra hardly ever small timber, which normally have milky non-toxic sap. Leaves of those species are sometimes alternate, extra hardly ever reverse. They’re additionally easy and with out stipules. Flowers are bisexual, bell-shape, consisting of a slim tube-like corolla with small spreading lobes. Flowers are pretty usually blue. Fruits are sometimes berries, however will also be capsules.

  • Bluebell
  • Harebell
  • Lobelia
  • Balloonflower

The flowers within the Mint household sometimes have petals fused into an higher lip and a decrease lip. The leaves emerge oppositely, every pair at proper angles to the earlier one or whorled. The stems are continuously sq. in cross part, however this isn’t present in all family members, and is usually present in different plant households. The flowers are bilaterally symmetrical with 5 united petals, 5 united sepals. They’re normally bisexual and have a flower cluster that appears like a whorl of flowers however really consists of two crowded clusters.

  • Basil
  • Mint
  • Rosemary
  • Sage
  • Savory
  • Marjoram
  • Oregano
  • Thyme
  • Lavender
  • Perilla
  • Self-heal

Aster (Daisy)[edit]

A typical Asteraceae flower head (right here Bidens torta) displaying the person flowers

Flowers of a sunflower with completely different varieties and phases (sterile ray flowers, disc flowers in feminine, male and unopened phases)

Vegetation within the Aster household sometimes have one or each of two sorts of florets. The outer perimeter of a flower head like that of a sunflower consists of florets possessing a protracted strap-like petal, termed a ligule; these are the ray florets. The internal portion of the flower head (or disc) consists of small flowers with tubular corollas; these are the disc florets. The composition of asteraceous inflorescences varies from all ray flowers (like dandelions, genus Taraxacum) to all disc flowers (like pineapple weeds).

  • Aster
  • Frequent Daisy
  • Oxeye Daisy
  • Black-eyed Susan
  • Lettuce
  • Chicory
  • Sunflower
  • Safflower
  • Jerusalem Artichoke
  • Goldenrod
  • Chrysanthemum
  • Dandelion
  • Boneset
  • Strawflower
  • Ragwort


The crops are annual or perennial herbs with flowers which are zygomorphic (could be divided by solely a single airplane into two mirror-image halves, very similar to an individual’s face), or hardly ever actinomorphic
(could be divided into symmetrical halves by multiple longitudinal airplane passing by means of the axis, a lot as a pie could be reduce into a number of equal and an identical items).

  • Butterfly Bush
  • Figwort
  • Foxglove
  • Mullein

Inside hyperlinks[edit]

Hydroponics for orchid cultivation

Artistic Concept: Use a foldable to file / manage this info. Go right here to find out how.

4. Show means to make use of plant keys to genus and species.[edit]

Identification keys – additionally referred to as dichotomous keys – are a collection of questions which when answered appropriately and within the sequence given reveal the identification of a plant (or animal, or any just about different factor that naturalists have studied prior to now three of 4 hundred years).

The questions are designed such that they provide two (generally extra) mutually unique solutions. The reply chosen when utilizing a key will result in a special query (or to the identification of a species). Naturalists have developed varied schemes for figuring out the subsequent set of questions.

Many keys are replete with technical phrases which could be very complicated to the novice and it is rather vital to grasp all of the terminology used within the query earlier than selecting a solution. Fortunately most keys will even have a glossary, and ideally, illustrations as effectively. In the event you come to a time period you don’t perceive, look it up till you do perceive. A key may be very very similar to instructions to an unfamiliar place, and the questions are like highway indicators. In the event you make a fallacious flip, you’ll find yourself within the fallacious place.

Some keys are higher than others, and a few try to make use of much less technical jargon. When you have issue with a key, strive a special one. One other factor that distinguishes key from a poor one is the variety of “highway indicators” given at a specific juncture. As an illustration, the important thing could ask if the plant’s fruit is pink or blue, and also you occur to be inspecting a plant when at a time when it doesn’t bear fruit. Various questions assist in conditions like this.

It’s best to have the important thing in hand if you find yourself inspecting a plant, as it could very effectively ask a query that can not be answered with out shut examination (generally with a hand lens, and even with a microscope). Learn all of the choices offered by the query, as generally they’re solely subtly completely different. Select the reply that matches finest. If not one of the solutions appear to use to the plant at hand, you’ll have beforehand chosen an incorrect reply. Backtrack and double verify. When the final query is answered, and if all of the questions had been answered appropriately, then the species might be efficiently recognized. Good keys will finish with an in depth description of the plant. It is very important learn this description and evaluate it to the plant you might be keying simply to make certain it’s the proper one.

5. Inform the distinction between excellent and imperfect flowers. What is supposed by pistillate and staminate flowers? Give an instance of monoecious and dioecious crops. Inform the distinction between monocotyledons and dicotyledons.[edit]

Good and Imperfect[edit]

The phrases excellent and imperfect as pertaining to flowers pertains to their sexuality. Flowers are the sexual organs of a plant, they usually could comprise male (stamens), feminine (pistils), or each components. A plant is claimed to be excellent if it possesses each female and male equal components. If a flower has solely male, or solely feminine constructions, it’s mentioned to be imperfect.

Pistillate and Staminate[edit]

A flower is pistillate if it possesses solely pistils, that are a plant’s feminine reproductive constructions. If it possesses solely stamens (the male reproductive constructions), it’s referred to as staminate.

Monoecious and Dioecious[edit]

The Alder is monoecious. Proven right here: maturing male flower catkins on proper, final yr’s feminine catkins on left

Holly (Ilex aquifolium) is dioecious: (above) shoot with flowers from male plant; (prime proper) male flower enlarged, displaying stamens with pollen and decreased, sterile stigma; (beneath) shoot with flowers from feminine plant; (decrease proper) feminine flower enlarged, displaying stigma
and decreased, sterile stamens with no pollen

A monoecious plant is one which possesses each female and male unisexual flowers on the identical plant; from Greek for “one family”. People bearing flowers of each sexes on the identical time are referred to as concurrently monoecious. People that bear solely flowers of a single intercourse at one time are referred to as consecutively monoecious. An instance of a monoecious plant is the Alder (a shrub).

A dioecious plant is one wherein the female and male unisexual flowers happen on completely different people; from Greek for “two households”. An instance of a dioecious plant is the Holly.

Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons[edit]

Grass sprouting on left (a monocot), displaying a single cotyledon. In comparison with a dicot (proper)

Dicotyledons, or “dicots”, is a reputation for a gaggle of flowering crops whose seed sometimes accommodates two embryonic leaves or cotyledons. Monocotyledons, or “monocots” have a single embryonic leaf.

6. From the Bible level out two religious classes wherein writers used flowers for illustrations.[edit]

Jesus spoke of the futility of fear:

Matthew 6:28-30
“And why do you are concerned about garments? See how the lilies of the sector develop. They don’t labor or spin. 29But I inform you that not even Solomon in all his splendor was dressed like one among these. 30If that’s how God garments the grass of the sector, which is right here immediately and tomorrow is thrown into the hearth, will he not far more dress you, O you of little religion? – NIV

The Lord brought on Aaron’s employees to blossom to point out that He had set him up because the excessive priest.

Exodus 17:8
The following day Moses entered the Tent of the Testimony and noticed that Aaron’s employees, which represented the home of Levi, had not solely sprouted however had budded, blossomed and produced almonds. – NIV

7. Title and describe eight toxic crops, noting the actual a part of the plant that’s toxic.[edit]

Posin Hemlock[edit]

Toxic.png Poison Hemlock Toxic.png

Binomial Title: Conium spp.

Description: Poison Hemlock is a herbaceous biennial plant which grows between 1.5–2.5 m tall, with a easy inexperienced stem, normally noticed or streaked with pink or purple on the decrease half of the stem. The leaves are finely divided and lacy, general triangular in form, as much as 50 cm lengthy and 40 cm broad. The flowers are small, white, clustered in umbels as much as 10–15 cm throughout. The plant is usually mistaken for fennel, parsley or wild carrot though the attribute stem hairs of the wild carrots are lacking. The Conium root is fleshy, white and sometimes unbranched and could be mistaken for parsnip. When crushed, the leaves and root emit a rank, disagreeable odour usually in comparison with that of parsnips.

The place discovered: Poison Hemlock is native to Europe and the Mediterranean area, and to southern Africa, however has been launched and naturalized in lots of different areas, together with a lot of Asia, North America and Australia. Poison hemlock is usually discovered on poorly drained soils, significantly close to streams, ditches, and different floor water.

WARNING: All plant components are toxic however as soon as the plant is dried, the poison is drastically decreased, nonetheless not gone fully. Hemlock is also called “poison parsley” or “noticed parsley”.

Conium maculatum

Conium maculatum

Poison Ivy[edit]

Toxic.png Poison Ivy Toxic.png

Binomial Title: Toxicodendron radicans

Description: Poison Ivy is a woody vine that’s well-known for its means to supply urushiol, a pores and skin irritant that causes an itching rash for most individuals. The leaves seem in teams of three with almond-shaped leaflets. The colour ranges from mild inexperienced (normally the youthful leaves) to darkish inexperienced (mature leaves), turning shiny pink in fall. The leaflets are 3-12 cm lengthy, hardly ever as much as 30 cm. Every leaflet has a couple of or no tooth alongside its edge, and the leaf floor is easy. The stem and vine of poison ivy are brown and woody, and because the plant grows older, it could start to climb timber, attaching itself firmly to the tree by sending fibers into its bark.

The place discovered: Discovered usually in wooded areas, particularly alongside edge areas, poison ivy grows vigorously all through a lot of North America, together with all provinces (however not the territories) and all states besides Alaska. It additionally grows in uncovered rocky areas and in open fields and disturbed areas. The crops can develop as a shrub as much as about 1.2 meters (Four ft) tall, as a groundcover 10–25 centimeters (4–10 in) excessive, or as a climbing vine on varied helps. Older vines on substantial helps ship out lateral branches that will at first be mistaken for tree limbs.

Poison ivy is extra frequent now than when Europeans first entered North America. Actual property improvement adjoining to wild, undeveloped land has created “edge results”, enabling poison ivy to kind huge, lush colonies in such locations. It’s listed as a noxious weed within the U.S. states of Minnesota and Michigan.

Poison ivy hardly ever grows at altitudes above 1,500 meters (5,000 ft).

WARNING: All components of the plant are in a position to produce urishiol, together with the roots, leaves, stems, vines, flowers, and berries. Individuals have been recognized to contract poison ivy by straight contacting the plant, not directly contacting the plant (i.e., a pet will get into poison ivy after which rubs in opposition to its proprietor), inhaling the smoke from the burning crops, or ingesting the plant (ingesting poison ivy could be deadly).

Poison ivy

Poison ivy

Western Poison Oak[edit]

Toxic.png Western Poison Oak Toxic.png

Binomial Title: Toxicodendron diversilobum

Description: Western Poison-oak is extraordinarily variable in development behavior and leaf look. It grows as a dense shrub in open daylight, or as a climbing vine in shaded areas. Like Poison ivy, it reproduces by creeping rootstocks or by seeds. The leaves are divided into Three leaflets, 3½ to 10 centimeters lengthy, with scalloped, toothed, or lobed edges- typically resembling the leaves of a real oak, although the Western Poison-oak leaves will are typically extra shiny. Leaves are typically shiny inexperienced within the spring (or bronze when first unfolding), yellow-green to reddish in the summertime, and shiny pink or pink within the fall. White flowers kind within the spring and, if fertilized, grow to be greenish- white or tan berries.

The place discovered: Western Poison-oak or Pacific Poison-oak (Toxicodendron diversilobum) is discovered solely on the Pacific Coast of the US and of Canada. This can be very frequent in that area, the place it’s the predominant species of the genus

WARNING: All components of this plant comprise urushiol, which might trigger extreme dermatitis in some people. See the entry beneath Poison Ivy for extra particulars.

Western Poison Oak showing its fall colors

Western Poison Oak displaying its fall colours

Atlantic Poison Oak[edit]

Toxic.png Atlantic Poison Oak Toxic.png

Binomial Title: Toxicodendron pubescens

Description: Atlantic Poison-oak (Toxicodendron pubescens or previously Rhus pubescens) is an erect shrub that may develop to 1 m (Three ft) tall. The leaves are alternate, with three leaflets on every. The leaflets are normally furry, and are variable in dimension and form, however most frequently resembling white oak leaves. The leaves are normally 15 cm (6 in) lengthy, turning yellow or orange in autumn. The fruits are small, spherical, and yellowish or greenish.

The place discovered: Atlantic Poison Oak is native to the Southeastern United States westward to Texas and Oklahoma.

WARNING: All components of this plant comprise urushiol, which might trigger extreme dermatitis in some people. See the entry beneath Poison Ivy for extra particulars.

Atlantic Poison Oak

Atlantic Poison Oak

Poison Sumac[edit]

Toxic.png Poison Sumac Toxic.png

Binomial Title: Toxicodendron vernix

Description: The top of the tree is spherical and slim and the branches slender and fairly pendulous; usually it’s merely a shrub. Small branches and younger stems pithy. Has acrid, milky, toxic juice which turns black on publicity. The compound leaves are pinnate, 25-50 cm lengthy, with 7 – 13 leaflets; the leaflets are 4-10 cm lengthy and generally mistaken for particular person leaves. The veins from which the leaflets develop are at all times pink.
The fruit is a small white or gray berry, produced in panicles 10-20 cm lengthy; this distinguishes it from different sumacs which have pink berries. Differs from different sumacs in having shorter leaves, leaflets fewer, margins are complete. It’s present in moist soils, whereas the others prefer it dry.

The place discovered: Poison sumac grows completely in very moist or flooded soils, normally in swamps and peat bogs, within the japanese United States and Canada.
Within the U.S., it may possibly develop as far west as Idaho, the place it’s discovered solely within the southern a part of the state.

WARNING: All components of the plant comprise a resin referred to as urushiol. See the entry on Poison Ivy for particulars.

Leaves of a Poison Sumac shrub

Leaves of a Poison Sumac shrub

Bitter Nightshade[edit]

Toxic.png Bitter Nightshade, Bittersweet Toxic.png

Binomial Title: Solanum dulcamara

Description: Bittersweet is a semi-woody herbaceous perennial vine, which scrambles over different crops, able to reaching a top of Four m the place appropriate assist is accessible, however extra usually 1-2 m excessive. The leaves are 4-12 cm lengthy, roughly arrowhead-shaped, and sometimes lobed on the base. The flowers are in free clusters of 3-20, (1-1.5 cm) throughout, star-shaped, with 5 purple petals and yellow stamens and magnificence pointing ahead.

The place discovered: It’s native to Europe and Asia, and broadly naturalised elsewhere, together with North America, the place it’s an invasive drawback weed. It happens in a really wide selection of habitats, from woodlands to scrubland, hedges and marshes.

WARNING: The fruit is an ovoid pink berry about 1 cm lengthy, gentle and juicy, toxic to people and livestock however edible for birds, which disperse the seeds broadly. As with most Solanum species, the foliage can be toxic to people.

Bitter Nightshade, Bittersweet

Bitter Nightshade, Bittersweet


Toxic.png Dogbane Toxic.png

Binomial Title: Apocynum cannabinum

Description: The stems are reddish and comprise a milky latex able to inflicting pores and skin blisters. The leaves are reverse, easy broad lanceolate, 7-15 cm lengthy and 3-5 cm broad, complete, and easy on prime with white hairs on the underside. The flowers are produced in mid summer time, with massive sepals, and a five-lobed white corolla.

The place discovered: Dogbane grows all through a lot of North America, within the southern half of Canada and all through the US. It grows in open wooded areas, ditches, and hillsides.

WARNING: All components of the plant are toxic and might trigger cardiac arrest if ingested.




Toxic.png Yew Toxic.png

Binomial Title: Taxus spp.

Description: Taxus is a genus of yews, small coniferous timber or shrubs. They’re comparatively sluggish rising and could be very long-lived, and attain heights of 1-40 m, with trunk diameters of as much as Four m. They’ve reddish bark, lanceolate, flat, dark-green leaves 1-Four cm lengthy and 2-Three mm broad, organized spirally on the stem, however with the leaf bases twisted to align the leaves in two flat rows both aspect of the stem.

WARNING: All species of yew comprise extremely toxic alkaloids often called taxanes, with some variation within the precise components of the alkaloid between the species. All components of the tree besides the arils comprise the alkaloid. The arils are edible and candy, however the seed is dangerously toxic; not like birds, the human abdomen can break down the seed coat and launch the taxanes into the physique. This will have deadly outcomes if yew ‘berries’ are eaten with out eradicating the seeds first. Grazing animals, significantly cattle and horses, are additionally generally discovered useless close to yew timber after consuming the leaves, although deer are in a position to break down the poisons and can eat yew foliage freely. Within the wild, deer shopping of yews is usually so in depth that wild yew timber are generally restricted to cliffs and different steep slopes inaccessible to deer.

Taxus baccata (European Yew) shoot with mature and immature cones

Taxus baccata (European Yew) shoot with
mature and immature cones

8. Do one of many following[edit]

a. Title 5 crops which are of medicinal worth and point out what a part of every plant is used.[edit]

A few of these crops could appear acquainted as they had been additionally listed within the earlier requirement within the “toxic plant” class. It’s curious, although it shouldn’t be stunning, that medicinal crops are additionally thought of toxic. This might be alternative to speak to your Pathfinders about drug abuse.

Any medication, if taken incorrectly, can poison the physique, and that’s the reason you will need to by no means take medicines until there’s a want for them, after which it’s important to comply with the physician’s directions (or the directions on the bundle for over-the-counter medicines). Be aware that medicinal herbs discovered within the wild don’t include directions! We extremely advocate that you just stress to your Pathfinders that they need to by no means try and medicate themselves or others utilizing these crops, as it may be very harmful and even deadly!

Poison Hemlock[edit]

Poison hemlock has been used as a sedative and for its antispasmodic properties. It was additionally utilized by Greek and Persian physicians for quite a lot of issues, corresponding to arthritis. Nonetheless, it wasn’t at all times efficient because the distinction between a therapeutic and a poisonous quantity may be very slight. Overdoses can produce paralysis and lack of speech being adopted by despair of the respiratory operate after which loss of life.

Poison Ivy[edit]

Extraordinarily dilute types of poison ivy are utilized in homeopathic medication, most frequently as a treatment for musculoskeletal complaints with progressive stiffness that worsens with chilly, moist, or inactivity and improves with movement, heat, and use. The affected person could have a pink tip of the tongue or a pink triangle on the tongue, herpetic outbreaks, and itchiness that improves with highly regarded water.


Bittersweet is utilized in homeopathy and herbalism. Its important utilization is for situations that have an effect on the pores and skin, mucous membrane and the membrane (synovial membrane) across the joints. Bittersweet is taken into account by some to be a natural treatment for treating herpes and allergy symptoms.


Dogbane was utilized in natural medication to deal with syphilis, rheumatism, intestinal worms, fever, bronchial asthma, and dysentery. Though the toxins from the plant may cause nausea and catharsis, it has additionally been used for slowing the heartbeat.

Pacific Yew[edit]

The Pacific Yew Taxus brevifolia, native to the Pacific Northwest of North America, and Canada Yew Taxus canadensis are the sources of paclitaxel, a chemotherapeutic drug utilized in breast and lung most cancers remedy and, extra not too long ago, within the manufacturing of the Taxus drug eluting stent by Boston Scientific.

b. Title ten wild crops which are edible in root, stem, or leaf.[edit]

We current a few of the extra frequent edible crops right here. For extra choices see the Edible Wild Vegetation honor within the Nature chapter of this e-book. By the way, upon getting met this requirement, you can be effectively in your strategy to incomes the Edible Wild Vegetation Honor.


Description: Acorns are the fruit of the oak tree. They’re an important meals supply for wildlife. Creatures that make acorns an vital a part of their food regimen embody birds corresponding to jays, pigeons, some geese and several other species of woodpeckers. Small mammals that feed on acorns embody mice, squirrels and several other different rodents. Massive mammals corresponding to pigs, bears and deer additionally eat massive quantities of acorns; they might represent as much as 25% of the food regimen of deer within the autumn. Nonetheless, acorns are poisonous to another animals, corresponding to horses. In some human cultures, acorns as soon as constituted a dietary staple, although they’re now typically solely a really minor meals.

The place discovered: The oak is native to the northern hemisphere, and contains deciduous and evergreen species extending from chilly latitudes to tropical Asia and the Americas.

Availability: Fall

Use: The acorn accommodates tannin, which may be very bitter and barely poisonous. Fortunately, tannin is definitely eliminated by soaking in water. Acorns from the white oak household have far much less tannin than acorns from the black (or pink) oak household, so you probably have a alternative, go for white oaks. The primary acorns to fall from the tree are prone to comprise worms and moth larvae. Most of those unhealthy acorns will float in water, whereas most good acorns will sink. At first of acorn season (late summer time or early autumn) you will see that a lot of the acorns will float and only a few will sink. Because the season progresses, you will see that the majority acorns will sink and few will float. After you have sorted them, shell them. They are often opened with a pair of pliers or a nutcracker. Take away the meat from the shell, crush it right into a effective powder (use a mortar & pestle or a meals processor), after which soak it in water for a few week, altering the water twice a day. In the event you select to, you’ll be able to pace this course of by boiling the shelled, crushed acorns in a number of modifications of water. Native Individuals would put the crushed acorns in a sack after which place the sack in a swift stream for a number of days. If after soaking, the acorn mush continues to be bitter, it must soak longer. When they’re not bitter, unfold them out on a cookie sheet and dry them in an oven at 120°C250°F for 90 minutes. They can be utilized as flour or to make acorn mush – a staple of the Native American food regimen. It’s also possible to skip crushing them and eat them as nuts, however uncrushed acorns will take for much longer to leach.
Amerikaanse eik eikels Quercus rubra acorns.jpg


Description: The blackberry is a widespread and well-known shrub; generally referred to as a bramble within the japanese U.S. and Europe however a caneberry within the western U.S. rising to three m (10 ft) and producing a soft-bodied fruit in style to be used in desserts, jams, and seedless jellies.

The place discovered: All through the non-polar areas of the world.

Availability: Fall

Use: The berries are unbelievable eaten straight from the cane, cooked into jelly, or baked into pies.

Blackberry fruits10.jpg

Typha latifolia

The place discovered: in wetlands all through the Northern Hemisphere

Availability: Winter, Spring, Summer time, Fall

Use: In early spring, the shoots and stalks could be pulled up and eaten uncooked or boiled for 15 minutes. In late spring, the spikes could be gathered simply earlier than they get away of their papery sheaths, boiled for a couple of minutes, buttered, and eaten like corn-on-the-cob. In early summer time, the spikes produce massive portions of pollen which could be gathered by overlaying the highest of the plant with a paper bag, inverting it, and shaking vigorously. The pollen can be utilized as flour when combined half and half with wheat flour. In fall and winter, the roots could be gathered. Wash them after which soak them in a bucket of water. Whereas nonetheless submerged, crush them to take away the fibrous overlaying. Then let the starchy portion of the basis settle to the underside. Skim off the fiber, pressure out the water, and use as flour.



Description: Chicory is a spindly plant with purple (although generally pink or white) flowers. The petals are slim, notched on the ideas, and quite a few. The flowers fold up within the afternoon, opening once more within the morning.

The place discovered: Originating from Europe, it was naturalized in North America, the place it has turn out to be a widespread roadside weed.

Availability: Early spring (leaves), Fall to Spring (roots)

Use: The roots are washed, roasted, floor, and brewed as a espresso substitute (use 1.5 tsp per cup of water). Within the spring the white, underground portion of the leaves are a superb addition to salads, and the inexperienced above-ground parts could be boiled and eaten as greens.



The place discovered: Discovered worldwide in fields and yards

Availability: Spring, Summer time, Fall

Use: The flowers could be eaten uncooked, added to salads, boiled in soups, or dried and floor to flour. They will also be used to make fritters. Purple clover is proven right here, however white clover is simply nearly as good (however a little bit smaller, so it takes extra work to gather). The leaves and stems are additionally edible in salads or as greens.

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The place discovered: All through Asia, Europe, and North America

Availability: Spring, Summer time, Fall

Use: Add the younger, tender leaves to salad uncooked, or boil and eat as greens. The roots could be roasted and floor, and used as a espresso substitute.

Dandilion plant.jpg

Day Lily

Description: The alternating lanceolate leaves are grouped into followers (a clump additionally containing the roots and the crown). The crown of a day lily is the small white portion of the stem, between the leaves and the roots. The title “day lily” displays the truth that the person flowers final for under at some point. The flowers of most species open at dawn and wither at sundown, to get replaced by one other one (generally two or none) on the identical stem the subsequent day; some species are night-blooming.

The place discovered: Initially from Eurasia, native from Europe to China, Korea, and Japan, their massive showy flowers have made them in style worldwide

Availability: Early Spring (shoots), Summer time (buds and flowers), All Yr (tubers)

Use: The early shoots make addition to a salad. The buds and flowers could be ready by boiling or be made into fritters. The tubers will also be added to salads or could be ready like corn-on-the-cob.

Daylily - Stella de Oro.jpg


Description: Goldenrods are simply acknowledged by their golden inflorescence with tons of of small flower heads. They’ve slender, normally hairless stems. They will develop to a size between 60 cm and 1.5 m. Their alternate leaves are linear to lanceolate. Their margins are normally finely to sharply serrated.

The place discovered: Discovered within the meadows and pastures, alongside roads, ditches and waste areas in North America and Europe.

Use: The flowers could be steeped in boiling water for 10 minutes to make an anise-flavored tea.

Solidago canadensis 20050815 248.jpg


Description: On their very own, Smilax crops will develop as a shrub, forming dense impenetrable thickets. They will even develop over timber and different crops as much as 10 m excessive utilizing its hooked thorns to hold on to and scramble over branches. The genus contains each deciduous and evergreen species. The leaves are coronary heart formed and range from 4-30 cm lengthy in numerous species.

The place discovered: Japanese United States

Availability: Spring, Summer time

Use: The shoots and leaves are scrumptious eaten uncooked on the path or in salads. They will also be boiled and eaten as asparagus and greens.

Smilax aspera.jpg


Description: Frequent milkweed is a herbaceous perennial plant rising from a rhizome to 1-2 m tall. The stem may be very furry, and all components of the crops produce a white latex when damaged. The leaves are reverse, easy broad ovate-lanceolate, 7-25 cm lengthy and 3-12 cm broad, normally with an undulate margin and a red-colored important vein. They’ve a really quick petiole and a velvety underside. The flowers are grouped in a number of spherical umbels with quite a few flowers in every umbel. The person flowers are small, 1-2 cm diameter, perfumed, with 5 cornate hoods. The seeds are hooked up to lengthy, white flossy hairs and encased in massive pods.

The place discovered: Native to most of North America east of the Rockies, aside from the drier components of the Prairies. It grows in sandy soils and appreciates numerous daylight.

Availability: Spring, Summer time

Use: The stems, shoots, leaves, flowers, and younger pods are all edible after they’re boiled in a number of modifications of water. The milky sap tastes bitter and is mildly poisonous, however boiling removes it fully.

Asclepias syriaca.jpg

Pine Timber

Description: Pines are evergreen and resinous. The bark of most pines is thick and scaly, however some species have skinny, flaking bark. The branches are produced in common “pseudowhorls”, really a really tight spiral however showing like a hoop of branches arising from the identical level. Many pines are uninodal, producing only one such whorl of branches every year, from buds on the tip of the yr’s new shoot, however others are multinodal, producing two or extra whorls of branches per yr. The brand new spring shoots are generally referred to as “candles”; they’re light-colored and level upward at first, then later darken and unfold outward.

The place discovered: Pines are native to a lot of the Northern Hemisphere. In North America, they vary from the Arctic south to Nicaragua and Hispaniola, with the best range in Mexico and California. In Eurasia, they vary from Portugal and Scotland east to the Russian Far East, Japan, and the Philippines, and south to northernmost Africa, the Himalaya and Southeast Asia, with one species (Sumatran Pine) simply crossing the Equator in Sumatra. Pines are additionally extensively planted in lots of components of the Southern Hemisphere

Availability: All yr

Use: The needles could be eaten year-round. The younger shoots could be eaten as sweet when stripped of the needles, peeled, boiled till tender, after which simmered for 20-30 minutes in a sugary syrup.

Pinus pinaster.jpg

Pine Nuts

Description: Pine nuts are the edible seeds of pine timber. About 20 species of pine produce seeds massive sufficient to be value harvesting; in different pines the seeds are additionally edible, however are too small to be of worth as a human meals. The nuts are positioned on the base of the scales of the cones.

The place discovered: Temperate areas of North America, Europe, and Asia.

Availability: Fall

Use: Pine nuts could be eaten uncooked or baked right into a casserole.


Plantago Main, or Broadleaf Plantain

Description: The Broadleaf Plantain or Larger Plantago (Plantago main) is a member of the plantago household, Plantaginaceae. In North America, this plant is primarily a weed, although it’s edible and is utilized in natural medication. The plant is native to Europe, and is believed to be one of many first crops to naturalize within the colonies.

This plant does finest in compacted soils, and therefore is usually referred to as “roadweed”. It’s generally discovered on subject boundaries as it’s tolerant to pesticides and herbicides. It’s wind-pollenated, and a explanation for summer time allergy symptoms when in flower.

The place discovered: Frequent garden weed discovered all through

Availability: Finest in Early Spring, additionally usable in Summer time and Fall, however powerful and stringy.

Use: Crushed leaves could be utilized on to the pores and skin to cease bleeding, bee stings and bug bites. Psyllium seeds are a bulk laxative. The younger leaves are scrumptious uncooked in salads. In summer time and fall the leaves could be eaten when boiled as greens.

Plantago major.jpg

Sheep Sorrel

The place discovered: All through the Northern Hemisphere

Availability: Spring, Summer time, Fall

Use: Nibble on the uncooked leaves – an awesome addition to a salad. They could even be boiled and eaten like greens, or steeped to make a tea.

WARNING: Sheep sorrel accommodates small quantity of oxalic acid which supplies it its pleasantly bitter style. If eaten in massive portions over a time period, nonetheless, could inhibit the physique’s means to soak up calcium.

Ahosuolaheinä (Rumex acetosella).jpg

Wild Strawberry

Description: Just like the home selection, however the berries are fairly a bit smaller, measuring about quarter inch (6 mm) in diameter. The Woodland Strawberry was broadly cultivated in Europe earlier than being largely changed by the Backyard Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa and different hybrids), which have a lot bigger berries. Woodland Strawberry fruit is strongly flavored, and continues to be grown on a small scale commercially for using gourmets. Not like most industrial and backyard cultivars of strawberries, Woodland Strawberries hardly ever kind runners, and are normally propagated by seeds or division of the crops.

The place discovered: All through the Northern Hemisphere

Availability: Summer time

Use: The fruits could be eaten uncooked or cooked into jellies and jams. It will also be baked into pies. An natural tea produced from the leaves, stems, and flowers is believed to assist within the remedy of diarrhea.

Fragaria vesca 2.jpg


Description: It grows to 3-10 m tall, and has alternate, pinnately compound leaves 25-55 cm lengthy, every with 9-31 serrate leaflets 6-11 cm lengthy. The leaf petioles and the stems are densely coated in rust-colored hairs. The fruit of staghorn sumac is among the most identifiable traits, forming dense clusters of small pink drupes on the terminal finish of the branches; the clusters are conic, 10-20 cm lengthy and 4-6 cm broad on the base. The fruit seem throughout autumn, at which level the foliage turns an excellent pink. Sumacs are thought of a few of the finest fall foliage round. The fruit has been recognized to final by means of winter and into spring.

The place discovered: From Ontario and Quebec south to northern Georgia and Mississippi.

Availability: Spring, Summer time, Fall, Winter

Use: The fruit drupes could be bruised after which soaked in water to make a refreshing lemonade-like drink.

WARNING: Keep away from the Poison Sumac tree which is definitely recognized by its white flowers. Contact with poison sumac will trigger a rash (like poison ivy).

Rhus typhina.jpg

Wintergreen, or Teaberry

Description: Wintergreen (additionally referred to as Teaberry) is a low evergreen plant that grows in wooded areas. It produces pink berries within the Fall, they usually stay on the plant by means of the winter till the plant flowers once more within the spring. The crushed leaves have a medicinal odor very very similar to peppermint (or shock! wintergreen!) Additionally it is used as the flavour of Wrigley’s in style Winterfresh chewing gum.

The place discovered: Primarily discovered within the Northeastern United States, but it surely additionally grows in Minnesota, south to Mississippi, east to Georgia, and north to Maine.

Availability: Spring, Summer time, Fall, Winter

Use: The leaves could be picked and chewed uncooked like a chewing gum. The leaves will also be finely chopped and steeped in boiling water to make a tea. The berries could be eaten as effectively.

WARNING: Wintergreen is endangered in Illinois, so if you happen to discover it there, depart or not it’s!

Gaultheria procumbens.JPG

Wild Carrot (Queen Anne’s Lace)

Description: It’s a biennial plant rising as much as 1 m tall, bearing an umbel of shiny white flowers that flip right into a “hen’s nest” seed case after blooming. Very comparable in look to the lethal poison hemlock, it’s distinguished by a mixture of bi-pinnate and tri-pinnate leaves, effective hairs on its stems and leaves, a root that smells like carrots, and sometimes a single darkish pink flower in its heart.

The place discovered: Waste floor, fields, all through

Availability: Fall to Early Spring

Use: The roots of the wild carrot could be cleaned and used as common carrots. They’re fairly a bit smaller than home carrots, however the taste is unmistakable. It’s best to make use of the roots of the plant throughout its first yr.

WARNING: Don’t confuse the wild carrot with poison hemlock. The foundation of the wild carrot smells like carrots. Additionally the bracts beneath the flower heads are three-forked. Poison hemlock has a easy, hole, jointed stem and sometimes has purple spots. Queen Anne’s Lace has none of those traits.

Daucus carota inflorescence kz.jpg

Wild Garlic

Description: All components of the plant have a powerful garlic odor. The underground bulb is 1-2 cm diameter, with a fibrous outer layer. The principle stem grows to 30-120 cm tall. The leaves are slender hole tubular, 15-60 cm lengthy and 2-Four mm thick, waxy textured, with a groove alongside the aspect of the leaf dealing with the stem. The flowers are 2-5 mm lengthy, with six petals various in coloration from pink to pink or greenish-white. It flowers in the summertime, June to August

The place discovered: Northern Hemisphere

Availability: All yr

Use: Use the tubular leaves and bulbs in salad or in soups.

Allium vineale1.jpg

Wild Onion

Description: Wild Onion has an edible bulb coated with a dense pores and skin of brown fibers and tastes like an onion. The plant additionally has sturdy, onion-like odor. The slim, grass-like leaves originate close to the bottom of the stem, which is topped by a dome-like cluster of star-shaped, pink or white flowers. It sometimes flowers within the spring and early summer time, from Could to June.

The place discovered: All through North America

Availability: Spring – Winter

Use: Use the leaves and bulbs uncooked in salads, or cook dinner them in a soup. Principally, use them as you’d home onions.

WARNING: Although the plant is edible, it pays to watch out in figuring out it as there are a number of look-a-likes. So you’ll want to do extra analysis earlier than consuming plant.

Allium canadense.jpg

Wooden Sorrel

The place discovered: Happens all through a lot of the world, apart from the polar areas.

Availability: Spring, Summer time, Fall

Use: Use the uncooked leaves, stems, and flowers as a refreshing, bitter addition to a salad. Steep in boiling water for 10 minutes to make a tea.

WARNING: Wooden sorrel accommodates small quantity of oxalic acid which supplies it its pleasantly bitter style. If eaten in massive portions over a time period, nonetheless, could inhibit the physique’s means to soak up calcium.

Oxalis arborea1.jpg

c. An choice from requirement 6 of the Flower Honor not accomplished for that Honor.[edit]

We restate the necessities right here to your comfort, however for instruction, we ask you to go to the entry on the Flowers honor.

  • a. Prepare, draw or {photograph} a collection of at the very least six flowers displaying so as the colours of the rainbow: pink, orange, yellow, inexperienced, blue, violet.
  • b. Submit contemporary, pressed or dried flowers which have: 5 petals, 4 petals, three petals, no petals.
  • c. Distinguish and title two out of 5 wild or cultivated flowers by their odor, whereas blindfolded.
  • d. Checklist flowers that you’ve got noticed being visited for meals by the next:
    • 1. Birds
    • 2. Honeybees
    • 3. Bumblebees
    • 4. Butterflies
    • 5. Moths
  • e. Watch a flower for at the very least ten minutes within the sunshine, and at the very least ten minutes after nightfall, and report on insect guests. State the quantity and type of guests and title of flower.



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