History of wireless telegraphy and broadcasting in Australia/Topical/Publications/On Air

ON AIR

D. G. SANDERSON (Douglas George Sanderson – Ed.)

1988

Introduction[edit]

Radio broadcasting within the medium frequency band is now over half a century outdated and regardless of the growing use of very excessive and extremely excessive frequencies for tv and stereophonic sound broadcasting, the medium frequencies can be successfully in use for a very long time to come back. Common public broadcasting started on this nation with each industrial and nationwide stations and the nationwide stations kind the community referred to as the Nationwide Broadcasting Service. This chronicle traces the historical past of the NBS in Queensland and Papua New Guinea from its inception some 58 years in the past to the current time.

There are three sections within the work.

  • The primary is a broad historic therapy for the final reader who shouldn’t be notably eager about technical element.
  • The second offers with every station individually. Few stations have remained unchanged since set up. New tools, variations in strategies of operation and generally modifications in location would have made station integration right into a mixed chronological sequence troublesome and complicated. Every has its personal character and story and I’ve subsequently handled each as an entity. There’s appreciable technical element on this part too, gathered from sources that are quickly disappearing. Info have been obtained from recordsdata and reviews, from workers each present and retired and from my very own expertise within the service. Some readers will know of issues which must have been included however have been missed and lots of particulars are actually apparently misplaced eternally. No author can hope to be full in such a piece as this. I consider nevertheless that the trunk and fundamental branches are faithfully recorded, despite the fact that some leaves have blown away within the winters of the previous.
  • The third part information a bit of what may be referred to as the additional curricular actions of the broadcasting individuals who have been involved primarily with the set up and operation of the tools of the NBS. The story of radio broadcasting in PMG/Telecom wouldn’t be full with out some reference to those allied actions.

The Nationwide Tv Service is talked about very briefly, for though it’s a fascinating story in its personal proper and ought to be recorded, I had little to do with its provision and subsequent operation. I depart its historical past to others extra fitted and educated than I and with maybe a extra sympathetic feeling for that medium.

Half 1 – Basic Historical past of the NBS in Queensland and P.N.G.[edit]

Chapter 1 – Early Days – “The Days of Actual Sport”[edit]

Good tales we’re informed, begin at the start and undergo to the tip. The story of the Nationwide Broadcasting Service in Queensland actually has a discernible starting, however its finish shouldn’t be in sight. Our story then can’t be full and can come to the tip of an period about 1988 or thereabouts. Maybe somebody will sooner or later write additional chapters within the saga of Nationwide Broadcasting.

On this age of slogans and catchcries one may say “Assume broadcasting, suppose 4QG”, for the callsign 4QG represents the very epitome of broadcasting in Queensland. It issues not that QG stands for Queensland Authorities and that the station predates the institution of the Nationwide Broadcasting Service by nearly 5 years. What does matter is that the Queensland Authorities established 4QG as a part of the Queensland Radio Service in July 1925 and now, properly into its second half century, 4QG remains to be on the air. In January 1930 the accountability for the technical operation of 4QG was given to the Postmaster Generals’ Division, and the Queensland part of the NBS started its work. At this stage the Queensland Radio Service grew to become the Australian Broadcasting Firm and in July 1932 the Australian Broadcasting Fee was born and absorbed the so referred to as “A Class” stations round Australia. With the Commissions’ primary process of offering applications and the PMG Departments’ operate of technical operation of studios and transmitters, an efficient Nationwide service was now doable. The PMG Division operated 4QG and subsequent transmitters of the Nationwide service till 1975 when the Australian Telecommunications Fee was created. The brand new Telecom Australia because the Fee is named, has continued to function the Nationwide transmitters in Australia in what’s now referred to as the Broadcasting Directorate, carrying on the traditions of the service established by the outdated PMG. For greater than 10 years the dual towers of 4QG on the roof of the State Authorities Insurance coverage constructing on the nook of George and Elizabeth Streets dominated the Brisbane skyline and represented the very newest within the radio expertise of the day. They have been joined later within the decade by the 2 towers of business station 4BK on the then Courier Mail Constructing in Queen Road and in 1938 by a brand new single tower on the Phone Alternate constructing in Elizabeth Road, subsequent to the G.P.O. This was the aerial for the second Brisbane nationwide station 4QR. All of those tall metal towers have been dismantled throughout the 1939-45 struggle to keep away from the potential for their being utilized by enemy plane for identification or navigation functions.

Plans have been being laid early within the 30’s for the growth of Nationwide broadcasting in Australia and this resulted within the institution of the primary two nation relay stations, 2NC Newcastle, and 4RK the Queensland Nationwide Regional station at historic Gracemere, close to Rockhampton. This was a most applicable place for the brand new enterprise because it was right here that the Archer Brothers in 1855 established their cattle station beside the Gracemere lagoon, and so set the stage for the following founding of the tiny settlement on the banks of the Fitzroy River which grew to become the Metropolis of Rockhampton. The brand new transmitter got here on air on the 29th July, 1931, with a particular opening program ready by the Australian Broadcasting Firm and produced by native performers in Rockhampton. 4RK had an aerial energy of 2000 watts and was constructed within the type of the day; polished black panels studded with controls and meters, and metal grills behind which quite a few giant glass valves glowed redly. In an adjoining room, mills hummed quietly, producing the excessive voltages required by the transmitter. Exterior the tidy picket bungalow kind constructing, two metal towers supported a tee kind aerial over 100 toes excessive. The driveway, quickly to be flanked by Norfolk Island pine timber, curved as much as the station from the entrance gate, beside which was the spacious Queensland styled residence of the Foreman Mechanic. From the best a part of the property, the station appeared out over the brown, rolling pastoral countryside in direction of Rockhampton, some seven miles to the east with its backdrop of the forest clad peaks of the Berserker Vary. Close by was the tiny settlement of Gracemere with its college, resort and railway station, and to the south west a distant vista of the Mount Morgan ranges. After opening, the station took its program on relay from Brisbane over a PMG landline. There was nevertheless, a small native studio put in within the Rockhampton Publish Workplace right now, and it was used twice a day for native information bulletins and cattle sale outcomes.

Nothing additional occurred within the NBS for a number of years, till within the mid 30’s workers from the PMG Analysis Laboratories in Melbourne made check transmissions in a number of elements of the State and chosen a website for the proposed North Queensland relay station at Clevedon some 20 miles south east of Townsville. The station was constructed right here in 1936 and carried the decision signal, as may need been anticipated, of 4QN. All program for the brand new station was taken on relay from the 4QG studios in Brisbane over greater than 800 miles of PMG wires. The brand new Customary Telephones and Cables (STC) transmitter, resplendent with extremely polished black slate panels, was 3 times the ability of 4RK and even eclipsed 4QG. Its space of affordable reception prolonged from Bowen within the south to lnnisfail within the north and out west so far as Charters Towers. A 500 toes excessive metal lattice tower supported the aerial system, a solitary sentinel in a desolate world. For 4QN was constructed between the mountains and the ocean on a flat plain mottled with swamps and salt pans and topic partly to inundation at excessive tide and within the moist season. A mere 200 yards from the station was the sluggish serpentine of Crocodile Creek, its banks muddy and mangrove lined. Its side was darkish and someway sinister even in brilliant daylight, and on the naked mud flats close by the imprints of crocodile claws have been usually seen. The workers fashioned a small group – officer in cost, three technicians, two diesel mechanics (the station was removed from city electrical energy mains and generated its personal energy), a labourer cum gasoline tanker driver, single mens’ housekeeper, the households of married workers, sundry canines and a tame brolga. Two homes have been supplied for married workers and one other, specifically constructed, for bachelor lodging. Being near the coast, off responsibility workers spent a substantial period of time fishing and crabbing in Crocodile and Salmon Creeks and close to Cape Cleveland at a spot mysteriously referred to as Ticklebelly Bay. This idyllic state of affairs persevered till the station was destroyed by fireplace in 1951. Non permanent tools was put in and “outdated QN” continued at Clevedon till it was moved to a brand new website at Brandon close to Ayr in 1959. Extra of this later, nevertheless.

In the meantime in Brisbane work was continuing on the set up of a second nationwide transmitter designed to take its program over landlines from Sydney. It was to be 4BR, Brisbane Regional, however the name signal finally adopted was 4QR. The transmitter, a relatively small one able to 2 kW energy output, designed to serve principally Larger Brisbane, was put in by PMG workers on the highest ground of the Central Computerized Phone Alternate in Elizabeth Road, and radiated from a self supporting metal tower on the roof. 4QR was opened for service on 7 January 1938, and this gave the listeners within the capital metropolis a selection of two nationwide applications. After all all program for 4QR didn’t come from Sydney and a neighborhood studio was put in on the sixth ground of Penneys’ Constructing in Queen Road. At this stage the ABC was establishing its Brisbane headquarters on this constructing, the place it was to stay for a few years. A studio used for drama displays and stay orchestra recitals was additionally arrange within the South Brisbane Faculty of Arts Constructing subsequent to the Dry Dock in Stanley Road, and it was from this studio that the newly fashioned symphony orchestra beneath the baton of W. Nelson Burton made its first broadcast.

So by 1938 three main centres of inhabitants within the State, Brisbane, Rockhampton and Townsville, have been properly served by nationwide stations. Actually reception of 4QG and 4QR was fairly passable in Toowoomba additionally, as these have been the times of huge dwelling receiving aerials. Nearly everybody with a hi fi had one or two excessive picket poles within the again yard, as nearly each home at the moment has its tv aerial. Nevertheless, west of the Toowoomba vary, out on the black soil plains of the Darling Downs, reception was insufficient. By 1938 planning was properly beneath means for the primary 10 kilowatt relay station, to be constructed at Dalby. A wonderful new brick constructing was erected adjoining to the Dalby-Bell Street at “Hayfields”, some 4 miles out of city and the good new type Customary Telephones and Cable (STC) transmitter was put in in a spacious room, the “transmitter corridor”. A brand new kind of radio mast was erected close by and at 711 toes it was and nonetheless is, the tallest in Queensland. This was the primary for the State of the so referred to as half wave vertical radiators, and with its bands of orange and white paint it was a landmark which may very well be seen by way of the rippling warmth haze of the Downs for miles by day and its purple plane warning lights shone brightly by way of the dead nights. The view from the mast was uninterrupted in all instructions and in accordance with the native newspaper of the time, 4 intrepid Dalby residents climbed to the highest on a Saturday whereas the set up workers have been absent. Additional unauthorized sight seeing was quickly restricted when the contractor accomplished the erection of the manproof fence across the base of the mast. To the west, south and east the wheat lands of the Downs prolonged to the far horizons, whereas to the north the blue line of the Bunya Mountains was seen at 30 miles. This southern Queensland regional relay station was referred to as 4QS and it was opened with appropriate ceremony on 17 October 1939. Its service space prolonged from Brisbane to Roma, north to Mundubbera and south to Goondiwindi, protecting a far larger space than had to date been achieved by the opposite transmitters of the younger community.

The Nationwide Service was now reaching out to the folks in no small means, however in September 1939 the Second World Battle started and additional deliberate regional growth was suspended, with the efforts of radio planners and workers diverted to the communication wants of the armed forces. And so we come to the tip of the primary period, “the times of actual sport” as a famous engineer was usually heard to comment. These have been the intense new days of the daybreak of radio, when it was all so novel and thrilling and stuffed with surprising and generally scary occasions. A handful of enthusiastic pioneers gathered from far and large was being fashioned into that comfortable band of brothers, the PMG Radio Part, a bunch usually appeared upon by these within the phone world with imprecise suspicion; a considerably misunderstood lot dabbling in a brand new black artwork. Not for them the phone bells, the switchboards and the dry cells of the extra mundane communications; however the excessive towers, the glowing tubes and a mysterious one thing referred to as RF.

Chapter 2 – The Battle Years[edit]

Regardless of the heavy necessities for males and materials, the struggle interval from 1939 – 1945 did see a substantial quantity of exercise within the NBS. Some however not all of this was immediately because of the struggle.

In January 1941 the Commonwealth Authorities acquired 4AT Atherton. This industrial radio station, established simply previous to the outbreak of struggle, was owned by a spiritual group, and for causes associated to nationwide safety was taken over by the Authorities and have become a unit of the NBS. The time period Atherton is used right here very usually, because the transmitter is nearer to Malanda and Yungaburra than to Atherton. The positioning adjoins Gwynne Creek and may be very low mendacity and moist underfoot within the wet season. The transmitter was of low energy, 500 Watts, and was clearly designed to serve the close by Tableland cities. The transmitter, studio and station residence have been mixed in a rustic type, low set timber home. The aerial was uncommon for its time, being a tall vertical metal pipe of the sort referred to as artesian bore casing, held erect by a number of units of metal man wires. Nothing of this unique tools now stays, aerial, transmitter and transmitter constructing having been changed some years in the past. The unique residence reverted to dwelling use and has lately been offered and eliminated. Equally to 4QN, all program got here from Brisbane over PMG landlines. It was not till properly after the struggle that studio amenities have been established in Cairns, enabling some restricted quantity of notes and information to be generated within the district for native broadcast.

Again in Brisbane, with the struggle now inflicting concern in coastal cities, a necessity was felt to maneuver broadcast stations out of the internal metropolitan areas, and 4QG and 4QR have been transferred to Bald Hills some 15 miles to the north of the town. The Bald Hills website had been chosen as the long run dwelling for metropolitan nationwide stations within the mid thirties and in 1941 a constructing was begun and a vertical metal pipe aerial erected with the intention of working 4QR from right here. This was the primary aerial of this kind constructed by the PMG Radio part in Queensland, and in subsequent years one other six have been to be erected in varied elements of the State and in Papua New Guinea. Within the following yr the 4QR transmitter was moved in a single day from the Elizabeth Road website within the Central Phone Alternate to the brand new constructing at Bald Hills. The sections of the transmitter have been lowered from the highest ground on the rear of the constructing into Arcade Lane and brought by street to the brand new website. The job was begun after shut down, which in these days was 10.30 PM, and accomplished shortly after opening time subsequent day, 10.00 AM, a properly coordinated operation with little air time misplaced. This course of was not doable with the older, excessive powered 4QG. A small constructing was leased from industrial station 4BH close to Fischel’s jam manufacturing facility at Bald Hills (subsequently normally known as the Jam Manufacturing facility website), and a 500 Watt transmitter regionally assembled by Radio Part workers was put in therein. The positioning had been used beforehand by the industrial station and a serviceable T kind aerial was obtainable. 4QG then ceased operation within the metropolis and reopened on the Jam Manufacturing facility website. Earlier than lengthy, a regionally made energy amplifier stage was added, bringing the station as much as about 5 kilowatt score. The excessive towers of 4QG and 4QR within the metropolis have been then eliminated, the steelwork of the 4QR tower being rigorously preserved for future use.

Later in 1942, the set up of a brand new transmitter was begun within the lately accomplished Bald Hills constructing. This was a “brief wave” transmitter, the primary for Queensland and the second for the NBS in Australia. For some years previous to this the Victorian applications had been broadcast over the brief wave transmitter VLR at Lyndhurst, and now the Queensland unit, to be referred to as VLQ, was added. These and subsequent excessive frequency transmitters (because the brief wave transmitters are extra accurately referred to as) have been to represent the Australian Inland Excessive Frequency service, offering affordable reception in these areas of the nation not but served by the medium frequency regional stations. VLQ was of 10 kilowatt energy score, and for greatest reception circumstances the working wavelength was modified 3 times a day. The frequencies used have been within the 31 and 41 metre bands. Horizontal half-wave dipole aerials have been used, supported on tall hardwood poles. VLQ was opened for service in February 1943 and reviews on reception quickly got here in from as far-off as Europe. The transmitter was in-built metal panelled enclosures with a frosted gray enamel end. The pumps supplying the cooling water for the 2 energy amplifier valves have been put in in a small adjoining room and a radiator for cooling the heated water from the valves was mounted on a coated patio simply exterior. This transmitter remained in common service for 33 years and has been retained for intermittent emergency use since then. The tools remains to be able to assembly the unique specs though provides of recent valves are now not obtainable. Just a few spares stay, however the devoted outdated water cooled VLQ is now nearly retired from service.

Having improved considerably the safety of the principle Brisbane transmitters by shifting them away from the town, consideration was turned to the studios. The state of affairs on the highest ground of Penney’s Constructing in Queen Road was thought of to be relatively susceptible within the occasion of aerial assault on the town, and a plan for a greater protected website was developed. An outdated type home on a big block of land fronting Alice Road was acquired and beside it {a partially} underground strengthened concrete construction was constructed. This was fitted out with two studios every with an adjoining management room, a fundamental swap room, an air therapy plant room and area for restricted ABC workplace and switchboard use. The outdated home upstairs was used principally for ABC studio administration functions, file library and facilities. The PMG set up work was accomplished in 1945 and the brand new studios went on air to 4QG, 4QR, Regionals and Brief Wave on 12th December. One of many studios in Penneys, now vacant, was transformed to sporting program use and another studios on the sixth ground have been retained for music and drama. The disk recording sales space was transferred about this time to a brand new studio arrange within the Alice Road outdated home. The remaining ABC workplace workers remained in Penneys. At this stage in fact, hostilities had ceased, however the Alice Road studios remained in use till a brand new studio centre in Coronation Drive, Toowong, was accomplished in 1962. Technically the Alice Road studios have been properly outfitted however the working atmosphere was not perfect and the studio block was recognized regionally as “the dungeons”. Externally there was no landscaping, though the Botanic Gardens throughout the road did a lot to melt the environment which on one aspect and to the rear, consisted of historical and customarily dilapidated brick buildings with rusty iron fences. An outdated annex which in higher days had clearly been the home kitchen, served as a lunch and locker room, a retailer and a upkeep depot for the surface broadcast tools; whereas a damaged down galvanized iron shed in opposition to the again fence housed battery charging amenities and hulking public deal with loudspeakers and many others. Altogether, the Alice Road space was hardly a showpiece. One in all its few redeeming options so far as the workers have been involved, was the tennis courtroom constructed on the south aspect of the studio block. Many nice weekend matches have been loved by each ABC and PMG workers.

To date Nationwide applications had not been broadcast in Papua New Guinea, the one medium frequency transmitter within the territory being 4PM Port Moresby on 1360 kcs owned by Amalgamated Wi-fi of Australia and operated as a industrial enterprise by workers of the AWA coastal radio service. Because the struggle intensified within the Pacific area, this 500 Watt transmitter was transformed to brief wave and utilized by the Australian Military Alerts unit. Firstly of 1944, the PMG Division put in a brand new Philips 500 Watt transmitter as a unit of the NBS, and with the decision signal 9PA it started working in February 1944 at Port Moresby in an space referred to as Wonga Valley. The 9PA aerial was a easy T kind 90 toes excessive erected by Military personnel beneath the supervision of the PMG Line Foreman from Rockhampton. One studio was obtainable at opening and a second was constructed shortly afterwards. On air time was restricted, however by the tip of the struggle the station was on air for 3 hours within the morning, two hours round noon and got here on air once more for six hours within the evenings. With this comparatively low energy, the station served solely Port Moresby and the rapid environment, and a while was to elapse earlier than a brief wave transmitter was put in which gave an affordable sign, at the least so far as spoken applications of stories have been involved, to most of the extra distant cities.

And so with the struggle ended and the service established in Brisbane, Dalby, Rockhampton, Townsville, Atherton and Port Moresby, the NBS was up and going and searching ahead to nice issues. Within the occasion, nobody may have been disillusioned with the progress within the subsequent twenty years.

Chapter 3 – The Busy Years[edit]

4QL Longreach was the primary submit struggle regional station to be put in, and work started in 1946. Previous to this no medium frequency nationwide transmitter existed within the central inland. The coastal stations at Townsville and Rockhampton have been comparatively low powered and supplied no day time reception within the Longreach district. Night time time skywave indicators may very well be acquired, however these have been of little leisure worth as a result of low sign degree, fading, and in the summertime months notably, heavy atmospheric static. The nationwide excessive frequency station VLQ at Bald Hills supplied an affordable sign in Central Queensland, however within the struggle years and simply after, few listeners had brief wave radio units. This primary Longreach station was very low powered because it was too quickly after the struggle for any civil manufacture of excessive energy transmitters to be undertaken. The set up was thus an interim measure pending provision of a everlasting excessive energy station when manufacturing of such tools was resumed and the state of the nationwide economic system permitted. This primary station was put in in a disused shed within the yard behind the Longreach Publish Workplace in Magpie Lane. From the decorations on the partitions it was apparent that it had been utilized by the American armed forces throughout the struggle years when Longreach had a U.S. airforce bomber drive based mostly there. The station was opened in 1947 and operated on the Publish Workplace website for eight years till the brand new excessive energy alternative transmitter was put in at a website throughout the Thompson River, at Cramsie, an space as soon as occupied by an outstation of the Mount Cornish pastoral holding. Regardless of its low energy, 4QL achieved a really large protection, offering a helpful daytime sign to Winton, Blackall and Jundah. Its two 200 watt transmitters, one working and one spare, supplied an actual measure of safety of transmission. This was the primary nationwide in Queensland to have this facility and the apply has been adopted in any respect M.F. stations since then with the latest 4CH Charleville being the primary exception. On the time there was no native ABC studio and all program came visiting PMG landlines from Brisbane and Rockhampton.

With the station working and within the arms of its new resident workers, the set up workforce went to 4QN Clevedon to put in a second transmitter there. This proved to be a most well timed transfer, as barely 4 years later the principle constructing and transmitter have been utterly destroyed by fireplace and the standby unit, which had been put in in a separate constructing, was in a position to go to air once more subsequent day. The winter of 1947 was a good time to be at Clevedon on set up. The social gathering lived in tents and loved the northern winter local weather and the close by fishing at Salmon Creek and Ticklebelly Bay. The AWA transmitter had been despatched to 4QN in a large number of picket packing circumstances and metallic canisters, in order that appreciable time was spent in assembling the elements in the principle metal compartments. This standby transmitter had an influence output of two kilowatts, in order that it was a helpful substitute when the principle unit was burnt within the fireplace. It was prepared for operation by the tip of October 1947. Related to the set up of transmitters was a substantial quantity of preparation of program enter and management tools. This was finished within the Radio Part “meeting store”, and within the early submit struggle years a part of an upstairs ground in an outdated constructing in Mary Road was used for this goal. The world was congested and tools was acquired and despatched through a decrepit outdated items raise. Gear for testing the assembled radio elements was additionally housed right here and fashioned the nucleus of what was to grow to be the Radio Laboratory which was moved in 1947 to the basement of Hesketh Home, the PMG administration constructing in Elizabeth Road. By mid 1947 a brand new meeting store was in manufacturing in a big barn-like industrial constructing in Ernest Road, South Brisbane the place it was to stay for a number of years.

By this time late 1947, an aerial had been erected at Pialba for the brand new station there, and set up of the two kilowatt regional 4QB was continuing. The Pialba website was near the ocean, the transmitting tools being put in in what had been a personal home in Charlton Esplanade. The situation was a really nice one with a wonderful view of Hervey Bay. The overall space of the positioning had been examined some 10 years beforehand when a survey workforce from the PMG Analysis Laboratories Melbourne had arrange a check transmitter to test the world for doubtless transmitting websites. 4QB was a really welcome addition to the Nationwide community because it put Maryborough within the rising record of main cities with entry to the ABC Regional program. Actually, previous to this, Maryborough had nearly no Nationwide program. The station opened in January 1948.

Throughout 1947 the brand new radiator at Bald Hills was beneath development. This was one other new design for Queensland and was properly displayed in newspaper and journal articles on the time. It was over 660 toes excessive with an odd daisy petal construction on high some 60 toes in diameter. This radiator was designed to broadcast each 4QG and 4QR, utilizing the 2 transmitters being put in about that point. These have been every of 10 kilowatt energy score and after they got here into use in mid 1948 they prolonged the 2 ABC applications to a a lot larger radius round Brisbane than had hitherto been doable.

On the identical time, set up of a brief wave transmitter was continuing at Port Moresby. The medium frequency 9PA established throughout the struggle, was restricted to the world round Port Moresby, and to achieve the scattered cities and villages within the rugged territory, a excessive frequency, or brief wave, transmitter was obligatory. It grew to become operational in June 1948 with the decision signal VLT. The frequencies used have been within the 31 and 41 metre bands and the ability of the transmitter was 2 kilowatts.

There was little or no respite for the set up workers in these days, as throughout 1949 preparations have been being made for a second brief wave transmitter at Bald Hills and a brand new regional station for Cairns.

Assessments had been made within the Cairns space as early as 1937 and the popular website lastly chosen in 1944. Constructing plans have been drawn and by early 1948 the station constructing was full. Set up of the aerial system was undertaken in the identical yr.

The Cairns website was set amid the fields of waving sugar cane, ten miles south of the town close to the railway siding of Kamma. From the station there was a wonderful view of Walsh’s Pyramid and different mountains to the south. Actually, the flat cane lands have been hemmed in on the east and west by mountains additionally, in order that the service of the brand new station was relatively restricted.

With an aerial energy of two kilowatts and the decision signal 4QY, the Cairns regional went on air in January 1950.

This gave significantly improved reception in Cairns which, previous to this, had relied on a considerably insufficient sign from 4AT Atherton.

Program got here as standard by PMG landline from the south. Later within the yr a small studio was put in in Cairns to permit some gadgets of native curiosity to be produced. Whereas workers have been busy within the Cairns space, preparations have been being made at Bald Hills for the brand new brief wave service, VLM. An unused aerial initially designed for VLQ was modified for a unique working frequency and assigned to VLM which was to make use of the 60 metre band.

VLM got here on air in September 1949 utilizing a small short-term transmitter with an influence output of solely 200 Watts.

A brand new 10 kilowatt transmitter was then put in and VLM modified over to it on the finish of 1950. This massive, spectacular unit with its glass windowed metal cupboards painted in a biscuit color referred to as Corio Sand remains to be in use on the time of writing, having given over 30 years good service.

The 2 brief wave transmitters carried totally different applications and have been designed to achieve listeners in areas distant from medium frequency regional stations. The excessive frequency VLQ was anticipated to serve listeners at distances larger than about 400 miles from Brisbane, with VLM supplying sign to the remaining close-in space. Later of their life, each transmitters have been to hold the widespread regional, or third community program.

The usefulness of excessive frequency transmitters relies on whether or not listeners have the mandatory brief wave receivers, and in today of handheld private moveable units the outcomes obtained from brief wave stations are normally inferior. On the time of set up of VLQ and VLM nevertheless, there was larger public curiosity in such reception, notably because the medium frequency community was incapable of offering protection over the entire State.

The Bald Hills transmitting centre was a busy place for installers in that interval, though not all the work was involved with transmitters. As much as this time there was no emergency producing plant for the station, though failures of the electrical energy mains have been uncommon. In early 1950 a wonderful brick engine room was erected adjoining to the principle transmitter constructing, and two giant diesel engine pushed generator units have been put in. They have been of a measurement able to operating all of the transmitters within the occasion of a industrial energy failure.

The New 12 months in North Queensland was heralded by the opening of 4QA Mackay which passed off at 8.15 PM on 18 January 1951.

Work had been continuing throughout 1950 on a website initially chosen in 1948 in a low mendacity space behind a coastal sand dune just a few miles north of the town.

The earlier proprietor had constructed a quaint two storey home on the property and this was retained and used because the official residence of the primary officer answerable for 4QA. Three small pre-fabricated buildings have been erected to accommodate the tools which consisted on opening of a two kilowatt STC transmitter, its enter and management equipment, and the same old emergency studio microphone and turntable. Just a few months later a second transmitter was put in and made obtainable as a spare in case of bother with the working unit. The lodging was thought of short-term and sufficed till the everlasting fundamental constructing was erected in 1957.

The 4QA aerial was a metal pipe simply over 100 toes excessive erected by the Radio linesmen. This additionally was short-term and have become the standby when a brand new fundamental tower was erected in 1957.

Operations at Mackay had solely simply settled down when tragedy struck the NBS. The workers at 4QN Clevedon have been woke up within the small hours of the morning of 26 Could by the noise of fireside destroying the transmitter constructing. The principle constructing containing transmitter, management room, retailer room and fundamental engine generator room was utterly burnt out. Happily the small brick constructing housing the engine water cooling radiators and followers and the standby 2 kilowatt transmitter put in in 1947 survived, and briefly time 4QN was again on the air utilizing this transmitter. A transportable engine generator set was introduced out from Townsville to energy the station.

Different essential tools destroyed within the fireplace was the newly put in excessive stability oscillator which was about for use in particular synchronizing exams with 4QS Dalby.

The reason for the hearth was by no means positively ascertained.

The excellent news after the hearth was the opening of the Gympie regional, 4GM, in August 1951.

Perched on a hill at Monkland simply south of Gympie, the station overlooks the valley of the Mary River. Only a few yards from the entrance door is an outdated gold mining shaft, for Monkland was within the coronary heart of the nice Gympie Goldfield. Nevertheless, though the station was staffed for the primary 13 years of its existence, no hint of gold was ever discovered on the property, however Chinese language goldminers’ cash have been recorded.

4GM was, and nonetheless is, a small station of 200 Watts aerial energy, designed to serve Gympie and its rapid environment out to about ten miles.

Three initiatives got here to fruition in 1952.

The primary was the institution of a small native studio within the Shire Corridor at Longreach.

As much as this time the ABC had no program manufacturing amenities right here, and this studio enabled native information and notes to be broadcast now and again.

The second was the restoration of fairly regular circumstances at 4QN Clevedon after the hearth. Two new transmitters, 2 kW STC, have been put in within the surviving annex housing the AWA standby transmitter which was packed up and despatched to Canberra. With the removing of the followers and unique water cooling tools, there was adequate area to offer a management room for the brand new transmitters.

A further constructing was erected and was used to accommodate the diesel mills, the storeroom and the OIC’s workplace. The third mission was the institution of a transmitter at Southport.

After appreciable investigation a website was chosen and obtained close to the coast at Broadbeach, in a tract of sandy land with extra banksia timber than homes. Thirty six years later, the scene is vastly totally different. The station is now surrounded by tall buildings and vacation houses and is sort of within the centre of the Gold Coast metropolis.

This station was the identical measurement as 4GM Gympie and like Gympie was initially staffed half time. At nights the automated tools was in cost, and defective operation was signalled to the native phone trade in order that the workers may very well be referred to as in for repairs.

This station 4SO was put to air in October 1952 and relayed the Brisbane program. No native studio was established though tools was supplied for emergency bulletins and file taking part in.

The small low set timber constructing with its backyard flower beds merged into the native scene and from a distance appeared very very similar to some other beachside vacation dwelling. The one proof of something out of the bizarre was the 100 toes excessive pipe mast aerial in the course of the adjoining discipline.

At about this time, a glass fronted studio was put in within the Science Corridor on the Royal Nationwide Affiliation showground in Brisbane and the ABC used it throughout the annual exhibition week. It attracted a substantial amount of consideration and gave the nationwide service some a lot wanted publicity. Every Present for about 10 years introduced the general public thronging to see their standard ABC personalities and to gaze on the digital wonders displayed by the PMG Radio Part within the adjoining area.

In 1952 a really wonderful mannequin of the 4SO website was featured, supported by diagrams, photographs and textual content displaying the assorted steps in choosing a website, designing and putting in a brand new radio station.

Within the years earlier than World Battle II the PMG Division had produced many wonderful shows on the Brisbane Exhibition annually, shows which have by no means been surpassed. One standard show was a mannequin metropolis with shifting mail vans and different automobiles traversing the streets and obeying visitors lights. Ships and planes arrived, little question with mail. Different elements of the show featured the phone system. Radio workers joined their phone colleagues in devising new concepts and offering the hidden mechanisms which animated the show. So after the struggle the chance was taken to once more placed on a present on the Brisbane Exhibition and a wide range of matters have been used to entertain and educate. All of them featured some attention-grabbing side of the PMG Radio Sections’ actions. Nevertheless, different PMG sections now not participated in these shows.

In 1953 a completely new kind of radio was launched into the nationwide community in Queensland – a frequency modulated transmitter. This operated within the very excessive frequency band with a wavelength just one hundredth of these generally utilized by the medium frequency transmitters. It was in a position to function with a large audio frequency bandwidth, giving larger constancy to the listener with a receiver designed specifically for frequency modulated waves.

As its mode of propagation was fairly totally different from that used for the conventional medium frequency transmissions, an elevated website was chosen for the transmitter. This was on the northern finish of the Taylor Vary overlooking Brisbane, at a spot to be recognized thereafter as Mirrimbul. This was a phrase derived from an aboriginal dialect initially spoken within the Brisbane area by the Yugarabul folks. It referred at hand indicators as a way of speaking at a distance, and the central concept of communication appeared applicable. The brand new identify was authorized by the Place Names Board.

This FM transmitter was of 1 kilowatt energy and was of American manufacture.

This system radiated was normally that produced for 4QR however the station was on air solely from 11 AM to 11 PM. No name signal was allotted.

The station was thought of to be experimental solely and attracted a relatively small viewers. Nonetheless it continued to function for nearly eight years, after which in widespread with its fellows in different capital cities, was closed down. Nothing additional was finished with FM broadcasting till the introduction of a stereophonic system in 1980.

An attention-grabbing experiment was carried out in 1953 with the synchronization of two medium frequency regional stations. These have been 4QN Clevedon and 4QS Dalby. It was hoped that this mode of operation would give higher reception in areas of the State which may obtain the night-time skywave sign from the transmitters. It was determined to function each transmitters for this check on 4QN’s frequency. Accordingly two very secure oscillators have been designed and constructed within the PMG Analysis Laboratories in Melbourne, and one put in at every station.

A check van was outfitted and over a interval of a number of weeks night-time reception was noticed at varied distances from Dalby and Clevedon. Particular tones and recordings have been performed after regular program had ceased, and these have been listened to, noticed on a cathode ray oscilloscope and recorded on tape for comparability on the totally different websites.

The results of the observations was that reception in areas the place each stations may very well be heard at evening was marginally improved. One drawback of such a scheme nevertheless, is that the transmitters have to be equipped with an identical program, and for stations as broadly separated as 4QS and 4QN, program necessities didn’t usually allow this. On the conclusion of the experiment, 4QS reverted to its regular assigned frequency and nothing additional has been heard of the thought. One other kind of synchronized operation was later instituted for Pialba and Eidsvold and this can be described later.

1954 was a busy yr for the installer with exercise primarily in Central Queensland.

After greater than 20 years of low energy operation, 4RK at Gracemere was transferred to a brand new 10 kilowatt transmitter and given a brand new vertical aerial. This mix improved the station’s service space significantly, with St. Lawrence within the north, Blackwater within the west and Miriam Vale within the south now throughout the good reception zone. On this yr additionally, a brand new excessive energy 4QL Longreach was put in at Cramsie simply throughout the Thompson River. This improved the service space and actually the daytime main protection was and nonetheless is, the most important within the State.

The Thompson floods the encircling countryside now and again and water extends in massive floods nearly to the sting of the city. Due to this, the radio station was supplied with 4 workers homes in order that despite the fact that entry by street to the station was minimize by floodwater, the workers could be obtainable for responsibility. The Longreach city council had a motor boat and this was utilized in emergencies to ferry folks and provides from city to the far aspect of the Thompson. The course to observe was marked by white paint on the higher branches of partially submerged timber.

The Cramsie set up was accomplished in 1956 by the addition of a 2 kilowatt transmitter as a standby for the principle 10 kilowatt unit.

The aerial used at that stage was a 4 pole Delta pending the availability of a vertical half wave radiator. This Johns and Waygood vertical mast, 650 toes excessive got here into service in 1959 and the Delta was then used because the emergency aerial.

About this time, set up workers grew to become concerned in a piece with a definite cultural flavour. With the growing use of the Brisbane Metropolis Corridor for concert events by the Queensland Symphony Orchestra and visiting artists, there was a necessity for a studio on website.

Accordingly in late 1955 a small set up was made with a window affording a view of the principle auditorium, and positioned above the costume circle gallery. This studio enabled the live performance announcer to explain the scene from the privateness of a sound proof sales space. Previous to this the responsibility technician sat together with his amplifier and discipline phone beside the steps on the fringe of the stage in a really uncovered place and the operation was carried out as a standard exterior broadcast with the announcer again on the fundamental studio. These occasional native works have been welcomed by set up workers who on this busy time, appeared so usually to be away within the nation for lengthy intervals.

Broadcasting at Port Moresby had been quietly working with the medium frequency 9PA and the excessive frequency VLT, however by 1956 elevated exercise within the native program space made an growth within the recording discipline obligatory.

A brand new recording room was subsequently constructed and outfitted on the outdated Wonga studios. Enterprise was apparently brisk within the recording world, for one more recording room was put in barely 4 years later.

Earlier than lengthy putting in workers have been busy in North Queensland once more. Though it had at all times been deliberate to maneuver 4QN to the Brandon space, the hearth at Clevedon undoubtedly hastened the transfer. In 1956 a contract was let with STC for a 50 kilowatt transmitter with a 10 kilowatt standby, and a brick constructing was erected on the brand new website. It was prepared for the putting in workforce in 1958.

Throughout the yr Johns and Waygood erected a 650 toes excessive vertical radiator and by June 1959 all was prepared and the short-term tools at Clevedon was closed down and broadcasting started at Brandon. As an insurance coverage in opposition to the occasional failure of the industrial energy mains, two giant diesel engines, every driving a 100 KVA alternator have been supplied within the emergency energy room.

This enhance from 2 to 50 kilowatts in radiated energy made an unlimited enchancment to the station’s service space. The outdated drawback of poor reception at Charters Towers was solved eventually.

This yr noticed the introduction of tv to Queensland. In November, the excessive energy monochrome service started on Channel 2 within the VHF band, and the output from the Marconi transmitters was radiated from an aerial mounted on a 500 toes excessive tower on the Taylor Vary at Mirrimbul.

The Brisbane tv studios of the ABC have been constructed on a brand new website fronting Coronation Drive, Toowong, and backing onto the Brisbane River. Adjoining to this new space was an outdated dwelling “Middenbury” which was acquired by the Fee as a part of a brand new sound studio growth. Set up of those studios, which have been to exchange Alice Road, started in a brand new brick constructing on the “Middenbury” website.

As the 19 fifties drew to an in depth, work was in progress at Mount Isa on number of a website for a brand new station. 30 years after the institution of the NBS, the rising city of Mount Isa had no native radio. By day the printed band was nearly lifeless, with 4QL Longreach the one station which may very well be heard after which provided that one had a very good receiver and aerial and the atmospheric static was low. Brief wave reception of VLQ Brisbane was doable in fact, however few listeners have been outfitted for it and most have been unaware of the worth available from excessive frequency transmissions.

And so, out previous the airport in a stony, purple discipline studded with clumps of spinifex, the Mount Isa station took form.

Because the city was compact with nearly no outlying settlement, a small energy was allotted for the transmitter and a easy brief metal pipe aerial was erected.

4MI Mount Isa started broadcasting the Regional program in July 1960. This system line from the Brisbane studios was lengthy, over 1400 miles, all on open wire phone channels.

The station was outfitted with a pair of 200 Watt Philips transmitters, used as fundamental and standby. At first it was staffed half time, however later it operated unattended with workers from the native phone trade offering remedial measures as required.

The “sixties” proved to be simply as busy because the “fifties”. As Mount Isa was completed, plans have been being made for a giant new studio block for Port Moresby. This was to be at Wonga, not removed from the outdated website. Three studios with management rooms have been deliberate, plus recording and replaying cubicles with related administration lodging. This was a big work, and it was not prepared to be used till late in 1964. Because the Wonga development progressed, three different main works have been in progress – new metropolitan studios at Toowong, Brisbane, a brand new transmitting website at Maigabu, Port Moresby, and a brand new studio and transmitter set up at Rabaul, New Britain.

The Toowong studio set up was prepared for operation in July 1962 and 4QG and 4QR transferred from Alice Road to the brand new constructing.

At Moresby, the Wonga transmitting website was insufficient for the proposed expanded companies and a brand new space was acquired at Maigabu. Right here throughout the struggle had been an airforce touchdown floor referred to as Ward’s Strip and it was to this website that 9PA was transferred in December 1962. A brand new 2 kilowatt STC transmitter with an an identical standby was put in, and a 200 toes excessive metal pipe radiator was erected.

The in depth flat space of Ward’s Strip was perfect for brief wave operation additionally, and two new 10 kilowatt STC excessive frequency transmitters have been put in which elevated the ability of VLT and enabled a brand new service to go to air with the decision signal VLK. These excessive frequency items have been prepared by the tip of 1963 and supplied a significantly expanded protection of Papua and New Guinea. Particular aerials have been used to direct the indicators to the specified areas.

A number of rhombic receiving aerials have been additionally supplied to·allow the Wonga studio newsroom to listen to and rebroadcast Australian information from both Melbourne or Brisbane.

The state of affairs in New Britain was nonetheless not very passable. There had by no means been any daytime medium frequency reception, and due to the nice distance from any stations, little or no at evening. The excessive frequency bands may very well be used, and little question have been, by these with appropriate brief wave receivers, however this was unsatisfactory for the nice majority of the indigenous inhabitants.

In late 1960 ministerial approval was given for the ABC to ascertain native broadcasting at Rabaul and officers of the PMG Division went to the world with a check transmitter to find a website for the station. An space was chosen at Kurakakaul simply exterior of Rabaul.

As appreciable time elapses between website approval and the ultimate on air date of a brand new station, a short lived set up was supplied throughout 1962. A military igloo kind constructing was acquired in Rabaul and a studio and transmitter put in in it. On a restricted space of land exterior, a small metal lattice aerial mast was erected, and the brand new station 9RB went on air in December 1962.

The everlasting transmitting website at Kurakakaul was not prepared to be used till the center of 1966. The studios nevertheless, remained on the Rabaul website right now, though it was hoped to construct a brand new studio and administration block on Namanula Hill overlooking Rabaul. Within the occasion nevertheless, independence and the formation of the Nationwide Broadcasting Fee of Papua New Guinea occurred earlier than any new set up, and by 1973 the Papua New Guinea stations have been now not the accountability of the Australian NBS.

On the Bald Hills Radio Centre in 1963, two new transmitters have been put in, a contemporary 10 kilowatt STC for 4QG and a 50 kilowatt unit for 4QR just like the one at Brandon. Excessive hopes have been held for a 50 kilowatt for 4QG additionally sooner or later, however alas, this didn’t eventuate, though each metropolitan transmitters in Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide have been raised to 50. Up in North Queensland, catastrophe struck 4QN. The principle radiator collapsed whereas a contractor was changing a man insulator and the station was pressured to function on a short lived emergency aerial till the principle was rebuilt and returned to service 18 months later.

Two different main transmitters got here on air in 1963, each for tv.

One was ABDQ3 Mount Mowbullan and the opposite ABRQ3 Mount Hopeful. The previous was designed to serve Toowoomba and the Downs and was constructed excessive within the Bunya Mountains some 30 miles north east of Dalby, near the treeless dome of Mount Mowbullan and adjoining to the rain forest of the Bunya Mountains Nationwide Park.

The Mount Hopeful transmitter was supplied for viewers in Rockhampton, Mount Morgan and Gladstone and was in-built excessive, tough, dry nation 25 miles south of Rockhampton.

These two have been joined the next yr by a TV service for Townsville, ABTQ3. This station was constructed on Mount Stuart with a beautiful view of Townsville and Magnetic Island on the fringe of a 1000 foot excessive cliff. Entry to this website and to Mount Hopeful was supplied by the development of a number of miles of steep, tortuous mountain street.

In 1964 an occasion of some significance occurred within the NBS. For the earlier 34 years the PMG radio workers had had full technical management of the studios in development, operation and upkeep and the ABC had supplied all amenities for the manufacturing and presentation of program materials. It was now determined that the ABC would take over the technical aspect of studio work. PMG workers got the choice of transferring to the ABC and lots of did so. Just a few regional studios have been so located geographically that ABC technical management was not initially obtainable, and native PMG workers maintained these studios for some years afterwards In September of this yr the brand new Wonga studios at Port Moresby have been prepared to be used and have been positioned beneath the technical management of the ABC.

One other work in 1964 was the switch of 4AT from its unique constructing and transmitter to a brand new constructing on the identical website and a pair of recent STC 2 kW items designed to present a Four kW aerial energy.

Three transmitters got here on air in 1965, one TV and two medium frequency. The TV station served the Maryborough – Bundaberg space and was constructed excessive within the ranges simply east of Biggenden and inland from Childers. The positioning was referred to as Mount Goonaneman and one other mountain street was specifically constructed for entry.

The station was staffed and homes for lodging have been purchased in Childers.

The 2 new medium frequency stations have been at Pialba and Eidsvold.

4QB Pialba had been working on 2 kilowatts as much as that point, however because of the poor conductivity of the coastal wallum nation, the sign in Maryborough and Bundaberg was not as robust as could be desired for such cities. Inland within the Gayndah – Eidsvold – Monto area, reception of the Nationwide service was very poor and provision of a regional station to serve this space was extremely fascinating. So the choice to extend Pialba to 10 kilowatts and to construct an identical station at Eidsvold was very welcome.

For many individuals within the inland areas, the consequence was not so good as had been anticipated as a result of a choice by the Australian Broadcasting Management Board to function the stations with synchronized service frequencies, that’s, with each stations on the identical wavelength. The results of this technique of operation was that in an space about halfway between Pialba and Eidsvold, the listeners acquired a considerably distorted sign. Very elaborate measures have been taken on the transmitters to minimise this, however listeners have been obliged to do some relatively tough work with their receiving aerials to get an affordable consequence.

The world round Biggenden was notably vulnerable to this objectionable impact and reception there has by no means been perfect. Synchronized operation in such an space was purely experimental, however the experiment has by no means been terminated, to the continued frustration of numerous listeners.

At Pialba two new vertical radiators have been erected in order that the sign may very well be directed inland and never be wasted over the ocean to the east. A brand new brick constructing was constructed to accommodate the 2 new transmitters, every of 5 kilowatts, working in parallel to present 10 kilowatts output. Related transmitters have been put in at Eidsvold. At Eidsvold, protection was required in all instructions, so a standard single metal tower aerial was used. As at Pialba, this construction was 450 toes excessive.

The brand new companies went to air on the finish of November 1965, the Eidsvold call-sign being 4Q0. On this yr additionally a brand new studio was constructed for native use in Maryborough. There had been since 1950 a studio within the Maryborough Faculty of Arts constructing, however with the ABC’s growing use of native program materials, a brand new studio with higher amenities was fascinating. It was put in within the State Authorities Insurance coverage Workplace Constructing in Kent Road and was prepared to be used by August 1965. Pialba, Gympie and Eidsvold regional transmitters took occasional program from this studio.

1966 was an exceptionally busy yr for broadcasters with 5 new transmitters put in. All however one have been at new websites in order that along with the transmitter items all of the {hardware} of a station needed to be supplied – buildings, transmission strains, aerial and earth techniques and emergency engine mills.

The odd man out at an present website was the tv station for Cairns. As an interim measure pending a choice as to the last word everlasting website, a low energy unit was put in within the Telecom Radio Communications constructing at Bungalow on the southern outskirts of Cairns. There was already a metal tower on this website and the TV aerials have been mounted on the highest of this.

One other TV station was established on a rocky ridge in a Forestry pine plantation at Paschendaele for the good thing about viewers at Stanthorpe and surrounding districts.

Within the medium frequency space, a standby mast was erected by radio strains workers at Maigabu for station 9PA and in New Britain, the brand new Rabaul transmitting set up was accomplished. The positioning at Kurakakaul was on a low flat plateau near Talili Bay, 5 miles by street west of Rabaul. One of many by now acquainted metal pipe masts 200 toes excessive was raised by the radio strains workers, and a two and a half kilowatt STC transmitter was supplied. When all was in working order, transmission started at Kurakakaul and the short-term transmitter in Rabaul was faraway from the studio website and reinstalled as a spare on the new “Haus Wilus”.

The 2 remaining stations have been at Emerald and St. George.

Even with Longreach and Rockhampton each on excessive energy, an space surrounding Emerald was with out efficient protection. A website in open nation simply north of the city was obtained and a brick transmitter constructing was erected.

A 50 kilowatt fundamental transmitter with a 10 kilowatt standby was put in and linked to the half wave vertical aerial by buried coaxial cable.

The working frequency allotted was 1550 kcs on the excessive frequency finish of the medium wave band. This was a transparent Australian channel and it was hoped that evening time skywave cowl could be achieved over a big a part of Queensland for listeners in distant areas who needed to depend on distant stations. Such a powerful sign has been realized, though what use is manufactured from it’s not recognized. Definitely the sign is nice sufficient for use by different regional stations as emergency rebroadcast materials within the occasion of a failure of a standard program line. On a number of events the Emerald skywave has been rebroadcast from the Thursday Island transmitter, for instance.

The necessities at St. George have been relatively totally different. The nation to the east was fairly properly served by 4QS Dalby, however inland, reception was very poor. The biggest of the small daytime indicators at Bollon as an example have been from Cumnock and Manilla in N.S.W. A directional aerial system was clearly wanted and two tall towers have been constructed on a website adjoining to the Moonie Freeway seven miles from St. George. Because the frequency allotted, 710 kcs, was shared with the nationwide regional at Launceston, Tasmania, a null in transmission from St. George within the Tasmanian route was required.

The directional system gave an enhanced sign to the north and spherical to the west and south west. Reception was improved at Cunnamulla however Charleville gained nothing. Nevertheless the St. George district now had glorious protection of regular regional program with an growing native content material from the studios at Toowoomba.

Each Emerald and St. George started operation as totally staffed stations though 4QW St George grew to become unattended some 13 years later. 4QD Emerald has remained totally staffed. Emerald has developed right into a mixed radio centre with the workers answerable for quite a lot of low energy tv stations along with the operation of 4QD.

Additionally on this busy yr of 1966, an intensive survey by Brisbane radio workers was made in Papua New Guinea to find out the service areas of the Port Moresby brief wave stations VLK and VLT. Presently the Australian Authorities required a plan for broadcast growth in Papua New Guinea to be ready, and this brief wave survey supplied info extremely fascinating within the formation of the plan which was being developed by an engineer of the Queensland radio part. Observations of discipline energy, fading, interference and many others. have been made utilizing a communications receiver. The information was collected for a number of days at every location from about 6 AM to station shut down on the following cities: Daru, Goroka, Lae, Madang, Wewak, Manus Island, Kavieng, Rabaul, Kieta, Samarai and Popondetta.

The expedition, though of nice curiosity to the individuals, was fraught with frustration and problem within the transport, communication and lodging areas.

With the speed of set up nonetheless excessive, three new transmitters have been put in place in 1967.

On high of thick scrub coated Mount Blackwood 18 miles north west of Mackay, the final of the State’s excessive powered tv transmitters was put in, designed to serve the encircling sugar cane lands. Out on the Darling Downs the outdated devoted water cooled 10 kW of the unique 4QS Dalby was retired and its place taken by a pair of 5 kW items with mixed 10 kW output. These new transmitters of their good gray metal cupboards have been environment friendly and of top quality however they lacked the character and fascination of the older kind development with its rows of meters and management knobs and attention-grabbing views of cherry purple anodes and the blue glow of mercury vapour plasma within the rectifiers.

Chapter 4 – Downhill[edit]

The stage had now been reached within the medium frequency discipline the place a reasonably large a part of the State was successfully served by the 14 stations within the nation. There have been as well as, the 2 brief wave transmitters with 4QG and 4QR within the Brisbane metropolitan station at Bald Hills. Within the 4 years from 1967 to 1971 the medium frequency meeting store had no orders. New works curiosity modified to tv and on this medium many new low powered transmitters and translators have been put in all through the State.

The primary new medium wave broadcaster of the seventies was paradoxically, the smallest ever put in in Queensland – a 50 Watt unit for Hughenden in 1971. This fairly trendy semi-conductor kind transmitter was not even given a home of its personal, however was hidden away in a radio-telephone constructing in Maclaren Road. Even its easy aerial was hung like an after thought from the decrease areas of the microwave tower, from the very high of which the brash new tv aerial surveyed the countryside.

Two years elapsed earlier than the installers took to the sphere once more, however in 1973 it was enterprise as standard – a brand new 10 kilowatt for Julia Creek and a kilowatt for Mossman. Each stations used two transmitters in parallel, 4JK Julia Creek having STC items whereas 4MS Mossman was equipped by AWA. The dual aerial towers, 640 toes excessive, within the degree grasslands 5 miles east of Julia Creek are a landmark seen for a lot of miles. This directional array offers some skywave safety for its cochannel at Damaged Hill to the south, and an enhanced sign to the beforehand radio starved Gulf nation. How totally different was the world round Mossman – rain forest coated hills, lowlands stuffed with sugar cane and the scent of the ocean just some miles away. As a result of topography, the Mossman service space was confined near the coast from Daintree within the north, down previous Port Douglas to the northern Cairns seashores. The 4MS website within the monsoon season was nearly a melaleuca swamp, transformed quickly after the “Moist” by a vigorous development of tropical grass right into a veritable jungle. Even handed clearing has tamed the positioning considerably, however the grass slasher remains to be in frequent demand and lots of a tree has shot as much as transmission line peak between visits by the road upkeep social gathering. Each stations have been designed for unattended operation, main gadgets of upkeep being attended to by workers from the Radiocommunications centres at Mount Isa for Julia Creek and Cairns for Mossman.

Two years later the bauxite mining city of Weipa was given a regional station. Duplicate 500 Watt AWA transmitters have been put in as fundamental and standby, feeding a standard quarter wavelength metal lattice radiator. For economic system, the tools was housed in a 1000 line measurement prefabricated phone trade kind constructing referred to as a Jumbo hut. This system got here up the Peninsula from Cairns and turned west to Weipa on the outdated Moreton service station. The a number of hundred miles of open wire line have been topic to the same old troubles within the moist season. A distant management system was established enabling the workers on the Cairns Radiocommunications centre to observe the station and to impact a restricted variety of management capabilities at 4WP, resembling altering from one transmitter to the opposite and choosing an emergency program supply ought to the principle program be misplaced on its strategy to this distant website.

Scarcity of Authorities cash on this decade severely restricted the growth of the NBS though there was an ideal want for brand new stations, notably within the newly developed Central Queensland coalfields. This populous space with the brand new cities of Moranbah and Dysart was exterior the first service space of any station, nationwide or industrial.

After a few years of “some day” and “possibly”, a transmitter was lastly authorized for Thursday Island and a 2 kilowatt station grew to become operational in June 1979, It was housed, as was Weipa, in a transportable trade kind constructing, though, like Weipa, the price of transporting these buildings from Brisbane was very excessive. The 2 1 kilowatt transmitters with combiner and program tools have been put in within the constructing within the Brisbane meeting store and brought to Cairns by street and thence to Thursday island by barge. These have been in all probability the final broadcast transmitters STC made earlier than lack of Authorities orders pressured the shut down of their transmitter manufacturing facility. It was decreed by the Publish and Telecommunication Division that 4TI Thursday Island would share the 150 toes excessive aerial utilized by the transmitters of the Abroad Telecommunication Fee and a considerably sophisticated coupling unit was assembled in Brisbane in a smaller trade kind hut and brought to Thursday Island. The problems arose as a result of O.T.C. operated on three totally different lengthy wave delivery frequencies at varied instances of the day and evening, and it was obligatory to offer the proper load for Nationwide and O.T.C. transmitters and stop any mutual interference. 4TI was pleasantly located near the ocean with a view of passing ships and in sight of a number of islands. Thursday Island may be very hilly and the OTC website is the one fairly almost-level space. The radiator is a metal lattice tower, 150 toes excessive. Many different lesser metal towers litter the positioning, some used to assist OTC excessive frequency aerials, and a few unused, now that civil aviation radio communication has moved from Thursday Island to Weipa. One in all these towers·was used to assist the 4TI standby aerial.

Radio interference between 4HU, the native TV transmitter and the Hughenden tools of the broad-band microwave system finally necessitated the removing of 4HU to a different website. An acre of land on Hospital Hill was acquired and the 4HU tools was moved and housed in a tidy phone trade kind constructing and given the dignity of its personal vertical radiator. Leaving Hughenden to go westward, the traveller sees now because the final outpost of the city, a discover board which proclaims “Telecom Australia, Nationwide Broadcasting Service, 4HU”; the State’s smallest station, however totally outfitted with its personal website, transmitter constructing and 80 toes excessive metal pipe radiator. The brand new website was operational in March 1981.

Throughout these latter years there had been a rising concern in Telecom as to the way forward for broadcasting and particularly, the position if any that Telecom broadcasters would play. Following two Authorities commissioned reviews, the Inexperienced and the Dix into amongst different issues the way forward for Nationwide broadcasting and the operation of the ABC, it appeared that the set up and management of the transmitters, for over half a century the province of PMG-Telecom could be contracted elsewhere. There was discuss of workers being transferred to the Division of Communications or the ABC and such rumours deepened the gloom which was settling over the Telecom radio workers. It appeared that the tip was in sight after 52 years of accountable broadcast engineering.

Chapter 5 – Nice Expectations[edit]

Regardless of the gloomy outlook which had prevailed, all was not misplaced, and in 1983 it was revealed that the NBS would stay with Telecom, and could be reorganized to enhance its effectiveness. On the identical time a brand new Act was handed by way of Parliament creating an Australian Broadcasting Company in lieu of the outdated fee, which though it didn’t have an effect on the operation of the transmitters, was to have appreciable impact on this system and studio aspect of nationwide broadcasting. Inside Telecom, a Broadcasting Directorate was to be arrange with a Director in Melbourne H.Q. and a Broadcasting Supervisor in every State department. The brand new Directorate was to be as unbiased as doable inside Telecom, with the State Managers reporting direct to H.Q. in Melbourne. Staffed stations have been to be returned from the management of the District Telecommunications Managers to the brand new Broadcasting Department in every State, and plans have been laid for the institution of inspection and upkeep depots at strategic places to deal with the unattended stations.

In Queensland the brand new look grew to become official in January 1984, and because the yr progressed there was a lot discuss and numerous motion on broadcast issues. The Authorities’s new Particular Broadcasting Service was increasing and a excessive powered UHF TV service was confirmed for set up at Mirrimbul. The stereo FM transmitter at Mount Isa was commissioned and plans ready for UHF tv translators at Mount Tamborine for the relay of Particular Broadcasting Service applications and Brisbane Nationwide Channel 2. The Aussat satellite tv for pc was not far off with the potential for new and totally different companies, together with a second Nationwide regional sound program for the nation. Within the medium frequency space, the lengthy awaited Charleville regional station was authorized, with a small fill in unit for Cunnamulla. 4CH Charleville got here on air in June 1987, however Cunnamulla was lastly served by low energy FM. There was an ideal feeling of hope for the long run engendered by the exercise related to the brand new and anticipated works. The comfortable band of broadcasters felt that they have been regaining their lengthy submerged standing inside Telecom and will look ahead with nice expectations to many extra years of accountable broadcasting such because the pioneers who laid the foundations of the NBS would have wished.

Half 2 – NBS Stations in Queensland and P.N.G.[edit]

The Brisbane Metropolitan Stations 4QG and 4QR[edit]

When the Nationwide Broadcasting Service got here into being, 4QG had already been on air for nearly 5 years, and 4QR didn’t exist.

It’s·applicable to incorporate the file of those early days in order that the historical past of 4QG is totally documented from its starting.

All of it started when the Queensland Premier E.G. Theodore wrote to the Prime Minister, S.M. Bruce on 14 August 1924 making use of for an “A” class broadcasting station licence.

The suggestion for a State Authorities broadcasting station got here immediately from the Council of Agriculture, a physique established beneath the Main Producers’ Organisation Act of 1922 and representing the person on the land. In a prolonged report back to the Minister for Agriculture, W.M. Gillies, the Councils’ director, L. R. McGregor, laid nice emphasis on the worth of a station which may give market reviews and different related info directed to farmers.

The Minister was clearly , and in February 1924 he broadcast over a personal radio station 4EZ owned by A.E. Dillon and operated from the Brisbane Observatory. This was organized by the Council of Agriculture as an illustration.

In August the Minister wrote to Premier Theodore recommending the institution of a station. Cupboard authorized, and the appliance for a licence was made forthwith. All this apparently made little or no impression in Parliament, for in Hansard of 1924 and 1925 just one query was requested about the potential for establishing a Authorities radio station. There was no debate recorded.

It’s not clear simply when the licence was granted however the State Authorities moved rapidly to hunt a provider for his or her proposed broadcasting station.

There have been in Australia at the moment, two suppliers recognized to the Authorities, Amalgamated Wi-fi (Australasia) and the Radio Communication (Pacific) Co.

On Three September 1924, AWA was invited to tender for a excessive energy transmitting system.

By the tip of 1924 a State radio workplace was in existence within the Chief Secretary’s Division, with John William Robinson as supervisor. He had been related to the early days of broadcast station 2FC Sydney, owned by Farmer and Co., however resigned that submit to come back to Queensland as supervisor of the brand new broadcasting enterprise. At this stage, the State radio workplace grew to become formally the Queensland Radio Service. Robinson continued as chief officer and have become supervisor of first, the Australian Broadcasting Firm, and later, supervisor of the Australian Broadcasting Fee. However this was not till the early 1930’s.

Robinson had thought of the issue of station location and firmly believed that the studios and transmitter ought to be cosited. He advisable the highest of the Queensland State Insurance coverage constructing on the nook of George and Elizabeth Streets as being essentially the most appropriate website. He suggested making an software for a medium wavelength for the transmitter relatively than an extended wave resembling 2FC was utilizing, because the proposed location on a metropolis constructing lent itself to a shorter wavelength. He additionally steered that an software for the decision signal 4QG, for Queensland Authorities, be made.

In January 1925 AWA’s tender for a “5 kilowatt station” was accepted. They have been to produce and set up the transmitting tools, however the State Authorities was to erect the studios and the aerial towers.

Particulars of the working circumstances of the licence had now been acquired, and in February Robinson suggested AWA’s Chief Engineer A. S. McDonald that the station was to function on 385 metres.

At this juncture, after non-public negotiations, AWA was requested to launch Frederick William Stevens to come back to Brisbane as Chief Engineer for 4QG. Stevens had appreciable broadcasting expertise at 2FC and 3LO Melbourne and held robust opinions on the benefits of authorities possession of broadcasting stations. He arrived in Brisbane in April 1925.

Little doubt with an eye fixed to further enterprise, AWA suggested about this time that they might provide a small 500 Watt transmitter nearly instantly, to be used till the principle unit was prepared, which might in all probability not be till early 1926. They steered that such a unit may very well be used as a relay station at Rockhampton when now not required in Brisbane.

Robinson had advisable this to Premier Gillies in March 1925 and by June of that yr, licence No. 24 for a “B” class station, 4RN Rockhampton, was issued to the Queensland Radio Service. Because it didn’t appear that sufficient income could be forthcoming to make the enterprise successful, the licence was surrendered in Could 1926. Because it turned out, the Authorities by no means operated a second transmitter within the nation though they might little question have preferred to broaden their service had that they had the chance. In August 1928 they made an software to function a 500 Watt station at Toowoomba however nothing eventuated from this. The Federal Authorities’s determination to take over all of the “A” class stations was quickly to take away broadcasting from the management of any state authorities.

Nevertheless the Authorities was eager to go on air, and in July 1925 accepted AWA’s quote for the 500 Watt transmitter.

In some haste a studio was fitted out on the second ground of the Govt constructing in George Road, closely draped and carpeted and housing the microphone amplifier.

A small picket constructing was supplied for the transmitter in a courtyard within the centre of the Govt constructing. The aerial was to run vertically from this to a horizontal part supported on two poles on the highest of the principle constructing. The whole aerial was thus T formed and the 2 poles raised the highest of the T some 40 to 50 toes above the roof. The poles have been about 100 toes aside, and a counterpoise was put in on the roof beneath the horizontal high of the aerial.

Presently elements of Brisbane have been nonetheless equipped with direct present from the industrial energy provide mains at a stress of 440 Volts within the space of the Govt Constructing. Really one had a selection of 220 Volts constructive to floor, or 220 Volts unfavorable to floor or 440 Volts D.C. not earthed. Due to this, a rotary converter was used to offer the transmitter with the two kilowatts single section 240 Volt alternating present provide which it wanted. The excessive stress for this transmitter was 2600 Volts with the modulator drawing 110 mA and the modulated oscillator 200 mA. i.e. the DC anode enter was 520 Watts. The aerial energy will need to have been significantly decrease than this.

AWA despatched certainly one of their installers, S. M. Newman, who had the small transmitter prepared for operation in about three weeks.

On Monday, 27 July 1925, at Eight PM, W. N. Gillies, now State Premier, formally opened 4QG and common public broadcasting started in Queensland.

An area newspaper described the opening broadcast as disappointing.

At 7.50 PM the announcer, Norman Cooling, opened the microphone and mentioned “Hiya, Hiya, station 4QG Brisbane, Queensland Radio Service; stand by for the tune in sign”. A excessive pitched buzzer then sounded for a short time, adopted by two check information. The announcer apologized for being unable to convey listeners the Tivoli Theatre Orchestra as preparations had not been accomplished, after which at Eight PM the Premier opened the station.

4QG was “on air”.

The rest of this system till shut down at 10 PM consisted of native singers and instrumentalists and gramophone information direct from the studio.

In the meantime the brand new “massive” station was beneath development.

Robinson was apparently a person of many elements and along side the State Public Works Division officers, designed the brand new construction on the roof of the Queensland State Insurance coverage constructing to accommodate the technical, administration and program departments.

The brand new station lodging was in impact the eighth ground of the constructing and was constructed within the latter half of 1925. It was 120 toes above the nook of George and Elizabeth Streets.

A Brisbane agency, Harvey Brothers, had the job of erecting the 2 aerial assist towers on the constructing. The towers have been sq. in part, metal lattice, self supporting and tapered. They have been 100 toes excessive and 127 toes aside and each had a 17 toes lengthy crossarm at its high, to the ends of which the aerial wires have been connected.

The towers have been erected in November and December, and the studios and transmitter corridor have been prepared for tools set up by the start of 1926.

The aerial wires have been hoisted into place on the towers one Sunday morning in January 1926, to keep away from visitors in George Road.

On 31 Dec. 1925, AWA despatched the transmitter from Sydney within the ships “Monara” and “Mildura”. By 12 January, AWA’s installer R.C. Humphreys was on the job. J. B. (Joe) Reid adopted quickly after however Newman was sick and didn’t take part. Native technician L. S. Jefferies whose dad and mom have been the principle constructing caretakers, assisted.

In February and March a studio was outfitted within the premises of the Council of Agriculture in Turbot Road in order that first hand farming information and market reviews may very well be broadcast. The Brisbane agency of Trittons equipped the drapes and delicate furnishings for this small studio.

By early April the transmitter was prepared for testing, and other than some reservations in regards to the microphone amplifiers, Robinson accepted the set up as passable.

So on Thursday 22 April 1926, the opening program was despatched out on the brand new excessive energy transmitter, and about Three PM the State Premier, W. McCormack made a broadcast speech, declaring the brand new station formally open.

The lodging comprised an enquiry workplace, varied administration workplaces, a big reception corridor within the centre of the constructing, two studios, fundamental transmitter corridor with sound proof home windows into the studios, workshop, laboratory, battery room and fan room.

The transmitter corridor was 23 by 36 toes, fundamental studio 17 by 26 and small studio 14 by 18. The timber used was Queensland silky oak. The battery room housed two fundamental battery banks, certainly one of 720 Volts and certainly one of 162 Volts. The primary supplied the excessive stress provide for the only valve MC1/50 sub modulator, and the latter was the bias provide for the 10 parallel linked MT7B modulator valves.

The transmitter was typical of the practices of the 19 twenties with a excessive energy self excited grasp oscillator driving a excessive energy modulated amplifier which was then coupled to the aerial circuit.

The grasp oscillator comprised two triodes kind MT7A linked in parallel with grid excitation derived from a coil inductively coupled to the oscillator tank circuit, linked to present constructive suggestions and therefore oscillation.

The oscillator tank circuit was inductively coupled to the grid circuits of the Four parallel linked MT7A triodes of the modulated amplifier.

The modulator consisted of 10 triodes kind MT7B in parallel, and modulated the ability amplifier through a Heising choke circuit.

The handbook – advisable excessive stress provide of between 8000 and 9000 Volts was derived from a Three section double star linked rectifier set of six diode valves kind MR7A fed from a 415 to 12,000 Volt AC Three section transformer.

One sees from the working directions that the D.C. anode enter to the modulated energy amplifier was 5 kW, therefore the time period “5 kilowatt transmitter” which was the way in which transmitter powers have been laid out in these days. Relying on the effectivity of the amplifier which may have been as much as 60 %, the ability to the aerial would have been 2 to three kilowatts. The ultimate output vitality was inductively coupled into the aerial circuit at a degree between the aerial correct and the counterpoise.

Technically the aerial was an “inverted L” used in opposition to a counterpoise which was supported on metal pipes, and coated the roof space. The flat high of the aerial consisted of two horizontal cages 2 to three toes in diameter with their cage kind down leads becoming a member of to take the feed out through a big ribbed conical insulator on the roof of the transmitter room.

Images present that the free ends of the flat high have been insulated from the supporting halyards with twin corona ring rod insulators.

The aerial and counterpoise have been reputed to be in quarter wave resonance at about 1 Megacycle, however the system was tuned to radiate on a wavelength of 385 metres, equal to a frequency of 780 kilocycles per second. The aerial enter present was usually 12 Amps.

At a while later, earlier than 1930, the frequency was modified to 760 kcs.

The frequency was once more modified, this time to 800 kcs, however the date is unsure. It was earlier than July 1936 nevertheless, as a Analysis Laboratories Check Report (No. 488) information discipline energy values measured at the moment with 4QG on 800 kcs.

The frequency of the station was monitored with a wavemeter and adjusted as required.

The low degree studio audio amplifier was equipped by the Western Electrical Co. (Australia) and Western Electrical, Reiss and Amplion microphones have been used.

No electrical replica of gramophone information was doable at that stage, so a microphone was positioned in entrance of the sound field of an Aeolian Vocalian gramophone within the studio.

Two Western Electrical moveable amplifiers have been supplied for outdoor broadcasts at websites distant from the studio.

Every thing requisite for operating a big broadcasting station was now in place and the workers started settling into the brand new routine.

Technical working workers in these early days have been Alf Bauer, Cyril Moran, Harold Oxford, Charles Stephenson, Will Bardin and Alf Jackson. Raymond Mcintosh was taken on in January 1927 as station engineer, to work beneath Stevens, the chief engineer. Stevens left after the takeover by the PMG. He finally joined the Division of Civil Aviation. Different workers members have been (in 1929) R. Wight, Markets officer; H. S. McCallum, Musical Director; T. H. Humphreys, Announcer; L. L. Shiel, Clerk ; Mavis McFarlane and Connie Archdale, Typists; Leo McCarthy, Messenger.

An examination of the annual reviews of the Queensland Radio Service for the years 1926 to 1929 reveals many attention-grabbing info.

The station carried paid promoting and in addition had income from listeners’ licence charges. In a single yr from 1926 to 1927 the variety of licences in Queensland rose from 8,373 to 23,163 and the Q.R.S. confirmed a revenue in its first yr of 730 kilos. This rose to five,334 kilos for the interval 1926-27 and was 3,310 kilos within the interval 1927‑28. Throughout the subsequent yr the revenue was 5,211 kilos, and the station paid the PMG Division an “A” grade licence charge of 15 kilos every year.

Initially the hours of transmission have been roughly 1 PM to 2 PM, 3.30 PM to 4.30 PM and 6 PM to 10 PM, and totalled some 40 hours per week.

The next years noticed further on air intervals added – early morning information and a ladies’s session – and by mid 1929 the station was broadcasting 60 hours per week.

Youngsters’s bedtime tales have been standard, and among the story tellers have been the Misses Archdale, McFarlane and Waratah, and Messrs Woodland, Tyson and Learn (of Reads’ Uncommon Bookshop).

Exterior broadcasts have been constructed from the church buildings, racecourses and theatres as a daily characteristic, and lots of attention-grabbing particular occasions have been coated. Everlasting strains have been linked to these venues the place frequent broadcasts have been made. By 1930 some 75 non-public strains have been rented.

It’s attention-grabbing to notice that the QRS, the Australian Broadcasting Firm and the Australian Broadcasting Fee all used the Brisbane GPO non-public mail field 293E as much as 1983 when the Australian Broadcasting Company was created and a brand new field quantity obtained. The arrival of Hinkler at Bundaberg and Kingsford Smith at Eagle Farm have been highlights. The Melbourne Cup was relayed through brief wave as no interstate strains have been obtainable for program transmission in these days.

The go to of the Duke and Duchess of York (later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth) and highlights of the Royal Nationwide Affiliation present have been coated, and through 1928/29 a Check Match between England and Australia was broadcast from the ‘Gabba cricket floor.

At one time particular time indicators have been broadcast to help the sphere workers of the Surveyor Basic.

In 1929 station workers helped to equip a Qantas airplane, the “Atalanta” with radio earlier than its seek for the lacking aviators Anderson and Hitchcock. Stevens the chief Engineer went alongside as radio operator. On its subsequent seek for the airmen Moir and Owen lacking within the Northern Territory on route from England, the QRS Director Robinson went as operator. The pilot on these flights was Capt. L. Mind.

Nevertheless, the halcyon days of State Radio have been numbered and already in December 1928 the Commonwealth was contemplating the acquisition of all “A” class stations and started negotiations with the Queensland Authorities early in 1929. It was proposed to purchase the technical tools, however the studios and ·different lodging could be leased.

By July 1929, the Queensland Authorities was exchanging correspondence with a industrial agency, The Australian Broadcasting Firm Ltd of Sydney by way of S. F. Doyle its managing director. This firm had been fashioned by Sir Benjamin Fuller and C. F. Marden was its common supervisor. It was proposed that this firm ought to take over all program provision within the A category stations and at ·the identical time the Postmaster Basic would take management of the technical elements of the stations.

Lists of apparatus and valuations have been ready and the Broadcasting Firm took management of the studio operations on 31 January 1930.

On the identical time the Postmaster Basic assumed management of the technical companies and the Nationwide Broadcasting Service was formally inaugurated.

In keeping with a report within the journal “Wi-fi Weekly”, the brand new service started with messages by the Postmaster Basic (Hon. J. H. Lyons), the Premier of Queensland, (Hon. A. E. Moore) and the Chairman of Administrators of the Australian Broadcasting Firm, Stuart Doyle. A musical program was introduced by the Nationwide Broadcasting Orchestra and the A.B.C. Mouth Organ Band. Hilda Lane, Harry Collins and Cecil Woodland entertained with songs and comedian sketches. Lastly the Brisbane Trocadero Dance Orchestra performed till shut down at 11 PM.

On the next afternoon the B.A.T.C. race assembly was broadcast from Albion Park and a Sheffield Defend match was described. Within the night there have been descriptions of racing from the speedway and the velodrome. At evening listeners have been entertained by comedians Monument and Harrow, Dorothy Sanders and Hilda Lane sopranos and comedian sketches by Harry Humphreys and Harry Borrowdale.

On the Sunday there have been church companies, band recitals from the Botanic Gardens and Wickham Park and within the night a piano recital by Hilda Woolmer.

Officers of the Transmission Part of the PMG Division in Brisbane took over the operation with A. J. (Arthur) Clark as the primary Foreman Mechanic in cost. J. R. (Jim) Hutchison was the Divisional Engineer and S. J. (Sam) Ross the Supervising Engineer.

For the following 12 years the station remained within the State Authorities Insurance coverage Constructing (which grew to become in 1933, the State Taxation Constructing) and through this era many PMG males frolicked on the upkeep workers. The record is lengthy and is probably not full, however the next are recognized to have served there: Vern Kenna, Invoice Rohde, Bert Cowling, George McFarlane, Vince Henderson, Jim Todd, Snow Hendry, Blue Hamilton, Hughie Thain, Nat Gould, Ralph Bongers, Harold Oxford, Dan Baxter, Gordon Booker, Geoff Beetham, Reg Baker, Jack Loth, George Service.

A while after the takeover, main modifications have been made to the transmitter. The 4 MT7A air cooled triodes of the ability amplifier have been changed by a single water cooled excessive energy triode kind 4220C. The set up was carried out by Roy Fergusson and George Olsen. Another minor modifications have been made to present higher modulation depth. The rationale for these modifications is obscure, however it’s doubtless that availability of MT7A valves could have prompted the transfer. The cooling water for the 4220C was contained in newly put in tanks on the roof and the Brisbane PMG Workshop equipped the distilled water which circulated on the charge of about 5 gallons a minute. Guests to the station have been usually entertained by the arcs which may very well be drawn by a pencil held within the hand and touched to sure metallic elements of the transmitter.

The frequency of the grasp oscillator was relatively unstable and required frequent correction utilizing a wavemeter as a reference. Management of frequency by quartz crystal had not but come to 4QG.

A Analysis Laboratories Check Report, No. 26 of November 1931, information calibration checks on a Cambridge wavemeter No. L13544 from 4QG. With care, it was doable to learn the frequency with not more than 150 cycles uncertainty.

By the mid 1930’s it was obvious that any new, presumably excessive powered transmitter for 4QG ought to be put in out of city, and to this finish a website at Bald Hills, 11 miles north of the town was chosen in 1935 by a survey workforce from the PMG Analysis Laboratories Part, Melbourne. The positioning remained undeveloped till the early 1940’s when the army state of affairs required the switch of transmitters out of the town.

In the meantime 4QG studio and transmitter continued to function from George Road.

The Australian Broadcasting Firm had the choice of a Three yr time period, however in the long run their nationwide monopoly didn’t run for the total time. In Could 1932 the Authorities enacted a invoice for the creation of the Australian Broadcasting Fee and the brand new group started operations at Eight PM on Friday 1 July 1932.

The bells of Sydney GPO chimed out on relay to 4QG and the 11 different Nationwide stations, and the announcer Conrad Charlton mentioned ”That is the ABC”.

Within the center 1930’s there have been solely about fourteen folks on the ABC studio workers in Brisbane. Harvey Humphreys, later a Studio Supervisor, recalled that when he joined as a messenger in these days Monty Anderson was Chief Announcer, Bob White was Assistant Supervisor and Huck Finlay was State Supervisor.

By trendy requirements, 4QG within the thirties was of comparatively low energy with a considerably inefficient aerial, but it surely had a decent service space by no means the much less. Different stations have been few in quantity and artificial electrical interference was low, in order that even a small sign was helpful.

There are information of two discipline energy surveys made in these days. H. R. Adam’s Analysis Laboratories’ Check Report of April 1934 provides eight spot measurements made by Arthur Bensley within the Brisbane suburbs. The precise websites aren’t recognized exactly, solely the suburb, distance and route being given. The imply of those readings gave a discipline energy of 340 millivolts per metre at 1 mile with an estimated energy of three.Four kW within the aerial. This might give a determine of benefit of 206 which appears excessive for this aerial. The working frequency was not acknowledged however could have been 760 kcs.

The second recorded survey was made in July 1936 with 4QG on 800 kcs. The Analysis Labs Check Report No. 488 was written by Alex McKenzie who presumably made the measurements. Industrial stations 4BH and 4BK have been included within the survey, which was finished primarily to find out the bottom conductivity within the Brisbane area. The aerial present was quoted as roughly 10 Amps and the plate enter to the ultimate as about 3,000 Watts. It’s recognized that the aerial resistance at 800 kcs was 22 ohms, so the aerial energy was about 2 kW.

Eight measurements have been made near the transmitter, between one and three miles, and the imply discipline was 212 millivolts per metre at 1 mile. This provides a determine of benefit of 150 which appears to be a extra practical worth for the aerial.

The sphere energy set for the second collection of exams was an STC mannequin with a loop aerial mounted on the roof of a automotive.

The common worth of conductivity within the Brisbane area was then calculated from the survey readings as 5 milli-Siemen metres, expressed within the report as 0.5×10 E-13 E.M.U., the type in vogue at the moment. This compares properly with the presently accepted worth of Four to five mSm derived from many detailed trendy measurements. Some discipline energy values in millivolts per metre measured in 1936 have been:

Beenleigh                      6.10 mV/m

Coolangatta                  0.71

Caboolture                    1.30

Ipswich                         4.30

Gatton                         0.56

Warwick                        0.17

The audio frequency response of 4QG general was not very spectacular, being 6 dB down at 50 cps and 4.5 dB down at 5 kcs. At a modulation depth of 80 % the distortion with an enter of 400 cps, was about 7 %. Routine exams started in 1939 with the acquisition of a noise and distortion measuring set.

In direction of the tip of the thirties, 4QG’s metropolitan monopoly was damaged and a brand new nationwide station joined the NBS in Brisbane. It was proposed that this station could be a regional relay for the Sydney originated Nationwide program and would have the decision signal 4BR, little question for “Brisbane Regional”. This was modified to 4QR by the point of opening and the relay proposal didn’t eventuate.

A studio with management room was arrange within the South Brisbane Faculty of Arts Library constructing subsequent to the outdated dry dock and native applications originated right here.

The official opening of the brand new station was held on the Belle Vue Lodge in George Road, on the night of Friday 7 January 1938. At Eight PM the Postmaster Basic, Senator Mclachlan spoke from Melbourne, then W. J. Cleary the chairman of the ABC gave the opening deal with from the Belle Vue. This ceremony was additionally broadcast on relay by 2BL and 3AR.

The official desk within the solar room of the Belle Vue was decked with roses and featured as a centrepiece, a mannequin of the brand new 4QR tower with a purple mild on the high.

A number of ABC officers had come from Sydney for the event, together with the Basic Supervisor C. J. Moses, the Controller of Productions F. Clulow, the Federal Superintendent of Broadcasts T. W. Bearup, the Federal Controllers of Music W. James, Talks B. Molesworth and Applications Dr. Ok. Barry.

Queenslanders current included the ABC Queensland Supervisor A. N. Finlay, Mr and Mrs Jose, the Robert Dalley Scarletts, Archbishop Duhig, L. D. Edwards the Director of Schooling, Professor Alcock and J. B. Chandler.

Musical applications have been introduced by the Mastersingers’ choir and the ABC (Brisbane) Orchestra, the previous from the Faculty of Arts Constructing in Ann Road and the latter from St. Luke’s Corridor in Charlotte Road. The pianist with the orchestra was Hilda Woolmer.

The transmitter had been prepared to be used by 24 December, however because of the Christmas holidays, the opening was delayed till January. The set up had been finished by Roy Fergusson and Jack Loth.

The transmitter was of STC manufacture and in its totally developed situation was able to 2 kW output. Initially it got here on air with 500 Watts into the aerial.

The RF lineup was a 6C6 crystal oscillator adopted by a 4061A 1st separator, a 4242A 2nd separator, a push pull 4242A grid modulated stage and a closing linear amplifier utilizing 4 4279A triodes in push pull parallel.

The audio chain comprised two 6C6 pentode levels driving a 4242A triode modulator. Six 872A mercury vapour rectifiers gave a closing excessive stress of three,000 Volts.

A pattern of the modulated output was rectified and utilized as suggestions to the cathode of the first audio amplifier.

The efficiency figures of this transmitter have been very creditable with a distortion of two.5 % at 96 % modulation depth and an general audio frequency response of +/-2.5 db from 35 to 10,000 cps.

Overmodulation was prevented by way of two gasoline crammed diodes within the anode circuit of the modulator. In 1938, the 4279A triodes have been the most important air cooled valves in use in Australia.

Till its removing to Bald Hills, 4QR ran at 500 Watts on 940 kcs. The output to the aerial was carried on an 80 Ohm coaxial cable.

The 4QR aerial was a vertical self supporting lattice metal tower 182 toes excessive, erected on the roof of the Central Computerized Alternate constructing in Elizabeth Road. A PMG schedule for the tower was issued in 1937 however the maker is unsure. The same tower for 5AN Adelaide was manufactured and erected by one Miller, working to STC drawings ready in England. It has been steered that Sidney Williams erected the 4QR tower however this

has not been confirmed. There’s a Johns and Waygood drawing for some modifications to the bottom metal work dated Four Nov 37 however this firm has no information referring to this tower.

After 4QR was moved to Bald Hills, the tower was dismantled in 1942. It was re-erected in 1949 by Frank Hickey and carried microwave radio parabolas for the Brisbane to Southport trunk phone system. In 19XX it was once more eliminated and re-erected at Level Lookout on Stradbroke Island the place it helps radio phone aerials.

The transmitter at Central Alternate was unattended with PMG technical workers obtainable from the brand new metropolitan studios in Penneys Constructing in Queen Road, as required. Vince Henderson steadily attended to the morning handbook begin up process.

In 1940 a mains voltage regulator was fitted and in 1941 a 3-phase alternator direct coupled to a Ford Mannequin B petrol engine was put in as an emergency mains provide. This was just like one put in in Penneys for the studios.

The brand new studio within the South Brisbane Library was used initially for 4QR applications, however on the set up of amenities in Penneys, the 4QR management was transferred and the South Brisbane studio used for music and Drama solely. The primary broadcast of the Queensland Studio Orchestra beneath its conductor W. Nelson Burton was constructed from the massive dance corridor adjoining the studio and this corridor was to be the house of this orchestra for a few years.

Each QG and QR continued to function from their metropolis places till, as beforehand talked about, each have been transferred to Bald Hills throughout the struggle. The will to take away the tall masts from the town apparently arose from the institution of Basic Macarthur’s HQ within the AMP constructing in Queen Road, when it was thought that the towers may very well be used as markers in any doable aerial assault by the enemy.

Vern Kenna, Divisional Engineer of the Broadcasting Set up at the moment, acquired pressing directions to arrange for the early transfer of each stations, and with Alf Howard of the Brisbane Drafting Part instantly started the design of a vertical aerial for erection on the Nationwide website at Bald Hills.

A amount of metal pipe used for the casing of artesian bores was present in a metropolis warehouse and a 262 toes excessive pipe mast was erected by radio linemen early in 1942.

The pipes have been 18 to 20 toes lengthy and have been screwed collectively. The decrease sections have been of Eight inch diameter, whereas the higher sections have been 6 inch. The whole aerial was assembled and laid out horizontally and connected to a vertical jury mast of ironbark, 70 toes lengthy. The anchor blocks for guys had already been put in and punctiliously the entire aerial was erected and the blokes secured. The mast was guyed in 4 instructions at six ranges with the highest 22 toes unsupported. Erection time was about 4 hours.

This aerial was lit with two purple lights on the high for plane warning. The bottom insulator was about Eight toes above the bottom on the high of a metal body. Inside this body was a metallic cupboard to accommodate the coupling elements. At 940 kcs, the mast was simply over 1 / 4 of a wavelength excessive. Its earth system consisted of 120 radials every 260 toes lengthy. The bottom resistance at 800 kcs was 28 Ohms.

Inside a short while the primary stage of a brand new fundamental transmitter constructing was prepared to be used and at the moment preparations to lease an outdated broadcasting website, constructing and aerial from industrial station 4BH, (Broadcasters Australasia Pty Ltd) have been accomplished, at a spot referred to as Fischel’s Jam Manufacturing facility on the Brisbane aspect of Bald Hills. The published website was clearly adjoining to the manufacturing facility.

The outdated 4BH aerial was a T construction i.e. a vertical wire with a horizontal high. The sort and dimensions of the earth mat don’t appear to have been recorded. The helps have been picket, with 4 guys at every of three ranges. The only wire down lead was constrained with a rod insulator with two anticorona rings, anchored to floor simply exterior the transmitter constructing. The resistance at 800 kcs was not recorded, however was 18 Ohms at 940 kcs. A big white, stepped, porcelain insulator led the transmitter output by way of the wall to the bottom of the down lead. The constructing as seen in up to date pictures, was of wooden and sheets of asbestos cement.

This website was to accommodate a regionally constructed 500 Watt transmitter which was to function as 4QG and at instances, 4QR, after each stations had been moved out of the town.

This 500 Watt transmitter used two spare triodes kind MT7A within the closing stage, and was finally used as the motive force for the 5 kW stage constructed later. This used two water cooled triodes, in all probability 4220C at 3,000 V from six MR7A rectifiers.

The scene was now set for the proposed strikes.

The 4QR 2 kW unit needed to be dismantled, trucked to Bald Hills and reassembled as quickly as doable to minimise off air time. Accordingly a cautious schedule of actions was drawn up by Arthur Clark and all concerned had an assigned half to play.

Because the final bars of the Nationwide Anthem died away on 23 March 1942, the principle breaker was pulled and the person with the protection key inserted it within the transmitter door lock able to open the cupboards. As the important thing was turned it twisted off within the lock to everybody’s dismay. A. J. C. was not a person to see the humour of the state of affairs and the workers set to to take away the doorways by different means.

The dismantled cupboards have been lowered from the highest ground of the Alternate through the tools cathead to the truck ready beneath in Arcade Lane behind the Commonwealth Financial institution. Within the new constructing at Bald Hills the transmitter was reassembled and wired for motion. Permission had been obtained to be off air till noon on the 24th, however really the tools was prepared and will have been on air for the start of the morning session.

A really troublesome operation had been efficiently carried out, and 4QR was now working at 500 Watts into the brand new vertical pipe aerial.

4QG’s switch may very well be taken at a much less hectic tempo, because the selfmade transmitter on the Jam Manufacturing facility website was made prepared first. The switch of operations from the town transmitter was made on 16 April 1942.

Each metropolis towers may now be dismantled.

Claude Faragher, Deputy Director PMG Division Queensland, suggested the Underneath Secretary of the Division of Public Works on 21 Could 1942 that M. R. Hornibrook Pty Ltd was dismantling the outdated 4QG towers, however that it was proposed to maintain the transmitter practical for emergency use and erect two small pipe masts about 50 toes excessive as an emergency aerial. It doesn’t seem that this proposal was proceeded with and it’s believed that elements of the transmitter have been used to construct a 5 kW linear amplifier to extend the ability on the Jam Manufacturing facility website. The destiny of the outdated 4QG towers shouldn’t be recognized, however as talked about beforehand, the 4QR tower was saved for future use.

Folks concerned within the shift from the town and the development of the 500 Watt and 5 kW items included Arthur Clark, Jim Todd, Dan Baxter, Otto Burmester, Bert Williamson, Arthur Burton, Tommy Tucker, Vince Henderson, George Richards and Cec Morris. The pipe aerial was extra environment friendly than the T and as 4QG was thought of to be the extra essential transmitter, the stations have been interchanged. 4QR on 940 kcs was operated on the 500 Watt transmitter on the Jam Manufacturing facility website and 4QG was given the pipe aerial and a rise in energy to 1 kW on 800 kcs on the fundamental centre, Bald Hills.

A survey by Col Elworthy and Neil Scott in July 1943 confirmed that the pipe aerial had a determine of benefit, at 800 kcs, of 175 millivolts per metre at one mile for a kilowatt enter, whereas the T aerial at 940 kcs had a determine of benefit of 120.

When the 5 kW linear amplifier was constructed on the Jam Manufacturing facility website, 4QG was returned to this transmitter on 7 September 1943 and 4QR resumed at Bald Hills on 1 kW. The ability of this STC transmitter was lastly elevated to 2 kW on 25 October 1944. The transmitter was linked to the pipe aerial through 380 toes of armoured, air dielectric coaxial cable with a attribute impedance of about 80 Ohms.

All powers quoted for the STC transmitter are RF output energy. The 5 kW regionally constructed unit had an anode enter on the closing stage linear amplifier of that energy, however the RF energy to the aerial was lower than this.

An emergency engine generator set of 22 H.P. was put in on the Jam Manufacturing facility website late in 1943, an operation by which Clarrie Boettcher was concerned.

When 4QG was finally transferred completely to the principle Bald Hills constructing in 1948, no additional use was manufactured from the outdated website and the lease was terminated in December 1949. Earlier than this switch to the principle constructing was doable, appreciable set up work was obligatory.

As a preliminary, the 4QR 2 kW STC was moved throughout the ground to a central place, leaving area for a brand new 10 kW transmitter between it and the south wall, simply exterior the Supervising Technician’s workplace. The brand new unit was anticipated to be 4QG.

This new transmitter was made by STC with the sort quantity A880D. The separate items have been delivered by street transport, so avoiding expensive packing. This might in all probability have been one of many final of the 880 collection as the following 10 kW Bald Hills transmitter delivered in March 1948 was a totally new kind, 4SU-11A, that includes excessive degree anode modulation of the ultimate stage.

The valve complement of the A880D was crystal oscillator 4061A pentode, amp 4061A pentode, 1st buffer 4282B tetrode, 2nd buffer 4282B, mod amp 4282B, 1st RF linear 4279Z, closing amplifier two parallel linked water cooled triodes kind SS1971. The EHT rectifier used mercury vapour diodes kind 4078. The audio part comprised two 4046A pentode levels driving a 4212E modulator which supplied low degree anode modulation to the mod amp.

Two pumps in an adjoining room equipped pure cooling water for the ultimate valves. The common life of those water cooled valves was discovered to be 4,500 hours. This transmitter went into service as 4QR, the brand new unit 4SU-11A being given to 4QG. An A880D was additionally in use at 2BL Liverpool and its operators there have been dissatisfied with its distortion efficiency. Issues have been evident within the drive to the ultimate stage and after appreciable experiment, the penultimate linear driver was transformed to a cathode follower. There isn’t any proof {that a} related modification was finished to 4QR.

An excessive amount of set up work was being finished in these years and it’s troublesome to find out precisely who have been concerned particularly installations. Nevertheless it’s recognized that the next have been concerned at varied instances: Geoff Beetham, Otto Burmester, Bob Browne, Mick Pike, Clarrie Boettcher, Invoice Graham-Wilson, Arthur Burton, Invoice Grambauer, Ian Byrnes, “Doc” Hadley and Dave Laing.

In Could 1947 an estimate for the availability and set up of the brand new 10 kW was ready, and the transmitter, kind 4SU-11A was delivered by STC in March 1948, by street transport.

The color scheme was a departure from the normal black and silver gray. It was an orange color referred to as “Corio Sand” and this proved to be the usual STC livery for a few years.

The manufacturing facility exams have been made in Sydney by Vern Kenna, Divisional Engineer Broadcast Set up Brisbane in October 1947 at a frequency of 940 kcs, as at the moment it was nonetheless meant to make use of this transmitter for 4QR.

The valve lineup for the 4SU-11A was crystal oscillator 6V6G, isolator 6V6G, buffers 807, driver two TG10’s in push pull (later modified to 5T30) and closing stage a push pull pair of air cooled 3J221E triodes (Later modified to TBL12/25). The audio part was push pull all through utilizing 6J7G, 6V6G, 3C/150A, TG/10 (later modified to 5T30) and 3J221E (later modified to TBL12/25).

Minor HT used 872A mercury vapour diodes and the 12,000 Volt EHT used 4078Z mercury vapour diodes. These have been later modified to stacks of silicon diodes. This transmitter remained in use as 4QG and the A880D continued as 4QR till a brand new 10 kW transmitter kind 4SU-64 was put in for 4QG in February 1963. The watercooled A880D was eliminated and 4QR operated on the 4SU-11A till a brand new 50 kW 4SU-38 was prepared in Could 1963.

Each 4QG and 4QR started operation on 1 September 1948 utilizing the brand new twin frequency vertical radiator. This was modified in 1963 to permit 4QR to go to 50 kW.

In July 1960, an STC 2 kW transmitter kind 4SU-16C recovered from 4QN Clevedon, was put in by Gordon Gilbert at Bald Hills and 4QR operated from this unit for some weeks whereas in depth rewiring of the 4SU-11A passed off. The unique rubber insulated wire had deteriorated as a result of warmth.

The ultimate association of transmitters is 4QG on fundamental 4SU-64 with the two kW 4SU-16C as standby, and 4QR 50 kW fundamental 4SU-38 with the 10 kW 4SU-11A as standby.

The valve lineup of the 4SU-64 is 6V6G’s for isolator and buffer, 807’s for second buffer, a pair of 4-125A triodes for RF driver and three triodes kind 3x2500A3 in parallel within the closing. The audio part is push pull, EF37A primary audio, 4-125A primary driver, 4-125A second driver and a pair of 3x2500A3 triodes for the modulator. The EHT

rectifier is silicon diode. The valve lineup of the 50 kW was 6V6G’s and 807’s for isolator and buffers, 3C/150 and 3J/192E for drivers, with three 3J261 E’s in parallel within the closing. The audio is push pull all through and makes use of 807’s 3C/150A’s, 3J/192E’s and a pair of 3J261E’s for the modulator. EHT is from a silicon diode stack.

In 1981 the modulator and P.A. values have been modified to TBL12/25, a readily obtainable and lighter weight Philips kind. These have proved very dependable and efficient. It had been hoped that 4QG would have been elevated to 50 kW additionally, to match 4QR, however present coverage is to not function any additional stations at this excessive energy degree.

On 28 July 1985, a barbecue and open day was held at Bald Hills to mark the event of the 60th anniversary of the opening of 4QG by the Queensland Authorities in July 1925. Two outdated timers, Harold Oxford and Leo McCarthy who joined the service in 1926 have been current in addition to extra lately retired officers resembling Gordon Corridor, Vince Henderson, Col Hattersley and an ABC retired studio supervisor, Harvey Humphreys who had joined in 1934.

4QR and its standby have been modified in February 1987 to function with stereo modulation though to date the ABC program has been derived from an artificial stereo unit relatively than a totally stereo outfitted studio.

4RK – Rockhampton (Gracemere)[edit]

Though the Queensland Authorities had obtained a licence in 1924 to construct a station in Rockhampton, it had not completed this earlier than the formation of the Nationwide Broadcasting Service had eliminated the Authorities from additional lively curiosity in broadcast station operation.

Actually the station was in-built 1931 by workers of the PMG Division along side the tools suppliers Customary Telephones and Cables, as by this time the Postmaster Basic was answerable for all stations of the brand new Nationwide community.

This was the start of STC’s involvement with the NBS, an efficient affiliation which was to final for the following 50 years with the availability of some 40 transmitters to Queensland and Papua New Guinea.

The siting of the station on a low hill at Gracemere 6 miles west of Rockhampton in sight of the town appears apparent sufficient to the informal observer, however was little question the results of a discipline investigation by officers of the Melbourne Analysis Laboratories of the PMG Division. A part of the historic Gracemere cattle station had been subdivided in 1920, and a 12 acre block was purchased for the brand new station.

The transmitter constructing was in typical Queensland type, a low set bungalow of timber with a tiled roof. It was set again from the street nearer the crest of the hill on the finish of a gravel drive. On the entrance gate a home for the Foreman Mechanic was erected, additionally in timber. Each buildings are nonetheless in use, the latter having been occupied by station workers because the starting. The transmitter constructing nevertheless, shouldn’t be fairly in its unique kind, some additions and inside modifications having been made through the years.

The T kind aerial erected adjoining to the constructing was suspended between two tapered self-supporting metal towers 128 toes excessive. These have been equipped by STC and had been designed by C. F. Elwell of 197 Queens Gate Street, London on a drawing dated April 1930. The towers have been assembled on the bottom and erected by jury.

The horizontal a part of the T aerial was 60 toes general and consisted of 4 parallel wires spaced 6 toes aside.

The earth mat for this aerial was composed of 95 parallel copper wires spaced Three toes aside, every 180 toes lengthy, buried beneath and at proper angles to the flat high.

The bottom impedance on the unique frequency of 910 kcs was 12 Ohms and the transmitter equipped between 1.5 and a couple of kW to this aerial.

The STC transmitter, one of many first on this nation [SD11] to be crystal managed, was put in by PMG Division workers with contractor supervision. The set up workforce was Les MacDonald, Harry Conway, Fred Emerson, Roy Ferguson, George Coley, Bert Jack, Ian (Blue) Hamilton and Nat Gould. The STC consultant was Claud McQuillan.

This tools represented an intermediate stage within the growth of huge broadcast transmitters, with direct present for filaments and anodes equipped by motor mills relatively than the extra standard transformers and rectifiers. The transmitter was mounted inside a metallic cage about Eight toes sq. with black, polished entrance panels on which have been meters, adjustable controls and switches. The motor mills have been put in in an adjoining room which additionally contained the motor pushed pump supplying cooling water for the valves of the ability amplifier.

Filament provide at 24 Volts DC and grid bias of 250 Volts DC was obtained from a single motor, two generator set, whereas the excessive stress provides at 800, 1600 and 4000 Volts DC have been obtained from one other single motor two generator set with the double wound armatures linked in collection. Two full suites have been supplied for fundamental and standby operation. This room was referred to as the “machine room”.

Low degree program amplifiers have been rack mounted within the “amplifier room” with their batteries in a “battery room” subsequent door.

A small restore room was additionally supplied and an tools spare elements retailer. There was no workplace or workers room, though the restore room was used later as an workplace.

Water provide was from rainwater tanks. The crystal managed oscillator working at 910 kcs used two valves, 4102D and 4012A. This was adopted by a category B separator 4242A, driving the modulated amplifier, a category C 4212D. Heising choke anode modulation was obtained from a category A modulator, 42120 pushed by a speech amplifier 4211 D (or MC1/75).

The mod amp was adopted by a category B linear stage of two 4212D in parallel, and this drove a parallel pair of 4228A water cooled triodes giving 2 kW for the aerial. A pattern of the modulated output was rectified by a 4211D to offer audio monitoring.

All valves have been triodes with DC filaments. To equalize emission, the route of present stream within the filaments of the ultimate valves was reversed each day.

A management desk outfitted with a Basic Radio modulation monitor was located going through the transmitter, and within the amplifier room with its three racks of audio and check tools, was a studio desk fitted with a microphone and two turntables. The electrical “choose ups” have been Western Electrical oil damped items utilizing metal needles. It’s not sure whether or not the management and studio desks have been supplied on set up or considerably later. Present pictures present a sort 633 microphone which is actually not of 1931 classic. If a microphone was equipped initially it will in all probability have been an early condenser kind in a picket field with a 4102D amplifier, as this was typical of studio tools at the moment. It’s believed that the GR mod monitor, kind 731A, was put in in 1935.

Opening day lastly arrived and at Eight PM on Wednesday 29 July 1931 the nice occasion passed off.

It was held within the Faculty of Arts and the official program for the night exhibits that the native Musical Union Choir, assisted by the Rockhampton Metropolis Band, sang the Nationwide Anthem and “Advance Australia Honest”, to open the proceedings.

Sir Benjamin Fuller, Vice Chairman of the Australian Broadcasting Firm launched the audio system – Hon. A.E. Inexperienced, Postmaster Basic; Hon. Frank Forde native M.H.R. and Minister for Customs and Alderman T. Lee the Mayor of Rockhampton.

Others current included Harry Brown the Director of Posts and Telegraphs, J.J. Verney of the Chamber of Commerce and the Anglican Bishop of Rockhampton, F.l. Ash. Vocal and instrumental gadgets have been introduced by Reg Robertson, R. Cruickshank, George Gardiner, C. Bibby, T. George, Edward Streeton, son of the choirmaster, E.N. and E.H. Symons and Mrs F. Oswald.

This system was relayed to stations of the Australian Broadcasting Firm’s “community” in different states.

At 10 PM, 4RK crossed again to the Brisbane program line and closed at 11 PM.

4RK was the primary station in Queensland exterior Brisbane, the place 4QG was working. In July of the next yr, industrial station 4RO was opened in Rockhampton which grew to become the primary Queensland city to have two stations.

After some catastrophic occasions associated to unintentional excessive line ranges inflicting injury to valves within the early days, the station settled right down to routine operation. In these instances with no audio limiters and just one transmitter, station workers lived in fixed worry of catastrophe. Even the depth of modulation may solely be roughly gauged by commentary of the onset of grid present within the modulator valve. The primary officer in cost was Harry Conway who stayed till 1936. On this interval, the station environment have been improved and an avenue of pine timber was planted between the road entrance and the transmitter constructing. Half a century later, they’re a wonderful sight and a monument to these early station operators.

In November 1933, H.R. Adam, an engineer of the PMG Analysis Labs in Melbourne, visited 4RK and made a collection of discipline energy measurements to find out the polar sample produced by the T aerial. The form was irregular, regarded as because of the metal aerial assist towers and the rocky nature of the encircling nation. His Analysis Labs Report is No.257.

As a result of direct connection of the aerial on the transmitter output, some instability because of the excessive RF discipline was troublesome at instances, and when a brand new transmitter was put in, the aerial circuit was altered to allow the

location of the aerial tuning tools in a metallic field on the base of the down lead and to feed this by a transmission line from the transmitter.

An emergency energy provide for the station was obtained from a 3 section alternator of 33.6 kW score, pushed by a petroleum fuelled Gardner engine. It could have been put in in 1931, however this has not been confirmed. It was mounted within the machine room however was moved to the north west nook room of the constructing in 1948.

Throughout 1948 a brand new transmitter was put in to exchange the unique STC. This was a 2 kW AWA kind 4J 5129R, Serial No.7. The valve line up was oscillator 42 pentode, adopted by a 3 stage amplifier utilizing kind 807, buffer push pull 805, closing parallel push pull 833A. The audio submodulation used two levels of triode linked 6J7G adopted by a mod. driver 8003. The modulator used 4 833A in parallel push pull. Excessive stress rectifier was six mercury vapour diodes kind 872A.

Geoff Beetham supervising technician, with Invoice Graham-Wilson and Col Crick went to 4RK in July 1948 to put in this new transmitter and dismantle the unique tools.

The outdated STC transmitter and its motor mills was eliminated and the emergency engine generator repositioned. This Gardner engine was very giant and its shift to the brand new space within the north west nook of the constructing was a troublesome operation.

The holding down bolts have been minimize and the engine jacked up and positioned on rollers. Utilizing crow bars as levers it was rolled into the brand new place and jacked up. Then with assistance from some wallaby jacks borrowed from the native line depot the engine was slid sideways alongside greased picket beams. The jacks labored in opposition to one wall of the constructing and nice fears for the steadiness of the entire construction beset the 4RK CIC Bert Cowling. Nevertheless no injury was finished and at last the engine was lowered onto its new bolts and secured to the concrete mattress block.

The AWA transmitter was put in the place the Gardner had been and was linked to the aerial by a run of coaxial cable. For the primary time, a coupling field was mounted beneath the aerial and the coax matched on this with a easy L-C community. This eliminated the issues which had been current with the direct feed from the unique STC transmitter. The outdated “machine room” ground was constructed up with concrete and made prepared for a brand new STC 10 kW transmitter. The set up workforce unpacked this however didn’t set up it as no aerial was obtainable at the moment for a 10 kW output.

This new transmitter had been ordered for the proposed new Longreach website at Cramsie, however was diverted to Gracemere as Longreach was not more likely to be established for a while as a result of varied delays with property and constructing plans.

Proposals to enlarge the scope of 4RK included a vertical radiator and earth mat to go along with the brand new 10 kW transmitter, so further land was required. Two blocks totalling 38 acres adjoining to the positioning have been acquired from John Gilmore and William Thorsen, giving a neat 50 acre rectangular website giant sufficient for the brand new aerial system. The acquisition was famous in Commonwealth Gazette No. 241 of December 1947.

The station working frequency was modified in September 1948 from the unique 910 to 940 kcs.

About this era within the late 1940’s, constructing alterations have been made and the current workplace added on the japanese aspect. The outdated battery room space was modified to offer a workers lunch room.

To reinforce the rain water provide, a bore was sunk in October 1949, 75 toes deep and eight inches in diameter. Water was tapped at a depth of 50 toes. This provide was in use till 1971 when silting and corrosion rendered it ineffective. A brand new bore was drilled by “Drill Engineering and Pastoral Co.” of Rockhampton and stays in service, though city water was linked in 1978. In 1951, tools was put in within the lately accomplished management room and is described in a report by engineer Frank Sharp. The tools was a mix of AWA, STC and regionally made gadgets and included a brand new management desk with microphone and gramophone turntable. The set up was prepared to be used in December 1951.

The brand new radiator was erected by Johns and Waygood utilizing 5 males, between 6 April and 15 June 1954. It was sectioned with an inductor at 320 toes with, on the high, at 420 toes, a 30 toes diameter high loading armature, giving {an electrical} peak of 0.56 wavelengths. The bottom resistance was 86 Ohms. Frank Sharp adjusted the radiating system.

An earth mat laid by Radio Part line workers, comprised 120 radials every 420 toes lengthy of 200 lb per mile exhausting drawn copper wire.

The determine of benefit of the brand new radiator and the sphere survey to find out the service space have been topic to an investigation by Doug Sanderson and Maurice Palmer in September and October 1954.

The brand new transmitter was put in by Gordon Gilbert, Ian Byrnes and Col Williams and was put into service on 15 September 1954.

On 1 September, the station frequency had been modified from 940 to 840 kcs, the readjustments being made by Ralph Bongers, supervising technician and Invoice Rohde, divisional engineer of the Brisbane workplace.

As the brand new transmitter used a 200 Ohm 6 wire transmission line, an identical unit and swap for the AWA 2 kW transmitter was constructed in order that it may function into both the brand new aerial or the outdated. The transmission line to the outdated aerial was a size of 70 Ohm coaxial cable.

The valve line up for the 10 kW transmitter was oscillator 6V6G, isolator 6V6G, buffer two 807 in parallel, driver push pull TG10 and closing excessive degree anode modulated stage of two 3J221E triodes in push pull. The audio chain was push pull all through. First audio 6J7G, second audio 6V6G, third audio 3C/150A, driver to mod TG10 and modulator 3J221E. The EHT rectifier used six 4078Z mercury vapour diodes, giving a DC provide of 10,000 Volts.

These valve rectifiers have been changed in 1975 by silicon diodes. The bias and a couple of,600 Volt provides had been transformed to silicon diodes in 1969.

The unique rubber insulated wiring of the ability amplifier stage deteriorated rapidly and was changed by Gordon Gilbert in March 1962, the unit being at the moment about 14 years outdated.

This massive spectacular transmitter was painted in what was the usual STC color at the moment, a creamy orange referred to as “Corio Sand”. In October 1963 a 2 kW STC transmitter, kind 4SU-14C recovered from 4QN, was put in within the transmitter corridor and changed the AWA as a standby. The latter then went to 4QB Pialba which already had an identical unit.

The RF exciter of the 14C used 6V6G and 807 valves, a driver of 3C/150A and a push pull pair of huge glass envelope triodes 4279Z. The primary two audio levels have been 6J7G and 6V6G, adopted by a 3C/150A amplifier, 3C/150A driver and 4279Z modulator. All audio levels have been push pull.

These two transmitters operated till 1988, with a closing frequency change to 837kcs being made in November[SD14]  1978.

In 1980 the principle transmitter TG10 valves have been changed by 5T30 because the TG10’s had grow to be exhausting to get. The big, heavy and costly 3J221E valves additionally grew to become scarce and have been changed by a lighter Philips made TBL12/25 in 1984, a lot appreciated by the working workers.

4RK remained totally staffed from opening to June 1988.

When the station was established, a studio was constructed within the Rockhampton Publish Workplace on the highest ground. The tools was just like that used for emergency functions on the transmitter. There have been two gramophone turntables and a condenser microphone. The amplifiers have been battery powered. At the moment there have been two information companies each day with cattle sale info from the Gracemere saleyards. George Gardiner was the announcer. Subsequent strikes took the studios to their current location in Quay Road.

A latest occasion of some significance was the Golden Jubilee of the institution, held on 29 July 1981. The native ABC workers have been enthusiastic and gave the occasion a lot publicity. A Youngsters’s competitors for the design of a 4RK birthday card was held and on Jubilee Day refreshments have been distributed to guests to the studio. Data of the early days have been performed and the workers wearing outdated type costumes.

It was open day on the transmitter additionally, and a barbecue was held that evening. ABC and Telecom workers attended in addition to a number of retired officers who got here from as far afield as Brisbane. Invoice Rohde, Frank Nolan and Em Venables have been current, all having served at 4RK up to now.

A adorned iced birthday cake that includes the outdated T aerial masts had been ready by Shirley Sanderson, spouse of Senior Engineer Broadcast operations, Doug Sanderson, and households and pals loved a night of reminiscences. The station had been began that morning by David Lengthy and the opposite workers members have been current on the festivities. They have been Merv Hixon, OIC, Don Anderson, Jim Grey and Ray Coombs.

Forty one signatures have been recorded within the station guests e-book that day.

A great will message was broadcast by John Norgard, Chairman of the ABC. Rockhampton Regional Supervisor for the ABC on the time was Ralph Elphinstone.

All issues change with time and inside seven years from the 4RK jubilee, circumstances on the station had modified dramatically. A Broadcast Service Centre was to be arrange in Rockhampton and the Mount Hopeful TV website and 4RK have been to be operated unattended. The 10 kW STC transmitter put in in 1954 and the constructing erected in 1931 have been each displaying indicators of age and it was determined to exchange them. In 1988 then, a small Logan kind constructing was erected behind the unique, and a brand new 10 kW Nautel transmitter, kind Amphet 10, serial quantity 235 was put in.

As the brand new constructing was adjoining to the terminal tower of the principle 6 wire transmission line, a brief connection from the brand new transmitter was doable. On the identical time a brand new coaxial cable was laid from the Logan constructing to the coupling field beneath the outdated T aerial standby, and the matching community renewed. To scale back the excessive base reactance of the unique T, the highest loading wires have been elevated in size. The brand new base impedance at 837 kcs was now 13 – j54 Ohms and an L-C community was put in to match from the 50 Ohm coax.

An emergency engine generator was supplied in the long run room of the Logan. It was a reconditioned Lister diesel which had seen service within the Ascot phone trade. The immediately coupled Dunlite generator was rated at 35 kVA giving a cushty margin for the 2 room airconditioners and the 10 kW transmitter.

So 4RK in its 57th yr has moved into new quarters and its fifth transmitter and is about for one more future, working now 24 hours a day.

4QN – Clevedon – “Outdated QN”[edit]

The growth of the NBS into Queensland nation areas started with 4RK Rockhampton in 1931 and was adopted by 4QN Townsville in 1936.

Little is understood of the survey workforce who drove out alongside the sandy observe winding its means between clumps of pandanus and skirting the tidal salt flats. Someplace between Clevedon railway siding and Cape Ferguson and away from the open wire cellphone line to the Cape Cleveland lighthouse, they arrange a conveyable transmitter with a small engine-generator set and a T aerial on two picket poles. The transmitter energy shouldn’t be recognized however the frequency used was 600 kcs, which was the frequency on which 4QN finally opened.

If the thought was to present dependable broadcast protection to Townsville, Charters Towers and Ayr – Residence Hill with at the least affordable daytime service to Proserpine and Cairns, then the coastal space between Townsville and Ayr was the logical selection. Making an allowance for that the utmost obtainable transmitter energy at the moment was not more than 7 kilowatts, geography dictated the positioning, and the open, low mendacity coastal plain between the Mount Elliott ranges and the ocean was the inevitable selection.

The choice to make use of Clevedon was made with appreciable misgivings and the survey workforce would have most popular a extra civilized space simply north of the small sugar city of Ayr the place mains electrical energy at the least, would have been obtainable. However to serve Townsville from there would have required the then unprecedented energy of 40 or 50 kilowatts within the aerial.

Different stations down south resembling 2CR Cumnock and 3WV Dooen have been to be established round that point with no Industrial electrical energy both, so Clevedon it was and the choice resulted in one of the crucial attention-grabbing stations ever to be in-built Queensland.

The bizarre nature of the Clevedon website was as a result of a number of components, primarily:

a)        its bodily isolation from centres of inhabitants;

b)        all workers members lived in shut affiliation on the station property;

c)        energy for the station group was generated regionally; and

d)         it was near glorious fishing and crabbing spots and the lengthy white seashore of Bowling Inexperienced Bay was a mere Three miles away by way of the bush.

The primary two components weren’t at all times conducive to harmonious relations, however the fourth issue was an ideal compensation for these obliged to stay on this remoted place.

Work started on the brand new station in 1935. A block of floor of 30 acres was obtained from a neighborhood grazier named Carty, three miles north of the Clevedon rail siding alongside the sick outlined “street” to the Cape Cleveland Peninsula. It was a part of Portion 4V, Parish Ettrick, County Elphinstone.

The positioning was flat with sandy soil and on the rear of the mast paddock solely simply above the excessive tide degree of mangrove lined Crocodile Creek. The japanese frontage alongside which the station buildings have been erected confronted right into a low scrub of wattle, eucalypt, banksia and pandanus which continued unbroken to Salmon Creek and the principle seashore.

The “street” continued on northwards 4 miles, winding round bogs and throughout salt pans to the bottom of the excessive rocky hills of the Peninsula. Right here the sandy seashore fronting the coastal plain led to rock edged bays abounding with oysters and fish. For causes now inconceivable to find out, the favorite spot frequented by off responsibility 4QN workers grew to become referred to as Ticklebelly Bay, a reputation which sadly has not penetrated to the drawing workplaces of the Nationwide Mapping Authority. Right here, 50 years later the Australian Institute of Marine Science analysis station is about up and the world is understood accurately however unimaginatively as Cape Ferguson.

The then Division of the Inside organized the design and erection of the principle transmitter constructing, storage block, two homes for married workers and one for single males. These occupied the japanese fringe of the property and when later coconut palms and avenue lights have been added, Coconut Drive grew to become the principle avenue of the settlement.

These prewar homes of a extra spacious age have been generously proportioned low set timber constructions with large verandahs. The brick walled transmitter constructing was set on a concrete base with a large, coated patio on three sides. The roofs have been of corrugated asbestos cement.

The transmitter constructing accommodated the transmitter, management desk, program enter tools in a separate screened room which doubled as an emergency studio, battery room, retailer and the engines and swap board.

A small adjoining brick constructing housed the radiators and followers for the engine cooling water.

The transmitter was equipped by STC and was rated at 6.25 / 7 kW. If operated at a service energy of 6.25 kW the modulator was able to growing 95 % modulation depth, but when the service energy was raised to 7 kW, modulation depth couldn’t exceed 90%.

The valve line up within the RF division was crystal oscillator 4033A, isolator 4211E, push pull buffer 4211E, push pull modulated amp 4211E, push pull first linear 4015A and push pull closing linear 4220B water cooled triodes.

The modulator was 4015A, with Heising modulation to the anodes of the mod. amp.

All valves have been triodes, the 4015A being a big glass soccer sized bulb.

The excessive stress of 12,000 Volts was derived from a bunch of three water cooled excessive vacuum rectifiers kind 4222A. The 5,000 Volt provide for the primary linear was produced by a financial institution of selenium rectifiers as have been different low voltages.

The 12,000 Volt excessive stress provide was protected by a fuse in a big porcelain fuse holder. When operated by an overload, this fuse gave the impression of a rifle shot and was assured to impress any late evening shift technician into prompt motion.

The ultimate amplifier was duplicated and knife switches enabled a fast changeover within the occasion of failure of the working stage.

The cooling water was fed to the water cooled valves through a coil of porcelain tubing, essential to insulate the excessive potential anodes. In subsequent fashions of water cooled amplifiers, the relatively fragile porcelain was changed by rubber hoses.

The filament provide for the ultimate amplifier was derived from a pair of Scott linked transformers giving 41 Amps at 22 Volts to every filament, 90 levels out of section as a way to minimise hum.

A 600 Ohm water cooled synthetic aerial load was equipped and may very well be switched to the transmitter output for testing.

Heising choke modulation was used on this transmitter.

The Brisbane – Townsville program got here to 4QN on open wire, and appropriate audio amplifiers have been mounted on racks within the emergency studio. The desk on this room was outfitted with a gramophone turntable and a microphone, the electrical choose up for the 78 rpm gramophone information being a heavy oil damped Western Electrical, widespread within the Nationwide service in these days.

An audio check oscillator STC kind 74013A was supplied and mounted on a rack within the emergency studio. The transmission line from transmitter to aerial was of 600 Ohm impedance and was a balanced 2 wire feeder on picket poles.

The aerial was uncommon. It was known as a Three wire conical and consisted of three wires supported by a 500 toes excessive metal lattice mast. The RF was cut up within the coupling hut on the base of the mast to feed the three aerial wires. Every wire ran from the hut horizontally to some extent some 200 toes out, then upwards at a steep angle to the highest of the mast the place it was insulated. The horizontal runs have been equally spaced in azimuth.

The mast was of triangular part, guyed in Three instructions at Four ranges and weighed 30 tons. The man insulators have been giant egg kind and the blokes have been clamped relatively than spliced. There was an inside climbing ladder and the mast rested on a bunch of 5 cylindrical porcelain insulators. Nevertheless these have been bypassed by a heavy earth strap.

A winch was supplied throughout the mast close to the bottom and this managed the three metal wire halyards which ran up the mast and over pulleys and linked to the highest of the three aerial wires. This allowed adjustment of the aerial wire tensions and facilitated the decreasing of the wires for inspection if required. These metal wire halyards needed to be greased sometimes and it was a messy, tiring job which needed to be finished after station shut down late at evening.

Johns and Waygood erected the mast in November 1935 with foreman Charlie Prince in cost.

Mast lighting chokes have been housed in a picket field between the mast and the tuning hut.

{The electrical} contractor for the station lights and many others., was W. T. Conn of Townsville.

The copper wire earth mat was ploughed in by PMG linestaff to a depth of about 12 inches and consisted of 144 radials every 510 toes lengthy.

Set up of apparatus started within the final quarter of 1935. The PMG set up workforce was led by foreman mechanic Reg Baker whose workers included Fred Bloxom, Gordon Corridor, Invoice Gibbs, Tom Knott, Bert Jack and labourer Bert Scott. The STC consultant was F. M. Hynes.

Gear was nonetheless being acquired and put in early in 1936 and the carriers truck usually grew to become bogged within the muddy observe between Clevedon siding and the station.

In February, extreme flooding remoted the station arid workers have been obliged to complement their diminishing rations with wallaby shot regionally. Provides finally got here by boat. This was a foretaste of issues as a result of dangerous roads and floods which have been to plague the station for its whole life.

With no prospect of business energy mains serving the station, two engine generator units have been put in by the PMG workforce beneath the supervision of Invoice Gibson, a Ruston and Hornsby man, later R & H Queensland supervisor. The engine beds have been of concrete, the slabs being 17 toes lengthy, six toes large and 6 toes deep, insulated from the constructing ground with blocks of cork.

The unique proposal for engine cooling was a drip tower, however this was modified to a closed system with followers and radiators presumably as a result of an anticipated scarcity of fine water within the dry season. The tower was really constructed and exhibits in early pictures dated January 1936. The next change to the followers and radiators necessitated the development of a small brick cooling constructing and this delayed the completion for a number of months, in order that it was November earlier than the grand opening of the 16th Nationwide station in Australia was doable.

The diesels have been six cylinder Ruston and Hornsby kind 6VCR, designed for 180 horsepower at 600 rpm. They’d been in-built England in 1934 and have been just like these put in at Cumnock, Dooen and Wagin. They have been direct coupled to Brush Electrical Firm Three section 415 Volt alternators kind NS72 rated at 133.5 kVA, constructed on the Falcon Works, Wolverhampton. The exciters have been by the identical firm, kind 70S, able to supplying 1.6 kW at 81 Volts.

Compressed air at 300 kilos per sq. inch held in two 11 cubic toes cylinders was required to begin the diesels. The compressors for this air provide, one to every engine, have been belt pushed from the principle shaft.

A small auxiliary 7 horsepower Lister was supplied to run the mast lights, avenue lights and the after hours home load within the workers homes.

In 1937 the principle engines generated 300,000 kilowatt hours whereas the auxiliary supplied 5,000 kWH.

Because the set up drew close to completion, STC engineer Claud McQuillan and PMG supervising engineer Sam Ross got here up for the commissioning. The person chosen to be the station’s first foreman mechanic had already arrived. He was Les MacDonald, who stayed at 4QN for its first six years. Within the Townsville “Each day Bulletin” on Thursday, 26 November 1936, the opening of 4QN was heralded as “the occasion of 1936”. The Theatre Royal was·the venue and the station was opened by Harry Brown the Director of Postal Companies on behalf of the Postmaster Basic, Senator A. J. Mclachlan.

The ABC’s Brisbane Live performance Orchestra opened this system at Eight PM with a efficiency of the overture to the Merry Wives of Windsor.

Representing the Fee was the Queensland supervisor, E. J. Lewis, and Charles Moses, Basic Supervisor.

A musical night adopted and the artists included Dan Foley, Tenor; Kathleen Dallon, Mezzo-soprano; J. Robertson, trumpet; Alan McCristal, piano; the Appollo Quartet and George Randall and Bebe Scott.

This system was relayed to southern stations.

An area Townsville studio was put in by Jack Loth on the highest ground of Thorpe’s Constructing in direction of the east finish of Flinders Road and early announcers there have been Keith Kennedy and Reg Peach. This studio was moved to the AMP Constructing about 1942 or 43 by Geoff Beetham.

The opening ceremonies over, the workers settled into the routine of working the station.

To start with, survey work to see if the station was fulfilling the designers expectations.

One of the best time to do discipline work in North Queensland is within the winter when little rain falls and the bottom is dry underfoot. Accordingly a discipline energy, aerial determine of benefit and fading survey was made by Vern Kenna and Invoice Rohde in June and July 1937.

The determine of benefit was measured as 220 millivolts per metre per kilowatt per mile, a worth regarded as relatively excessive for a conical radiator of 4QN dimensions.

Fading observations confirmed the 50 % fading contour occurred across the 1.7 mV/m floor wave worth, and good reception was reported from Charters Towers, Bowen and lnnisfail. Fading at evening was skilled at Proserpine and Cairns as could be anticipated.

About this time the station frequency was modified from 600 to 630 kc/s and Alex McKenzie got here up from the Analysis labs to oversee. Just a few cities have been rechecked utilizing a unique discipline energy set. Outcomes have been fairly in settlement with these of the principle survey. The report on all this discipline work, No.659, was ready and issued by Alex McKenzie of the PMG Central Workplace Analysis Laboratories Melbourne in November 1937.

Proper from the beginning the issues of an excessive amount of water in the summertime months and too little in winter and the poor state of the street from the Clevedon rail siding grew to become apparent to the inhabitants. Water wanted to be carted to the station in dry seasons and flooding usually precipitated isolation throughout the wets. The station relied on rainwater, as underground provides have been brackish and unsuitable for family use.

Because the years handed, issues with water storage tanks, drainage, termites and roads got here and went relying on how a lot cash was obtainable at any given time to impact repairs.

The struggle years introduced modifications. For safety the mast lights have been turned off and solely used when requested by the aviation authorities. The station buildings have been camouflage painted in 1942. Secret code phrases have been issued to stations in order that within the occasion of hostilities sure tools may very well be destroyed on receipt of the sign. Shortages of products of many varieties precipitated issues. When an alarm clock was wanted by the early morning shift workers, a particular authorities kind foolscap sized “Software for authority to buy an alarm clock” needed to be crammed in and despatched to the Commodity Management Division of the Division of Provide and Delivery. It was months earlier than a cargo was anticipated to reach from abroad and the meagre file information which have survived from these days don’t file whether or not 4QN ever received its clock. Gas for the engines was introduced in these days by rail to Killymoon siding and by truck from there to QN by Kellocks Forwarding Company. It was saved in 4 1,500 gallon tanks. Earlier than the “moist” it was customary so as to add an additional 2,000 gallons in 40 gallon drums. This whole of 8,000 gallons was adequate for eleven weeks of operation. By 1945 there have been three corrugated galvanized iron tanks with a complete capability of 8,000 gallons and the station had acquired its personal gasoline tanker – a 1942 Chev Three ton, 29.Four HP truck fitted with an 800 gallon tank. It was delivered in 1944 and was in a position to convey diesel oil from Townsville.

Through the years the station tools carried out properly and gave little bother. In winter it was discovered that the engine cooling water was too cool within the early morning and in 1940 bypass faucets have been fitted to the radiator strains to permit

the water to warmth rapidly to the popular working temperature. In 1942 the auxiliary Lister had a failed con rod and the engine was changed. A bearing failed in 1947 and a whole overhaul was finished in 1949.

The principle engines labored properly. New cylinder liners and pistons have been fitted in 1948, equipped by J. N. Kirby of Camperdown, NSW. Routine overhauls have been made by the resident diesel mechanics.

A cyclone in March 1946 pressured water into the transmitter corridor and broken the E.H.T. transformer. The station ran on low energy, utilizing the primary linear RF amplifier just for a while till the massive transformer was dried out and returned to service. To minimise the potential for outages as a result of any failure of the principle transmitter, a 2 kW unit was put in in 1947. The set up workforce was Doug Sanderson Senior Technician and two Technicians, Ian Byrnes and John Talty. As there was no room within the single males’s quarters, tents have been arrange close by in an enclosure referred to as Bindii Property because of the prevalence of those thorny weeds. The transmitter was an AWA kind IJ50551 Serial No.3, housed in a neat, gray painted metal cupboard with important meters alongside the highest, and double doorways beneath giving entry to manage panels, indicator lamps and minor metering. The modulator and energy amplifier levels used 833A triodes and excessive stress was equipped by 872A mercury vapour rectifiers.

This transmitter was put in within the adjoining engine cooling room, a lucky circumstance for 4QN as issues later turned out.

A line impedance matching unit and changeover swap was mounted in a field on the wall in the principle transmitter corridor, to transform the 80 Ohm AWA output to 600 Ohm balanced for the principle transmission line. The winter climate was pleasant, the fish and crabs plentiful and the set up social gathering loved their keep on this distant and attention-grabbing place.

In 1957 some particular tools was put in within the management room. An experiment was being set as much as observe the impact of working two broadly separated medium frequency transmitters on the identical frequency and 4QN and 4QS Dalby have been chosen because the stations to be synchronized.

Two very secure oscillators have been designed and constructed by the Customary Time Division of the Analysis laboratories utilizing DT minimize quartz crystals oscillating at 105 kc/s. This was multiplied as much as 630 kc/s. Observations on drift confirmed a mean of 0.02 cps per 24 hours. A rack of this tools was put in at every station and supplied drive for the transmitters. 4QS was on 10 kW and usually on 760 kc/s however was to function on 630 kc/s for the trial.

Nevertheless, earlier than the synchronizing experiment may very well be put to the check, catastrophe struck at Clevedon. About 3.30 AM on the morning of Saturday, 26 Could 1951 the station OIC Geoff Beetham was woke up by the noise of a hearth within the close by transmitter constructing. It rapidly grew to become past any hope of management and the constructing housing the transmitter, management room, storeroom, engine room and engines was utterly destroyed.

A fireplace brigade social gathering from Townsville attended and prevented the hearth spreading to the diesel oil gasoline storage space and to the engine cooling room. The hearth was out by breakfast time.

When the hearth was first found, Doug Baker the Townsville Group Engineer was alerted by cellphone and was in a position to see the hearth from his home in Townsville, 15 miles away in a direct line. In a while Saturday he was in a position to borrow an engine generator from Peters Arctic Delicacy Co.

Mick Corridor the Supervising Engineer, Broadcasting, flew up and introduced some important audio tools and QN was again on air on Sunday morning, utilizing the two kW AWA which was unhurt within the cooler room. On the time of the hearth, one of many fundamental engines was down for routine overhaul and a 25 kVA unit was on mortgage from the RAAF. This machine, which was standing within the engine room, was destroyed with the remainder of the ability tools. The borrowed Peters’ set was not in good order and required some consideration, a matter which delayed the return of the station to air. It has been mentioned by these current on the time that transmission may have been resumed someday on Saturday had a very good engine been obtainable. Nevertheless, the Sunday begin was very creditable after a catastrophe of such magnitude.

Further engines have been obtained and shortly a brand new engine room was constructed. The ultimate meeting consisted of two Ruston and Hornsby diesels, 4VSH, driving 30 kVA Basic Electrical alternators at 1,500 rpm; a Southern Cross BGC with a 20 kVA Southern Cross generator at 1,000 rpm, and a 7 and a half horsepower Ruston and Hornsby driving a 6 kVA G. C. Martin generator at 1,500 rpm, for the after hours load.

In 1960 when QN had moved to Brandon, the Southern Cross machine and the 6 kVA set have been transferred to the PMG Townsville Engineering Division. The brand new engines required a brand new gasoline and a couple of,000 gallons of distillate have been railed from Brisbane in drums in September 1951. By early 1952 a 500 gallon elevated tank was supplied by C.O.R. Co. (Commonwealth Oil Refinery) the contractors for gasoline at the moment. Moreover, Three months provide was held in drums.

The heavy gasoline oil beforehand used was offered again to the Shell Co. There have been 35 tons at Clevedon in drums and bulk. The majority oil was returned to Townsville by the 4QN tanker, whereas the drums have been taken to Killymoon siding for railing to Townsville. This operation was in November 1951. After the hearth the AWA transmitter was used full time and to minimise doable issues, extra spares have been obtained, from 2NR Grafton, in June.

Later within the yr preparations have been made to divert two new STC 2 kW transmitters kind 4SU-14C from a present contract and to put in them at Clevedon. Their serial numbers have been 32281 and 32282. They have been put in within the cooler room the place the AWA and the Auxiliary Community excessive frequency transmitters have been. A management room was made by partitioning, and little area was obtainable for all this tools. Actually, the AWA was eliminated earlier than lengthy, to make room for the second STC, and on 23 April 1952 it was loaded on a truck and started its journey to Canberra the place it operated as 2CY till 1982. Set up workers for these varied works have been beneath the supervision of Frank Sharp, engineer. Workers have been Otto Burmester, Maurie Palmer, Alec Barron and Les Naumann. Geoff Beetham’s station workers assisted when obligatory and included Ron Pyers, Eric Lake, Trevor Mead and E. Ellis, the 2 latter being the station diesel mechanics.

And so 4QN returned to regular operation, whereas plans have been made to maneuver to a brand new website at Brandon close to Ayr.

A brand new excessive stability oscillator was constructed to exchange the one misplaced within the fireplace and the 4QN-4QS synchronizing experiment proceeded as beforehand deliberate. The brand new oscillator was put in in February 1953 and later within the yr when stability had been achieved, observations of the system have been made in varied locations in Queensland throughout the interval October to December. The Radio laboratory in Brisbane fitted out a panel van with receivers, discipline energy set, tape recorder and cathode ray oscilloscope. The sphere observations have been made by Frank Brownless, engineer from Central Workplace, and Doug Sanderson. West Hatfield from the Australian Broadcasting Management Board got here as much as observe within the Townsville to Hughenden space. The outcomes of the observations have been written up in PMG Radio Part Report No.30 by Brownless, in 1955.

Life at Clevedon continued as standard, with a water scarcity in late 1952 necessitating provides being introduced from Stuart and when the rains got here, extra bother with the street to the rail siding.

The Auxiliary Community tools beforehand talked about comprised a 200 Watt AT14 excessive frequency transmitter and a 35 Watt AMT150. These with dipole aerials operated to Brisbane with the decision signal VL4EK on the 5, 9 and 13 Mc/s bands. This community was put in in lots of locations within the State to present Publish Workplace communication when an emergency closed the conventional strains. 4QN was a fundamental centre, with the Townsville Publish Workplace being fitted with a small transceiver solely.

The AT14 was the excessive frequency mannequin of the Australian made Thom and Smith line, which additionally produced the BC200 medium frequency transmitter of the sort used on the first 4QL Longreach. The AMT150 was the AWA model of the U.S. Sign Corps TW12. It was rated at 50 Watts CW and 12 Watts speech, with a pair of 807’s in parallel within the output stage. The years handed with little or no technical change and with Brandon put in, outdated QN ceased transmission at 11.30 PM on Sunday, 14 June 1959, after nearly 23 years of service.

The unhappy enterprise of dismantling and disposing of the outdated QN tools now started.

The 2 smaller engines went to the Townsville engineering space. One of many 30 kVA units had damaged a crankshaft a bit earlier and with its companion was obtainable for native disposal. No particulars are recognized of their destiny.

Of the 2 STC 2 kW transmitters, one was returned to Bald Hills the place it grew to become the 4QG standby and the opposite went to the Radio Set up depot at Perry Park, Brisbane. It was by no means once more used as a transmitter however is believed to have been transformed to an RF heating machine to be used within the Bulimba PMG Workshop.

The potential for utilizing the mast at one other website was thought of and a few curiosity was proven by 4AY Ayr in its prospects, but it surely was determined finally to promote it for removing and a contract was let in December 1959 to C. J. Flynn of Aspley. This was cancelled and a brand new purchaser appeared in early 1960, M. Marcor of Townsville, who dropped the mast on 23 January. Roy Wightman, Townsville Divisional Engineer, noticed the operation.

All recovered materials arrived again in Brisbane in Could 1960, having been dismantled and packed by appearing Senior Technician, Les Eliason. The proprietor of the adjoining property right now was Ok. Pope, and it’s believed that the 4QN block and remaining buildings have been bought by him.

4QN – Brandon – “New QN”[edit]

After the hearth of Could 1951 at Clevedon, severe consideration was given to the way forward for 4QN. The Australian Broadcasting Management Board had indicated {that a} 50 kW transmitter could be supplied and the choice to be made was whether or not to stay at Clevedon or transfer to a website close to Ayr in a district referred to as Colevale.

A go to to the Colevale space was made in October 1951 by Vern Kenna, Divisional Engineer, Radio Set up, West Hatfield, an engineer of the A.B.C.B. and Dick Pring a Buildings Officer of the PMG Brisbane Buildings Department.

After consideration of the normal disadvantages of Clevedon – poor street entry, isolation affecting workers and households, native era of energy, and water issues – it appeared apparent {that a} new website the place these elements have been nearly eradicated, was extremely fascinating. Consequently the websites chosen on the unique survey in 1935 as alternate options to Clevedon have been once more thought of. The overall space was examined by Fred Percy in November 1951 to assemble flood knowledge. The proposed websites gave the impression to be passable on this regard. In July 1952 the PMG Director Basic suggested that the A.B.C.B. had authorized the switch from Clevedon. An extra go to in September 1952 by the Buildings Department Properties Workplace, with Kenna and Dean of the Division of the Inside ascertained {that a} 78  acre website on “Windsor Park” owned by F. Burke, being a part of sub 1 of Por 535, parish Jarvisfield County Gladstone could be obtainable for buy and this was subsequently finished. The acquisition by obligatory acquisition was notified in Commonwealth Gazette 75 of 9 December 1954.

In November 1952 two officers of the Radio Part, Fred Percy and Duncan Russell-Corridor made check bores on the proposed website to find out the sub-surface soil circumstances and A. E. Clayton & Son of Ayr put down a Three inch check bore to 33 toes for water which proved on evaluation to be very passable. In February 1953, Ray Myler of the Brisbane Drafting Survey part ready a contour plan of the positioning.

The preparation of constructing plans was undertaken by the Division of Works and these have been obtainable in June 1955. Website and constructing planning proceeded and at one stage a proposal to maneuver two of the present workers homes from C!evedon to Brandon was examined. This was not finished and two new workers homes have been constructed. The builder for these, the principle constructing and two tuning huts was T. F. Woollam and Son of Brisbane. The principle constructing was of brick and concrete and the homes have been timber framed. Native Townsville bricks being thought of unsatisfactory for face work, higher high quality provides have been obtained from a Maryborough brickworks.

The buildings have been accomplished in July 1958.

As a result of the closest Publish Workplace was on the small city of Brandon, it was agreed that the time period Colevale ought to be discontinued and the station be known as 4QN Brandon. The principle transmitter was an STC 55 kW, kind 4SU‑38 with a 10 kW STC kind 4SU-36C as a standby. Some consideration had been given to the availability of a pair of 25 kW transmitters in parallel with no separate standby however the concept was dropped.

The contract for the principle transmitter was let in 1956 and the unit was acquired within the PMG Brisbane shops in November 1957. In March 1958 it was taken to Townsville on John Burke’s ship “Waiben” and trucked to Brandon by Poultney and Co. of Townsville. In July the 10 kW left the STC manufacturing facility and travelled to Townsville on the motor ship “Kanimbla”.

Set up of the radio tools started within the first half of 1958 as quickly because the constructing was sufficiently superior. Mick Pike was in cost initially with Invoice Graham-Wilson persevering with within the latter half of the yr, till completion in June 1959.

In February a cyclone struck the world and a substantial amount of rain water entered the constructing inflicting some injury to the tools. On the identical time the phone pole route between Townsville and Ayr was badly broken and the general impact of the cyclone was that the opening of the station was considerably delayed.

The brand new aerial system used a metal lattice mast 650 toes excessive with a high capability “hat” 70 toes in diameter and a loading inductance within the mast at a peak of 520 toes. The efficient working peak was set at 0.57 wavelengths by adjustment of the loading inductance.

The contract for the availability and erection of the mast was let to Johns and Waygood Ltd of South Melbourne In August 1957. In April and Could of the next yr the concrete mast foundations and man anchor blocks have been put in by Haunstrup and Co. Mick Pike took the samples which have been examined for energy on the College of Queensland.

In June 1958 the metal for the mast left Melbourne on the ship “Manoora” for Townsville and the erection started in August. The mast was accomplished in October. It was painted, however no plane warning lights have been required.

The cyclone of February precipitated some distortion of the mast and the blokes needed to be retensioned to take away it.

An ordinary six wire transmission line was constructed by the Radio linestaff and a standard earth mat of 120 radial wires, 0.Four wavelengths lengthy was laid across the mast. Coupling tools was housed in a small brick constructing on the base of the mast. Aerial matching was finished by Brian Robinson.

When contemplating the brand new 4QN set up, the Broadcasting Management Board determined that adequate emergency producing capability ought to be obtainable to run the principle transmitter at full energy, and so two engine generator units have been deliberate, every of 100 kVA. A contract was then let in March 1956 to Marine and Industrial Energy (N.S.W.) Pty Ltd of South Brisbane. The engines equipped have been Dorman kind 6KA giving 130 BHP at 1,500 rpm. The serial numbers have been 65235 and 65236. The immediately coupled alternators serials 6267 and 6268 have been equipped by Northern Electrical Pty Ltd and constructed at Salisbury, Brisbane. Synchronizing tools was equipped by the identical agency. The engines have been mounted on particular person concrete blocks within the engine room annex and their gasoline was held in elevated tanks exterior with a capability of three,000 gallons.

The airconditioning system for the transmitter corridor and management room was put in by Service Air Conditioning Pty Ltd and a “Minerva” fireplace detection system supplied by Wormald Bros. (Qld.). The Brandon station took over from Clevedon at the start of program on Monday, 15 June 1959 and the official opening ceremony was held at Eight PM that evening. Recorded speeches by the Postmaster Basic and the Chairman of the A.B.C. have been performed from the Townsville studio and a few reminiscences of the early days of 4QN Clevedon got by Fred Bloxsom of Townsville who had assisted with the unique set up.

Geoff Beetham continued as OIC having moved to Brandon from Clevedon and occupied the primary workers home.

Throughout the next month a discipline energy survey of the brand new station was made by Leo Moloney, engineer, with Graham Christie and Les Rodgers, technicians of the Broadcast part.

Within the subsequent few years a lot of the motion at Brandon centred across the aerial system.

The contract for the preliminary purple and white portray of the principle mast was let to Johns and Waygood who subcontracted to D. Tincknell. Whereas the mast was being painted, the highest hat spokes have been folded down and the part coil short-circuited. This was to permit the painters entry to the highest hat and to allow them to climb previous the coil with the mast energised. Leo Moloney adjusted the aerial coupling to this short-term situation. The work was finished in July and August 1959.

In November 1962 a standby radiator was erected by the Radio linestaff, 200 toes excessive and manufactured from Eight inch diameter metal pipe. About this time the highest insulator of 1 man of the principle mast was broken by lightning and RF arcing, and Johns and Waygood contracted to make repairs. On 19 February 1963 at 10 AM whereas this operation was in progress the mast collapsed, leaving solely the decrease 350 toes standing. Flying guys of the principle mast minimize guys of the standby radiator and the highest 80 toes of it broke off and fell to the bottom. The falling metal broken each transmission strains however missed the coupling huts.

An hour and 1 / 4 later 4QN was again on air with low energy from the standby transmitter feeding right into a rhombic aerial with very low effectivity. The sphere energy in Townsville was solely 2 millivolts per metre the place it was usually 35, however at the least 4QN was “on air”.

Some energetic work by native workers resulted within the transmission strains being repaired, each stub masts cleared of particles and the coupling items realigned to the brand new mast circumstances. Full energy from the principle transmitter was put to air at 6.30 am on the next morning.

Subsequently the remaining portion of the pipe standby was fitted with high loading wires to enhance its effectivity. It was then determined to rebuild the standby in a brand new location farther from the principle mast. By June a short lived “Kismet” mast had been erected between the workers homes and fed from the 10 kW transmitter through a 70 Ohm coaxial cable.

Such of the metal members of the principle mast as have been thought of reusable have been taken to Townsville for straightening by Evans Deakin Ltd and Johns and Waygood started the re-erection in Could 1964. The outdated construction was dismantled right down to the primary man degree and rebuilt from there. By August the work was accomplished and the mast as soon as once more in service.

The everlasting standby radiator was lastly erected by Peter Ryan’s Radio line social gathering in September 1966. It was a “Skillfast”, 150 toes excessive with umbrella wire high loading. The matching used was a stub made by a continuation of the 6 wire transmission line, and it was adjusted by Noel Bolton and Gordon Corridor, the latter being by that point the OIC at 4QN. The concrete samples from base and man blocks have been examined by the North Australian Cement Co. Ltd of Stuart.

In early 1967 cracks have been detected in the principle mast base insulator and Duncan Russell-Corridor and his strains workforce changed it in Could.

Aerial effectivity, or “determine of benefit” measurements have been made on fundamental and new standby aerials in November 1967 by Terry Aldridge and Ian McBryde of the Radio Laboratory. A dialogue with outcomes and horizontal polar diagrams is given in Queensland Engineering Report QB259 of Could 1968.

Though no plane obstruction lighting had been required initially, the Division of Civil Aviation suggested in 1969 that new rules made provision obligatory and the lights have been put in in September. An inspection of men in 1969 revealed that some insulators confirmed cracks and required changing, and as a direct security measure the loading coil was bypassed with metal angle iron leg members to extend the rigidity of the mast at that time ought to a man fail. The coupling unit was adjusted for this situation and energy lowered to 40 kW. Such a state of affairs resulted within the radiator being lower than optimum in efficient peak, however the security of the construction was of larger significance.

It was not till Could 1974 {that a} set of recent guys with an improved kind of insulator was equipped by Electrical Energy Transmission of Sydney. These man wires have been made by the Australian Wire Rope Works at Newcastle, the metallic sockets by Davies and Baird and the insulators by Nilsen Porcelain Pty Ltd. The part loading coil was restored to regular and the coupling unit readjusted by Doug Sanderson and Paul Chippendale.

Since then the aerial techniques have carried out quietly and with no fuss.

Each transmitters have been properly behaved. Within the pursuits of price and reliability, the mercury vapour rectifiers in each transmitters have been modified to stacks of silicon diodes. Due additionally to elevated price and problem of procurement, the modulator and energy amplifier valves have been modified in the principle transmitter from 3J/261E to Philips TBL12/25, a valve in present manufacturing and cheaper in price.

The 55 kW transmitter used 6V6 and 807 valves within the crystal exciter adopted by a 3C/150A buffer, a 3J/192E RF driver and three parallel linked 3J261E triodes within the energy amplifier. The audio line up was EF37A and 6V6G within the push pull exciter, adopted by a push pull pair of 3C/150A’s, a push pull pair of 3J/192E’s and a modulator with push pull 3J/261E’s. The 10 kW RF exciter used 6V6G’s and 807’s, an RF driver of two parallel 450TL’s and an influence amplifier of three parallel linked 3J/192E’s. The audio aspect was push pull all through, the sequence being EF37A, 6V6G, 3C/150A, 3C/150A and a modulator of 3J/192E’s.

The unique EHT rectifiers within the 55 kW have been 2V/561E and within the 10 kW have been 4078Z, each varieties mercury vapour.

Initially this system line was on the Townsville to Ayr open wire trunk route. As well as an emergency voice high quality hyperlink was put in in Could 1959 by Mick Pike, within the VHF band, between Townsville and Brandon. Since 1978, the Townsville to Brandon route has been by broadband radio to Ayr then UHF radio to the transmitter. Inside latest years, a substantial a part of the 4QN program has originated within the ABC Townsville studio, to complement the conventional Queensland Regional program which is generated within the Brisbane studios.

Set up workers who labored on the station throughout 1958 and 1959 have been Invoice Graham-Wilson, Mick Pike, Les Naumann, Cec Plaistow, Bernie Hogue, Trevor Linton, Graham Crozier and Bob Wheelan. Engineering oversight of the set up was by Jack Ross and Brian Robinson. Otto Burmester was workplace Supervising Technician. Officers answerable for the upkeep of 4QN have been Geoff Beetham 1959-63, Don Guthrie 1963-64, Gordon Corridor 1964-76, John Holland 1976-79 and Jim Heath from 1979 to 1988. The station is now unattended and maintained by workers of the Townsville Broadcast Service Centre, OIC Graham Stead.

4QS – Dalby[edit]

4QS was supplied as a part of the progressive growth of Nationwide nation broadcasting deliberate within the thirties. Rockhampton had come on air in 1931 and Townsville in 1936 and a Queensland South station was clearly the following step, designed to cowl Toowoomba, Warwick, Stanthorpe, Goondiwindi and on the western downs, the railway cities of Miles, Chinchilla and Roma. A few of these have been clearly exterior the evening time main service, however in these years the listeners have been grateful for any affordable degree of reception and evening time fading was not of nice concern. Because it turned out, all these cities have been throughout the half millivolt per metre discipline energy contour, which in most seasons within the nation offers affordable daytime reception.

The Darling Downs west of Toowoomba is predominately flat, and though extensively farmed for wheat has a lot uncommitted land. A block of 48.5 acres was chosen 3.5 miles north east of Dalby adjoining to the Bell street, on a property referred to as “Hayfields”.

Earth samples have been taken by Dalby Line Foreman Nissen and in December 1938 a contract was let to Johns and Waygood of Melbourne for the availability and erection of a 711 toes excessive metal lattice mast. On the proposed working frequency of 760 kcs this was a bit over half a wavelength. This was the primary use of a vertical half wave radiator in Queensland and the consequence was a really environment friendly aerial. Certainly, no aerial since constructed on this State has equalled 4QS in effectivity. A determine of benefit measurement was made by Dave Snowden in 1964 and the worth was 259. See Queensland Engineering Report QB175. A contract was then let with STC for a 10 kilowatt transmitter and that firm equipped an Australian constructed unit, kind A513, to a design by Charles Sturdy of their London workplace. It was to be just like these equipped to 2FC, 2CY, 3LO and 3AR.

Modulation was utilized at low degree and the 10 kW output energy was developed in two levels of linear amplification, the ultimate amplifier being two parallel 5 kW items utilizing 4220B water cooled valves. Two of those valves with a spare have been utilized in every cupboard. The driving force stage was a pair of 4270A air cooled triodes. Excessive stress of 12,000 Volts DC was produced by a financial institution of six 4078A sizzling cathode mercury vapour rectifiers in a fullwave, three section association.

A rectifier within the closing stage supplied demodulated audio which was utilized as suggestions to an enter audio stage, giving a lot decrease distortion and improved frequency response by comparability with earlier excessive powered transmitters. This was the primary software of envelope suggestions in nationwide transmitters.

By the center of 1938 plans for the transmitter constructing have been beneath dialogue between the Division of the Inside’s Works Department in Canberra and the PMG Central workplace, and it was determined that as well as, a “cottage” for the officer in cost ought to be constructed just like one designed for 2CR Cumnock. The principle constructing was to have a concrete slab ground, timber framing, brick exterior and a galvanized iron roof.

By October the constructing was sufficiently superior to have a basis stone laid. It’s a block of sandstone and reads:

Hon. J.A. HUNTER M.P.

10th OF OCTOBER 1938

75th ANNIVERSARY OF ESTABLISHMENT OF MUNICIPALITY OF DALBY

By February 1939 the roof was on, and the constructing was prepared for tools set up by the tip of April though it was not but painted or plastered.

The storage, cottage and tuning hut have been nearly completed in Could, however rain delayed work and it was August earlier than all was full.

The mast had been accomplished in January 1939 however the Randwick Electrical Firm didn’t end {the electrical} wiring of mast and buildings till July.

In July the Downs Plumbing Co. of Dalby had put down a bore and erected a wind pump and a 2000 gallon tank for a common water provide.

A few years later, throughout 1965, the Division of Works examined the bore on the station. It was 90 toes deep and exams confirmed {that a} stream of over 300 gallons an hour was doable. City water mains weren’t linked till 1970. By the tip of August all contractors had accomplished their work and left the set up workforce in peace. The installers included Arthur Clark, Tom Knott, Eric Nissen, Bernie Duggan, John Wheller, Fred Emerson, Toby Marcus and Bert Williamson. Nissen, Emerson and Tibby Scholes grew to become the primary upkeep workers with Harry Conway as the primary Foreman Mechanic. Fred Lubach later joined the workforce. Engineers related to the mission have been Vern Kenna and later Mick Corridor. Jim Hutchison was the Supervising Engineer.

The transmitter output impedance was 80 Ohms designed to connect with an 80 Ohm above floor coaxial transmission line. This was constructed regionally by Invoice Stoddart of the Brisbane PMG Workshops. The outer copper tube was 3-1/Four inches in diameter with a tubular centre conductor 7/Eight inch diameter supported at intervals with three-legged porcelain spiders. The road was mounted on concrete pillars 2 toes excessive, and due to the appreciable size, 900 toes, growth containers have been supplied at intervals. The aerial base resistance was 78 Ohms so {that a} easy collection inductor was all that was obligatory for a match to the 80 Ohm coax feeder. In precise truth a small airspaced capacitor was additionally integrated within the matching community.

The earth mat could have been laid by native linestaff however it’s not recognized for sure. It’s considerably totally different from subsequent installations. 75 wires radiate out from the mast for 250 toes, then 150 wires proceed from right here usually to the positioning boundaries about a further 400 toes.

Shortly after the mast was accomplished, the native Dalby newspaper reported that 4 intrepid residents had climbed the mast one weekend when the set up workers have been absent. The erection of the safety fence quickly after prevented any additional sightseeing by the general public.

The day earlier than the scheduled opening, the mast base insulator was discovered to be cracked and a hasty alternative was made. No additional issues have occurred within the subsequent 49 years.

By early October the tools was prepared for testing to air and trial broadcasts have been made. Studies of reception have been acquired from Perth, New Guinea and New Zealand, little question by skywave propagation at evening. The official opening was at Eight PM on Tuesday, 17 October 1939. It was held within the Toowoomba City Corridor within the presence of the State Governor, Sir Leslie Wilson and the Toowoomba Mayor, Alderman D. Annand and his spouse.

The Postmaster Basic, E. J. Harrison spoke by land line from Sydney and A. N. Finlay the ABC Queensland Supervisor welcomed the friends. Music was supplied by the Queensland Studio Orchestra carried out by W. Nelson Burton.

The primary program broadcast was on relay from the Melbourne studios, a play “Horatio’s Final Act” by G. Warren‑Smith.

At 10.30 PM, 4QS went native and broadcast dance music by Ryans Band from a charity ball at St. Joseph’s, Dalby. Cap Randall and Bebe Scott entertained and the Mayor of Dalby, Alderman T. Jack and Mrs Jack have been current. The station closed at midnight.

The common broadcasting instances have been 6.30 to eight.15 AM, and 10 AM to midnight.

The opening was reported within the Dalby “Herald” on Friday, 20 October 1939.

The primary signal of bizarre native circumstances was an pressing request for the transmitter constructing to be insect screened, as flying and crawling invaders have been taking part in havoc with the excessive stress provides. The climate had already been acknowledged as a hazard, and safety for the water cooling tools had been supplied to attenuate the consequences of the very chilly morning circumstances which may freeze the water within the system.

On 24 November, the primary Foreman Mechanic Harry Conway, moved into the “cottage” and the station settled right down to enterprise. Harry stayed at 4QS till 1942 when Les MacDonald got here to take cost.

Throughout the struggle years when there was some considered enemy invasion, particular code phrases have been suggested to broadcast stations in order that in an emergency, on receipt of the code, workers may take no matter motion the code indicated to render the station ineffective to the enemy. Happily no code was ever despatched in emergency or in error and 4QS survived the struggle intact.

Dalby district black soils aren’t very secure with modifications of season and earlier than lengthy cracks grew to become seen within the constructing’s plaster. Through the years nevertheless this was acknowledged as being of no nice second and now and again some plaster of Paris and a bit paint effected beauty repairs.

Early in 1941 a Central workplace drawing was ready displaying the sphere energy contours of 4QS however who made the survey shouldn’t be recognized. The mast lights have been switched off throughout the struggle until required for a specific goal, however controls have been relaxed in 1944 when lights have been once more required from sundown to dawn.

In February 1951 the frequency was modified from 760 to 750 kc/s, and one other change was made in 1953 along side the 4QN synchronization experiment.

A rack of excessive stability oscillator tools was put in at 4QS by Maurie Palmer, Jim Plunkett and Ian Byrnes, and throughout the interval 30 September 1953 to 11 January 1954 the station operated on 4QN’s frequency, 630 kc/s. A big copper tubing single flip loop was mounted on the constructing in order that indicators from 4QN may very well be acquired and in contrast with the oscillator at 4QS.

Throughout this section, the chance was taken to survey the extent of the 0.5 millivolt per metre discipline energy contour. The measurements have been made by Doug Sanderson and George Barr.

The precision oscillators had been put in a while earlier than this, however the Clevedon set was destroyed within the 4QN fireplace of 1951. New matched crystals have been obtained and proved very secure throughout the exams. The common drift over 24 hours was solely 0.02 cps.

The synchronizing experiment is totally described in Central Workplace Radio Part Report No. 30 by S. F. Brownless, 1955. In all these early years, no standby transmitter was obtainable, and no emergency engine generator both. Nevertheless in 1955, a 2 kilowatt STC transmitter which had been in use at Bald Hills, grew to become surplus to necessities there, and was put in at 4QS. This was the unique 4QR transmitter in-built 1937 and first used on the Central Phone Alternate in Brisbane. This transmitter, of no recognized kind quantity continued to function because the standby at 4QS till 1967 when it was faraway from service and disposed of.

The RF lineup was 6C6 oscillator, 4061 A primary separator, 4242A second separator, push pull 4242A’s as grid modulated amplifier and 4 air cooled triodes 4279A in push pull parallel as the ultimate linear amplifier.

The audio part used two resistance capability coupled 6C6 levels adopted by a 4242A modulator. Foremost HT rectifier Three KV, used six 872A mercury vapour diodes. Minor HT rectifiers have been 83V.

Envelope suggestions from output again to first audio was used with a 6A6 as RF demodulator.

At this stage, an ex Military V8 petrol engine driving a 25 kVA Hodson and Gault alternator was put in and was used to energy the two kW standby transmitter throughout industrial mains failures.

Throughout this set up this system enter tools was rearranged and for the primary time, an audio limiting amplifier was supplied to present transmitter overload safety. Some measure of safety had been supplied within the 2 kW transmitter by way of neon tube diodes within the output of the modulator which flashed over when the extent rose above a preset worth. Workers concerned in these installations have been Bob Browne, Invoice Graham-Wilson, Greg Grant, Frank Sharp, Bernie Duggan, Col Crick, Jim Plunkett and Reg Stern.

The subsequent noteworthy occasion was the repainting of the mast for the primary time since its set up. A contract was let to G. M. Lovett of Toowoomba and the portray was accomplished in June 1959.

On this yr, mains electrical energy was equipped through a brand new line from Toowoomba and the Dalby council energy home was closed.

In 1960, Les MacDonald retired after 18 years as officer in cost, and over the following 4 years Don Brownlie, Don Guthrie and Bob Browne frolicked on the station. In 1965, A. G. (Geoff) Bucknell moved in.

A brand new storage, metal sheeted in “Kliplok” was erected in February 1962.

Throughout 1963, a 10 kW transmitter kind 4SU-64 was equipped by STC as a alternative for the watercooled unit, and an estimate ready for its set up. It was deliberate to have the work completed by April of the next yr. It had been initially meant to make use of this transmitter as a alternative for 4QR. Set up didn’t proceed nevertheless, and in February 1965 the transmitter was despatched from Banyo Shops to Laos in South East Asia. The last word 4QS set up was made in 1967 with a pair of STC 4SU-55BS items with a combiner. Their serial numbers are 78106 and 80284. The manufacturing facility check report is dated 25 March 1966.

An set up social gathering with Bob Hansen and Jim Plunkett labored from January 1967 on the brand new transmitters they usually have been prepared to be used in Could. The outdated 10 kW and a couple of kW items have been then dismantled and eliminated. The engineer answerable for the brand new set up was John Searle.

On the failure of 1 transmitter, the output of the opposite is routinely switched away from the combining unit to line in order that the output energy of the station is lowered by Three db solely.

The transmitter output impedance was 200 Ohm, and as at the moment the transmission line was a short lived eleven wire system of about 100 Ohm impedance, an identical unit was put in on the output of the combiner.

The valve lineup of the 4SU-55B/S transmitter was oscillator 807, buffer 807, driver 4-125A, closing Three x 2500F3 air cooled triode. The audio aspect was push pull all through. First stage EF37A, second stage 4-125A, cathode follower driver 4-125A and sophistication B modulator Three x 2500F3. The 5000 Volt excessive stress voltage was produced by stacks of silicon diodes.

Shortly after the brand new set up, Noel Bolton put in a 35 kVA Dunlite diesel alternator and eliminated the outdated petrol set which was subsequently offered to M. Reithmuller of Dalby. The brand new generator was not able to carrying the whole station load, and it was organized that just one transmitter could be linked to the emergency provide.

The short-term eleven wire transmission line talked about above had been put in early in 1966 as a alternative for the unique coaxial tube feeder. Because of motion of the helps within the black soil, most of the inside porcelain insulators had damaged, permitting the centre conductor to sag and at instances contact the outer tube inflicting brief circuits.

No trendy coaxial cable was available and because the matter was pressing, the easy eleven wire line was constructed. Picket poles and crossarms have been used with lengthy skirt trunk phone insulators. Massive diameter holes for the poles have been drilled by Cramer Bros. of Dalby and the poles set in sand in an try and minimise motion. Radio linestaff did the set up. The engineer in cost was Doug Sanderson. Full particulars of this line are given in Queensland Engineering Report QB230 by D. G. Sanderson. The road operated efficiently till it was changed in 1968 by a normal 6 wire line of 200 Ohm impedance.

1968 was one other busy yr for 4QS. New program enter tools was put in in February and Radio linestaff erected a standby radiator in August. This was a triangular metal lattice mast 125 toes excessive, equipped by Edmondstons of Marrickville, NSW. Becoming of insulators and terminating guys was finished by Rex Robinson and Sons Ltd, of Fortitude Valley, Brisbane. Duncan Russell-Corridor and Peter Werder put in and adjusted the coupling unit. An ordinary 6 wire, 200 Ohm line was constructed to the brand new mast.

Throughout the yr Wormald Bros. (Aust.) supplied and put in a booster pump for fireplace combating on the station.

Two excessive frequency receiving dipole aerials have been erected throughout the yr for reception of the Brisbane brief wave stations VLM4 and VLQ9. At a time when this system line from Brisbane was largely in open wire development, outages weren’t unusual and the power to obtain and rebroadcast the ABC Regional program was helpful.

Following the availability of broadband microwave radio from Toowoomba, by way of Dalby and onto Roma, there was appreciable dialogue as as to if 4QS could be operated unattended and a upkeep group established on the Dalby Microwave terminal on the town. The matter was of some curiosity, because the 4QS constructing was in want of appreciable upkeep, and if it have been to grow to be unattended, there was the potential for setting up a brand new and far smaller transmitter constructing. Nothing got here of the solutions and varied repairs and rearrangements have been carried out on the principle constructing sooner or later. No additional proposals to coordinate the broadcasting and microwave upkeep actions eventuated and 4QS remained a staffed station till the formation of the Dalby Broadcast Service Centre in 1988.

One of many rearrangements was the resiting of the bathroom from the unique location exterior, to a brand new facilities space throughout the constructing. On the identical time some upgrading of the engine room was undertaken.

The land round 4QS may be very flat and at instances of heavy rain water doesn’t drain away quickly. Early in 1981 a interval of moist climate resulted within the ground chases changing into flooded and water across the constructing reaching a depth of about 2 toes. The principle energy cable in one of many flooded chases exploded as a result of a leaky sheath and the station had to make use of the emergency generator for a while. As a security measure, the mains have been reconnected to the constructing with overhead wires relatively than underground cable.

Due to the obvious enhance in flooding as a result of drainage works elsewhere within the district, the ground of the hearth combating pump home was raised in 1984. The potential for a flood proof bund wall across the constructing has been mentioned in latest instances, however no development has begun.

In widespread with most regionals, this system for 4QS originated primarily in Brisbane, with a small however ever growing element generated in a “native” studio. The native for 4QS was in Toowoomba. A reasonably easy studio in Margaret Road in-built 1940 served for a few years, however in 1961 a modem set up was made within the new ABC premises within the SGIO Constructing additionally in Margaret Road. Jim Plunkett and John Bopf did the set up beneath the supervision of Engineer Ron Tolmie. This studio was giant sufficient for stay artist performances, solo or group, in addition to common goal single announcer periods.

4AT – Atherton[edit]

5 miles east of Atherton and about halfway between Yungaburra and Malanda, the street crosses Gwynne Creek. Shut by, on a 60 acre low mendacity block of floor described as sub 1 of portion 306, parish of East Barron, nation Nares, lies 4AT.

4AT is an uncommon nationwide station, because it started life as a industrial owned by Atherton Tablelands Broadcasters Pty Ltd in 1938.

Early within the second world struggle the Commonwealth Authorities acquired the station from its homeowners for causes believed to concern nationwide safety on the time. The date of takeover is unsure[SD15] , probably late 1940. Earliest surviving correspondence dates from early 1941.

The land was leased from Beattie Bros., however the Authorities paid compensation to the industrial firm for the station constructing and tools. Within the Commonwealth Authorities Gazette No. 211 of 1 November 1945 it was introduced that the land had been purchased additionally. Preparations have been made to allow D. E. Beattie to function a grazing lease on the property for his cattle and to proceed to domesticate a part of it which didn’t have an effect on the aerial earth system.

A website plan was drawn up dated June 1941 which revealed that the station occupied half a home with workplace, studio and tools room. The picket studio ground was double with a sandwich of Four inches of sawdust, to enhance sound insulation. A 500 Watt AWA transmitter kind J4825 serial No. 1 was put in, feeding a 365 toes excessive metal pipe aerial through a two wire 600 Ohm impedance transmission line. A standard earth mat of 121 wires every 796 toes lengthy was buried within the paddock which was grassed with clover and paspalum for the good thing about Mr Beattie’s cows.

The transition from balanced feeder to unbalanced aerial was achieved with an RF transformer comprising two flat spiral coils separated by a Faraday display screen of parallel vertical wires.

The transmitter valve complement was oscillator 42, oscillator amplifier 807, RF amplifier 807, buffer 805, modulated amplifier 4 805 in parallel push pull. Monitor diode was an 84. EHT volts 1250 from six 866A mercury vapour rectifiers. The audio was push pull all through. 1st audio 6A6; second audio two 6A6 parallel push pull; sub mod 4 2A3 parallel push pull and modulation 4 805 in parallel push pull. Anode modulation of the mod. amp. was used.

The working frequency was 680 kc/s.

Aerial effectivity and station service space weren’t measured till 1952. Queensland Engineering Studies QB47 and QB48 by George Barr and Doug Sanderson of the Radio Laboratory have been issued to file this knowledge. The determine of benefit of the aerial was 180 millivolts per metre for 1 kW at 1 mile, an affordable worth for this quarter wave radiator.

Simply previous to this the entire aerial system had been overhauled and repainted by non-public contractor. New obstruction mild fittings have been obligatory as rusting was extreme. Throughout the struggle years the mast lights had not been used at evening until particularly requested.

In January 1954 the station frequency was modified from 680 kc/s to 600 kc/s by Vince Griffin and Ralph Bongers.

When taken over, the station had no emergency engine generator, however in early 1944 a shed behind the home grew to become the laundry and engine room. A Ford V8 petrol engine driving a 10 kVA, Three section, 415 Volt alternator made by D. F. Skelley of Melbourne was put in. It had arrived on the Yungaburra railway yard in an open wagon and had been moist by rain on the way in which. No everlasting hurt was brought on by the water nevertheless. Three years later a Braybon computerized voltage regulator was obtained to enhance the efficiency of the emergency provide.

The primary everlasting OIC was Alf Walker who was at 4AT from 1941 to 1945. Invoice Mellish and Doug Macaulay had been on website initially.

Through the years enhancements have been made to the audio amenities, check tools was supplied and emergency file taking part in amenities have been upgraded. This latter tools was discovered most crucial when the station was off program line throughout the cyclone of 1956.

A report of this cyclone by the OIC makes attention-grabbing studying.

“EFFECT OF CYCLONE AT 4AT

Programme line: The programme line was damaged south of Townsville on 5 March 1956 at 7.57 p.m. No additional programme was acquired through land line till 3.25 p.m. on 10 March 1956 when a phone channel was equipped. A broadcast channel was supplied at 6.30 p.m. the identical day. While the programme line was minimize, programme was maintained by rebroadcasting radio pickup of short-wave stations transmitting the proper programme. When reception circumstances have been unfavourable, information have been performed regionally.

Industrial Energy: Excessive winds precipitated many faults on the excessive stress energy strains on the Tableland on 6 March 1956. Our emergency energy plant was in use from 7.20 a.m. to 12.53 p.m. at the present time. Industrial energy was obtainable at 4AT all through the rest of the cyclone interval. The alternator of the emergency plant was not giving full output voltage while it was in use however this didn’t have an effect on 4AT transmission. The alternator output voltage was 370 Volts as an alternative of the conventional 415 Volts.

4AT Radiator: As the speed of the wind rose, 4AT radiator was seen to be flexing. On the morning of 6 March 1956 as an example, I estimated the highest of the mast was being displaced Eight toes or extra from its regular place. Our nearest neighbour, Mr D. E. Beattie, rang me on 7 March 1956 to advise me that the highest of the mast was flexing significantly. After the wind subsided it was discovered that the mast had retained a everlasting set beneath the cross-trees. 4AT transmission was unaffected by this situation.

Injury to Installations: No main injury was finished to the buildings or different aerials within the grounds. Minor injury was finished to decorative constructions and timber.

Emergency Brief-Wave Communication: On Eight March 1956 we have been referred to as upon to offer a morse circuit from Atherton telegraph workplace to work through short-wave transmission to Brisbane. Telegrams have been transmitted and acquired on Eight and 9 March 1956. Additionally Eight March 1956, radio contact was made with Cairns Flying Ambulance and Wairuna homestead within the Mount Fox district as fears have been held for the protection of individuals at that homestead and adjoining properties.

Extra time: A complete of 17 and one quarter hours was incurred by 4AT workers as a direct results of the cyclone. This was utilized in manning the short-wave speaking tools, attending the emergency energy plant, and clearing damaged tree branches from the blokes of one of many small masts.

(Ok. W. Bytheway)

Supervising Technician 4AT,

Yungaburra.”

Workers actions occurred now and again. Alf Walker left in 1945 and Gordon Andrews got here for a yr. Eric Gough was OIC from 1947 to 1949 and was adopted by Ken Bytheway who stayed from 1949 to 1956. Jack Barden was in cost from 1956 to 1965, then Ernie Lengthy spent two years in residence. The final O.I.C. was Errol Black, from 1968 to 1973, after which the station grew to become unattended and was maintained by Radiocom workers from Cairns.

Throughout the 50’s, the PMG emergency radio community was prolonged to 4AT. A Temco 200 Watt HF transmitter was supplied, with two AR7 receivers. This gave emergency voice contact with Brisbane. The decision signal was VL4EW. This set was faraway from service in 1964 and a 50 Watt SSB transceiver was put in within the new constructing. With the conversion of the station to unattended operation, the emergency tools was eliminated and the aerials dismantled in 1975.

In 1957 the outdated Skelley generator was changed by a Ford V8 petrol engine driving a Hodson and Gault 25 kVA Three section alternator. The recovered set was transferred to Cairns Division to be used elsewhere. This new machine survived till 1966 when a 30 kVA Lister kind 127HAG14 driving an Electrical Development Firm generator was put in within the new transmitter constructing. The Hodson and Gault set was offered regionally to J. Cole of Mount Garnet.

Line Foreman Cyril Hayward and his workforce of radio linemen put in a rhombic aerial in November 1957 to be used in receiving the Brisbane excessive frequency transmissions from VLQ9 and VLM4 for emergency rebroadcast functions. Whereas there, they examined the principle aerial and reported on its restricted life expectancy. It was cleaned and repainted, however plans have been quickly being made for its alternative. It was an attention-grabbing construction. To a peak of 260 toes the mast was Eight inch diameter metal pipe. The highest 96 toes was 6 inch diameter. On the transition degree a system of cross timber supplied stabilization for the highest part. There have been seven units of men beneath this, in 4 instructions.

Brisbane PMG Workshops fabricated the fittings for a brand new 200 toes excessive, 6 inch diameter mast which had been designed by Ron Tolmie, Engineer of the set up Division and Clyde Manuel, mechanical designer of the Brisbane Drafting Part. This pipe was galvanized and pole steps have been fitted. The outdated mast needed to be ascended in a bosun’s chair.

The removing of the outdated mast was beneath taken by Duncan Russell-Corridor in June 1961. All guys on one aspect have been changed by short-term wires and terminated with one attachment at an outer anchor block. When this was minimize with any oxy-acetylene torch, the mast collapsed, usually in the other way, though fragmentation occurred and lengths of pipe fell in surprising areas.

The brand new 200 toes lengthy pipe was screwed collectively on levelling helps and raised from the horizontal utilizing a 70 toes lengthy picket jury pole. As a result of extreme size to diameter ratio, the lifting of this mast was a really delicate operation.

The strains workforce have been Duncan Russell-Corridor, Albert Ray, Percy Crouch, Tony Scott, Alan Elvis and George di Bondi.

Throughout this time 4AT’s transmission was maintained with using a rhombic aerial, relatively inefficient, however not required for very lengthy. The outdated coupling field was refurbished and shortly the brand new mast was in service.

In mid 1961 the Minister authorized an influence enhance for 4AT, from 500 Watts to 2 kW and a pair of STC transmitters, 4SU-55A/S, every able to 2 and a half kW was ordered. They have been to function as fundamental and standby in a brand new constructing, plans for which had been authorized in late 1960.

The valve line up for these transmitters was oscillator 807, buffer 807, driver QB3/300, modulated closing amplifier 3x2500F3. The audio aspect was push pull all through. 1st audio EF37A, 2nd audio 807, driver 807 and modulator 4/1000A. Excessive stress provides have been from silicon diode rectifiers.

A contract was let in August 1962 with N. A. Kratzmann (N.Q.) Pty Ltd for this new transmitter constructing, and it was prepared for set up work in mid 1963. The construction was of brick with a galvanized metal “Kliplok” roof.

At this stage, the brand new transmitters arrived in Cairns on the ship “Burnside” and the installers with Jim Plunkett in cost started work. The system was prepared to be used on 20 April 1964, with a brand new 200 Ohm 6 wire transmission line to the aerial and a brand new coupling unit.

A discipline energy survey of the station on its new aerial and energy was made later within the yr by Ken Hobson, technician of the Radio Laboratory.

Inside two years, approval was given for 4AT to function on Four kW by day and a couple of kW by evening and Jim Plunkett’s workforce put in an STC combiner kind 792SU-3B. In July 1972 approval to make use of Four kW day and evening was given and each transmitters have been completely operated into the combiner.

Engineer John Searle was answerable for the transmitters and combiner installations within the new constructing.

Anticipating the long run unattended operation, a Siemens and Halske time clock was put in to modify the transmitters on and off. Unattended operation was really begun in 1973 after the set up of Cutler-Hammer “lnterscan” distant management tools, with its management terminal within the Cairns Radiocom Workplace at Hartley Road. In 1986, management was taken over by the workers of the brand new Broadcasting Department Depot in Cairns.

A standby aerial was supplied in 1968. It was a metal lattice triangular part mast of two toes aspect dimension. This was certainly one of three equipped by R. W. Edmondston of Marrickville N.S.W., and was 125 toes excessive. Eight high loading wires have been linked, 71 toes lengthy at 45 levels. A part of the principle earth mat was eliminated within the neighborhood of the standby and changed with a restricted 60 wire mat. Engineer John Searle was answerable for the availability and commissioning. Radio line workers erected the construction and constructed a 6 wire transmission line.

In Could 1972 the frequency was modified to 720 kc/s and earlier than lengthy complaints of lowered sign within the outer areas of the service space have been made. The native industrial 4AM frequency 560 kc/s had the benefit of a decrease frequency, 460 kc/s (sic, 560 kc/s), and a directional aerial which gave indicators a lift in some instructions, in order that 4AT confirmed up badly by comparability.

Recommendation was acquired in September 1973 that the Australian Broadcasting Management Board had authorized the alternative of the 200 ft aerial with an antifading mast and the total time operation of 4AT on Four kilowatts.

The design for the brand new aerial was labored out at Broadcasting H.Q. in Melbourne and consisted of a 455 toes excessive lattice metal tower, high loaded with a coil and quite a lot of sloping “umbrella” wires, to present an efficient electrical peak of a couple of half wavelength. This was designed to minimise radiation at excessive angles and scale back evening time fading on the bounds of the service space. The mast was equipped by Good Engineering Pty Ltd of Healesville, Victoria.

The mast was of 1 metre triangular cross part, guyed in three instructions at six ranges. After closing exams, the highest loading wires have been set at 100 toes every and the highest coil adjusted to present a node peak of 120 toes. Six high loading wires have been used with a small quantity of high coil.

Checks on fading within the lnnot Sizzling Springs space 30 miles from 4AT confirmed little or no evening fading.

Radio linestaff beneath John Wright dismantled the 200 toes pipe and erected the brand new Hardinge mast as a substitute. Electrical changes have been made by engineers Paul Chippendale and Doug Sanderson, assisted at instances by Dave Laing and Garry Waite, technicians. Queensland Engineering Report QB431 was ready to cowl the set up and adjustment of this aerial. The coupling tools was upgraded by technician Bob Perkins.

The determine of benefit of this radiation was measured and located to be 208 millivolts per metre at one mile for 1 kW. That is little higher than a very good quarter wave mast however in line with brief, high loaded aerials. The excessive angle radiator nevertheless, seems to be small, which was the specified consequence. In January 1979 a discipline energy survey of the station’s service space was made by Peter Tilley, technical officer of the Broadcast Operations workers. A contour map QK2672 was ready.

Telecom obtained permission in 1982 to make use of the 4AT website as one finish of a excessive frequency radio phone circuit to Mornington Island. Two log periodic aerials have been erected by Radio Part line workers, one for receiving and one for transmitting, and a 100 Watt transceiver was mounted within the transmitter corridor.

After the station grew to become unattended, the residence was occupied by Telecom workers employed in Atherton, however finally the Division of Communications agreed that it was changing into a upkeep legal responsibility and ought to be offered. This was finished and the constructing was faraway from the printed property and re-erected by the customer on his property close by in 1986.

4QL – Longreach – Publish Workplace Website[edit]

Following on a choice, presumably made earlier than the second world struggle, to offer a excessive powered Nationwide regional within the central west, a short lived low energy set up was made at Longreach in 1947.

The work really started in 1946 when Eric Gough, a senior technician of the broadcasting workers and Dave Laing, technician, solid three concrete engine beds in a small galvanized iron shed within the Publish Workplace yard. A considerably bigger fibrocement sheeted timber framed constructing was in use as a line depot on the other aspect of the yard with an empty entrance part appropriate for a transmitter corridor. This constructing with the Publish Workplace, the technicians workplace, service tools constructing and the engine room, fashioned a hole sq. the place mail contractors, linemen’s vehicles and technicians’ automobiles got here and went steadily. The entry was from Magpie Lane simply around the comer from Duck Road. Behind all this was the Shire corridor and the city water tank integrated in a concrete tower 120 toes excessive.

On this transmitter room Eric and Dave positioned the 2 Tasma BC 200 transmitters and a few tools racks. No additional work was finished that yr.

Early in January 1947, Dave Laing and Doug Sanderson, Senior Technician, started set up once more and have been quickly joined by Ian Byrnes and Tom Goford. At that stage the wartime aeradio group was being disbanded and John Talty, Alec Barron and Fred Stewart who had been putting in tools on the Longreach airport have been transferred to the PMG Division and got here to help with the set up of 4QL. Late in January a line social gathering comprising Messrs. Robinson, Martin and Haywood arrived to erect the aerial system. No standard earth mat may very well be laid because of the restrictions of the positioning, however a counterpoise was erected comprising 16 poles about 18 toes excessive with a wire from every converging to an insulated attachment mounted on the principle centrally located metal pipe mast which was the principle assist for the L kind aerial. This 2 inch diameter pipe was 73 toes excessive, insulated on the base. The counterpoise was earthed on the coupling field which was mounted on the aspect of the transmitter constructing. The aerial wire went vertically up from the coupling field to the highest of the pipe mast, then continued up an angle to the highest of the Council water tower. Complete size of aerial wire was 290 toes which was slightly below 1 / 4 wavelength on the working frequency of 690 kc/s. The resistive element of the aerial impedance was 13.5 Ohms.

The transmitters have been Australian made by Thom and Smith and used two 813 pentodes in parallel within the output stage. They have been obtained from military disposals and have been of a sort used extensively with the troops abroad. One of many items had the identify Balik Papan written inside, indicating service in Borneo.

The RF transmission line to the coupling field was 73 Ohm stable dielectric coaxial cable, kind Uniradio 17.

Appreciable problem was skilled with RF suggestions to the audio enter because of the proximity of the aerial and it was obligatory to position sheet copper beneath the linoleum between the management desk and this system enter racks and in addition to bond collectively all of the sheets of corrugated iron on the roof of the constructing. As a result of extreme summer season temperatures this work was finished at evening when the moveable lights used attracted swarms of flying bugs. Folks on the weekend dance within the adjoining Shire Corridor discovered the scene most entertaining.

The Longreach industrial electrical energy provide at the moment was a centre tapped 440 Volt system giving shoppers a selection of 220 Volts DC both constructive or unfavorable to earth. Consequently 4QL was constructed to run by itself mills. Three Onan petrol engines kind WC4.5S driving 5 kVA 60 cycle 110 Volt mills have been delivered by rail to Longreach and man dealt with onto the engine beds within the engine shed. A 500 gallon petrol tank was buried simply exterior. Once more, because of the warmth, the outlet digging was carried out at evening and early morning by choose and shovel. Bedding sand was introduced from Dingo Creek on the opposite aspect of the Thompson River. The trenches for the conduits and energy cables throughout the yard have been additionally excavated with hand instruments.

Visits by “Snow” Hendry, Supervising Technician Installations and Arthur Clark, Engineer, have been made because the station neared completion, and per week previous to the opening, Ken Bytheway, who was to be station OIC, arrived in Longreach. Vern Kenna, Divisional Engineer and Sam Ross, Supervising Engineer got here up for the official opening on 19 March. The opening ceremony was broadcast from the Shire Corridor at Eight PM. The ABC announcer was Clive Harburg. He launched the chairman of the Longreach Shire Council, E. R. Edkins, who spoke briefly.

Messages from the chairman of the ABC R. J. Boyer, the Postmaster Basic Senator Cameron, and the Minister for the Navy and member for Kennedy W. J. Riordan had been recorded on disk and have been performed from the transmitter. Subsequent the appearing supervisor for the ABC in Queensland, E. J. McCann spoke from the corridor, adopted by the deputy chairman of the Longreach Shire Council, M. M. Ramsden, and a consultant of the residents of Longreach, W. G. Clarke.

At 8.20 PM the station crossed again to the Brisbane line for regular regional program.

As steadily occurs, there have been nonetheless varied jobs to be accomplished despite the fact that the station was on air and a depleted set up workers tidied up the free ends within the subsequent few weeks. A brand new discipline energy meter, RCA kind 308A, arrived and Talty and Sanderson made discipline energy measurements on the principle roads out of Longreach, to Winton, Windorah, Barcaldine and Blackall.

Cec Morris went to Longreach in June of 1947 as a consultant of the Radio Service Division and whereas there, measured the determine of benefit of the aerial. The polar sample was barely elliptical with the lengthy axis consistent with the sloping high of the aerial wire. The determine of benefit was 87 millivolts per metre at one mile for a kilowatt radiated. The precise common worth of discipline energy at one mile from the station was 40 millivolts per metre. Floor conductivity on the inland plains is superb and this small station with a relatively inefficient aerial had its half millivolt per metre contour at a distance of 60 miles.

4QL continued to function on the Oman engines till new mills have been commissioned on the Longreach energy home in mid 1948 giving a standard 50 cps A.C. distribution which the station may use. On 1 September 1948 the station frequency was modified to 540 kc/s and Sanderson went out to make the alterations to the transmitters and aerial coupling.

No additional main modifications occurred on the Publish Workplace website and the brand new 4QL was established throughout the river at Cramsie in 1954 with the closure of this primary, short-term, station.

4QL – Longreach – Cramsie Website[edit]

On certainly one of his visits to Longreach, the Divisional Engineer Vern Kenna had examined two doable websites for the brand new excessive energy station. One in all these was simply out of city on the Jundah Street close to the rifle vary reserve. It was a barren website and unattractive, with the heavy black soils attribute of the world which grow to be very troublesome to traverse in moist climate. The low mendacity Gin Creek area between city and website was additionally a possible drawback within the moist season.

This website was not lastly chosen.

The opposite website was west of the Thompson River adjoining to the rail siding of Cramsie on the Longreach to Winton fundamental line. !t additionally was more likely to be troublesome to achieve in flood time though the railway was much less flood-prone than the street and as well as, the Shire Council had a motor boat for emergency river crossings. The precise website space was largely of purple stony sand and was thus a greater moist climate proposition. As well as, being close to the river and away from the goats of the city widespread, numerous timber and shrubs existed and supplied some reduction from the empty plains so widespread in town aspect of the river.

All issues thought of, Cramsie appeared the higher website and software was made to the Shire Council for switch of an appropriate space of Portion 9, Parish of Kateroy, adjoining to the city of Cramsie, initially surveyed by H. S. Cottrell in October 1894. Cramsie, initially referred to as West Mount Cornish was first occupied in 1871, in all probability as an outstation of the Mount Cornish pastoral property. The city by no means developed, since when the railway had reached Longreach, the settlement grew up there and because the want for teamsters declined, Cramsie grew to become merely a cattle and sheep trucking rail siding.

It’s attention-grabbing to notice that industrial station 4LG occupies what was initially surveyed because the Cramsie Faculty reserve fairly near the 4QL website.

Aviation clearance for a excessive mast on the Cramsie website was obtained and in March 1948 basis check bores on the brand new website have been made across the proposed mast location.

Due to the flood isolation drawback it was determined to construct a number of workers homes in addition to the principle transmitter constructing.

In July 1948 information of the frequency change right down to 540 kc/s got here by way of and software was made for extra land because of the elevated measurement of the earth mat required for this decrease frequency.

Because it now appeared that there could be some delays in getting the positioning and buildings prepared, it was determined that the STC 10 kW transmitter on order for 4QL ought to be diverted to 4RK the place it may very well be put into early service. The principle 10 kW unit lastly used at Cramsie was an AWA BTM10, kind J56700, Serial No. 3.

Appreciable time elapsed whereas land acquisition was in progress and it was not till June 1949 that settlement in principal to the switch was forthcoming from the Queensland Authorities pending a full website survey by the Division of the Interiors’ Property and Survey Department. This survey was full by October 1950 and the acquisition discover to amass the land for “telephonic functions” appeared within the Commonwealth Gazette dated Four January 1951.

Electrical energy provide for the proposed station was no drawback because the Council had prolonged its 6,600 Volt mains from the city pumping website beside the street bridge on the Thompson, to industrial station 4LG located near the 4QL website in 1950.

Constructing progress was gradual nevertheless, Plans have been submitted in 1951 however as a result of scarcity of cash and supplies they weren’t authorized by the Interdepartmental Committee on Works till early 1953. Tenders have been instantly invited and a contract organized in April with Ok. D. Morris and Sons of Gray Road, South Brisbane for the erection of the constructing. There had been solutions that prefabricated homes could be used for workers quarters, however in the long run, standard timber framed homes have been constructed. There have been 4 of those. The transmitter constructing was accomplished in June 1954.

{The electrical} contractors have been native, Murray and Schoermer of Eagle Road, Longreach.

By July 1954 the positioning had been cleared and the coupling hut for the primary aerial, a 4 pole Delta, was erected.

The Delta aerial which was meant as an interim radiator till the principle half wave vertical was put in, consisted of 4 picket guyed masts every 80 toes excessive set in a sq. formation of 132 toes a aspect. A sq. ring of aerial wire was connected to the pole tops and from every comer, a wire was introduced down to some extent simply exterior the coupling hut. The aerial was the truth is, a sq. pyramid standing on its apex. The copper wire conductors have been fashioned right into a 4 wire cage to present decrease reactance and to scale back the potential for corona with the proposed 10 kilowatt enter. This aerial continued in full time service till the principle half wave vertical was prepared in August, 1959. !t was then saved as a standby till 1978 when it was changed by a brand new metal mast, the picket masts by then having deteriorated.

The Delta base resistance on 540 kc/s was solely 2.Eight Ohms in order that the enter present was about 58 Amps.

The Delta design was written up in PMG Report No. Four by S.F. Brownless, one time engineer within the Central Workplace Melbourne, and advisable as an financial standby aerial for a 10 kW station.

The determine of benefit of this aerial was decided by Sanderson and Palmer in February 1955 (Queensland Engineering Report QB82) to be 143 millivolts per metre at one mile for 1 kilowatt enter.

The earth system for this aerial consisted of 60 radial wires every 450 toes lengthy.

The transmission line was a standard 6 wire supported on metal pipe poles.

The 1978 alternative for the outdated Delta was a metal lattice mast of triangular cross part, 2 ft a aspect and 200 toes excessive. It was high loaded with 9 wires every 120 toes lengthy at 45 levels. At 540 kc/s this method was near resonance, with a base impedance of 12.2 – j0.6 Ohms.

Duncan Russell-Corridor’s line workers dismantled the outdated Delta and erected the brand new vertical.

Commissioning the brand new aerial was finished by Tom Wedderburn-Bishop, engineer, and Gordon Gilbert STO of Broadcast Operations. Early in 1954 the racks of apparatus for the brand new set up have been being ready in Brisbane on the Perry Park Meeting Depot and when the AWA transmitter was delivered, set up started at Cramsie.

The mission at Cramsie was beneath the management of Gordon Gilbert, Supervising Technician, assisted by Bernie Hogue and others. Brisbane workplace supervision was by Bernie Duggan, with Frank Sharp the set up part engineer.

The brand new station got here on air on 6 December, and the unique tools on the Publish Workplace website was dismantled and eliminated. The destiny of this tools shouldn’t be recognized. The RF valve line up of the AWA BTM10 was 807 oscillator, 2 parallel 807’s within the buffer, 833 triode driver and three parallel linked BR191 triodes as closing.

The audio part was push pull all through utilizing 807’s and 813’s driving a pair of BR191’s as modulator.

Minor H.T. rectifiers have been 872A mercury vapour. The principle 5 kV H.T. rectifiers have been 5563 gasoline thyratrons, however these have been modified in April 1968 to Basic Electrical A27P managed avalanche silicon diodes. Tony O’Brien and Lou Herman made the change.

In 1956 a standby 2 kW, Philips 1656, was delivered and put in by John Holland. The set up engineer at the moment was Greg Grant. This unit was organized for computerized changeover within the occasion of a fundamental transmitter failure.

The valve complement was 6V6GT’s within the oscillator and isolator levels, 807 and QB3/300 as RF amplifiers and 4 TB4/1250 triodes in parallel within the closing.

The audio part was push pull all through and used 6V6GT’s, 807’s and 4 TB4/1250’s in push pull parallel because the modulator.

Three 872A mercury vapour rectifiers supplied 3,000 Volts H.T. As with the principle transmitter, the H.T. provide was subsequently transformed to silicon diodes.

This Australian made Philips transmitter was prepared for service on 10 Could 1956.

Water provide at Cramsie was a unbroken drawback. A number of sources have been thought of in 1954, floor and underground. An artesian bore was regarded as too costly and had no assure of high quality because the Longreach city bores have been fairly unsuitable for ingesting, being chemically loaded and blended with occasional burst of evil smelling gasoline. One radio officer boasted that he may set fireplace to his bathtub water!

The second proposal was to attract water from the Cramsie lagoon whereas the third and at last accepted scheme was to take water from the city river pumping provide. Accordingly a 1.5 inch galvanized iron pipe was run from there to the station. This was untreated water so a filtration and chlorination plant was arrange at 4QL. It gave affordable service, however low stress to the homes was steadily an issue.

In 1957 settlement was reached with the Longreach Golf Membership at Cramsie to faucet water from the 4QL line and this additional sophisticated the operation.

In the meantime the Longreach Council had transformed the 4QL feed to fundamental city provide through an outdated pipe to the river pumping station, however when this grew to become leaky and troublesome to keep up, it was deserted on the finish of 1962. On account of this, a totally new line was laid at broadcast expense, from Longreach to the river in Three inch diameter asbestos cement pipe, following the railway line. In 1968 the outdated GI pipe from the river to 4QL was changed with a brand new Four inch A. C. fundamental which gave the station a very good provide.

Nevertheless the Cramsie inventory trucking yard was allowed to faucet off this new line and in 1969 the Council requested permission to take water for the brand new saleyards. Additionally within the dry climate of this yr a neighborhood property proprietor R. V. Barnes, fearing that the Cramsie lagoon on his property was about to go dry, obtained permission to make use of the water provide. One other person within the early 70’s was the contractor constructing the brand new railway bridge throughout the Thompson.

All these different prospects had hostile results on the availability of water to 4QL, and with meter readings and charging issues for provide and upkeep, constituted a unbroken burden on the OIC.

In 1977 approaches have been made to the Longreach Council to see if they might take over the road, however they might not comply with. Shortly after, the Council constructed a big earth dam on the saleyards and pumped from the Cramsie lagoon. This alleviated the 4QL provide difficulties to some extent, however because the station was by now largely unattended, the water drawback diminished.

As by 1985 4 workers homes had been offered and eliminated there was no want for apart from rainwater storage on the transmitter constructing, and the troublesome pipeline handed into the care of others.

The subsequent occasion at Cramsie was the erection of the brand new vertical radiator. The contract went to Johns and Waygood of Melbourne and was signed in April 1955. Nevertheless the corporate was busy with masts at Brandon and Mackay and the primary metal didn’t arrive at Cramsie till January 1958.

Concrete basis work for the mast base and man anchor blocks was begun in Could by the sub contractor J. J. Brooker and Sons of Rockhampton. The PMG inspecting officer was Ken Lund who took samples of concrete for testing.

Later within the yr the principle earth mat was laid by PMG radio line workers. It was standard, being 120 radials of copper wire, every being 0.Four wavelengths lengthy.

Johns and Waygood workers arrived in November to start erecting the mast. It was nearly mid summer season and temperatures have been so excessive that the metal grew to become troublesome to deal with because the day progressed. Typically working hours have been 5 AM to 1.30 PM to keep away from the oppressive afternoons, and the mast was full by February 1959. An area contractor put in mast lighting and line workers accomplished the 6 wire transmission line. Invoice Graham-Wilson with trainees Bob Wheelan and Graham Crozier put in the aerial coupling tools and in spite of everything electrical and mechanical checks have been made, the brand new aerial system was put to work on the final day of August 1959.

The mast was 650 toes excessive, Eight toes a aspect triangular part with Three guys at every of Four ranges and a sectionalizing insulator and inductor at 530 toes. Prime capability loading consisted of a horizontal round armature 60 toes in diameter, and the coil on the part was adjusted to present the mast an efficient peak of 0.53 wavelengths.

Engineers Ron Tolmie and Brian Robinson measured and adjusted the coupling tools. The determine of benefit of the brand new mast was decided in January 1960 by Des Fulton, engineer of the Radio Service Part, and located to be 218 millivolts per metre per kilowatt per mile. This was relatively decrease than could be anticipated for such a construction, however similar to related part coil loaded masts at Brandon and Gracemere. Power loss in part loading coils and adjoining metal work is the worth paid for any such development. Discount in bodily mast peak is achieved on the expense of lowered effectivity. Nevertheless if this ends in an improved floor wave to skywave ratio and a rise within the fading free service space, the general state of affairs is passable.

As is customary at excessive·powered broadcast stations, an emergency energy provide was put in to minimise off air time within the occasion of failure of the industrial energy mains. The primary engine generator in 1954 was a Ruston and Hornsby 30 H.P. diesel, kind 4VRO, driving a 26 kVA Brush Three section alternator. This was barely adequate to hold the unmodulated fundamental transmitter even with all different amenities switched off, however because the station was totally staffed, appropriate energy discount of the transmitter was readily made, or the two kW standby was used.

In 1974 a alternative set of a lot bigger capability was put in. A six cylinder 80 H.P. Lister diesel coupled to a Dunlite 45 kVA generator supplied ample energy to take the conventional station load. When 4QL grew to become unattended in 1976, there have been subsequently no sophisticated transmitter modifications wanted when utilizing the emergency energy.

In order that the emergency set wouldn’t be referred to as on to produce the small mast lighting load after hours if the mains failed, a 5 HP Lister with a single section Three kVA Dunlite generator was put in in 1973.

The unique engine for the hearth combating pump was a 10 HP Ford “Prefect”, however this was up to date some years later to a 24 HP Southern Cross diesel, and the pump room was enlarged. 9 thousand gallons of water in Three tanks constituted the hearth combating provide. Preparations had been made when the station was put in for the Longreach fireplace brigade to attend 4QL if required, and an alarm was prolonged to the hearth station. No fireplace emergencies have occurred at 4QL to date, though a lightning strike on the principle mast in December 1974 severely broken the coupling tools within the tuning hut, necessitating its full alternative. On the identical time, a brand new mast part coil was put in, as the unique had grow to be unserviceable. This coil carried the mast lighting mains wiring and was constructed of “Pyrotenax”. The insulation of the interior wiring had deteriorated as a result of moisture. An “Austin” transformer was used within the tuning hut to couple the 240 Volt mains to the mast mild wiring. This was a particular low capability transformer designed to be used with medium frequency masts.

Engineer Paul Chippendale readjusted the mast tuning and loading. The present node was established at a peak of 150 toes above base.

Flooding of the Thompson River has introduced issues through the years. In flat nation resembling that bordering the river, in depth shallow flooding usually happens and might cowl giant tracts of land. Main floods really attain to the sting of Longreach city, two miles from the river, and stop journey on the Winton Street out to Cramsie.

All main floods have inundated a part of the 4QL property and in 1955 the water was two toes deep on the website of the principle mast. Consequently the bottom insulator is on a block three toes excessive to minimise interruptions. The station buildings and workers homes are on barely greater floor and have by no means been invaded by flood water.

There have been main floods in 1891, 1922, 1950 and 1955 and little question there have been others. To help travellers who’ve an actual must cross the river and its adjoining channels in flood time, the Council has supplied a motor boat ferry. Information markers for this service have been white painted branches of timber which stood above the flood waters.

The entry observe from the principle Longreach – Winton street was steadily an issue. Any rain precipitated difficulties as a number of gullies needed to be crossed. In moist climate the very best street to Muttaburra was through Cramsie and heavy automobiles precipitated havoc to the entry to 4QL. In dry climate there was appreciable visitors to the saleyards and cattle trucking space adjoining to the station and the workers at 4QL suffered from the mud produced. Prolonged discussions with the Longreach Council have been steadily obligatory in an endeavour to minimise the nuisance.

The unique program line to 4QL in 1947, and for a few years after, was of 5 kc/s bandwidth and used a bodily pair on the Rockhampton-Emerald-Longreach open wire trunk route. Later a common transfer all through the community to 10 kc/s bandwidth necessitated using program service tools and later, in 1978, a part of this Telecom route was deserted in favour of a sound channel on the Emerald – Longreach 2Gc/s bearer which had been supplied at broadcast expense for “section 7” TV stations alongside the route. This bearer has its limitations, as early morning propagation fading happens sometimes round dawn, rendering the channel unsuitable for broadcast use. Native taped music is accessible on the transmitter for such an emergency, nevertheless, and the Longreach ABC studio can take over whether it is staffed on the time.

Till 1952 there have been no ABC studio amenities in Longreach, however in that yr in September a studio was constructed within the Shire corridor, and a few restricted native program was produced. On 31 October 1958 a fireplace significantly broken the Shire Hail which was later demolished and a brand new Civic Centre constructed. The studio was not touched by the hearth, however because of the rebuilding it needed to be moved, and area within the Faculty of Arts constructing was supplied.

A everlasting ABC studio was finally construct in Duck Road in 1964, and on the time of writing it generates a big element of the 4QL each day program.

John Bopf was answerable for the tools set up at this studio.

At Cramsie a double doublet receiving aerial was erected and two struggle time classic Kingsley valve receivers kind AR7 supplied rebroadcast cowl within the occasion of lack of this system line. Reception of Brisbane brief wave transmitters VLQ9 and VLM4 was normally sufficient for rebroadcasting speech or any important companies. Reception high quality was normally insufficient to permit wonderful music to be rebroadcast, nevertheless. In latest instances, the receivers have been changed by a stable state Racal receiver kind RA7915, and a rhombic aerial erected.

At one stage throughout the 1970’s it was proposed to remotely management 4QL from Emerald 4QD utilizing a Digitran kind 63B system. This didn’t eventuate and the transmitter is switched on and off every day by a neighborhood timeclock. Pressing alarms seem on the Longreach Phone Alternate the place the technical workers are answerable for 4QL upkeep. The state of affairs has now modified with the institution of the Emerald Broadcast Depot and the Rockhampton Broadcast Service Centre, and the last word set up of computerized alarm telemetering over the conventional phone switched community. Starting within the late 1940’s excessive frequency radio transmitters and receivers have been put in at chosen submit workplaces and a few nationwide regional stations all through Queensland, to offer an emergency communications service throughout the PMG Division. The tools supplied at Cramsie was a 50 Watt Racal SSB transceiver, kind TRA55B with dipole aerials to allow operation on 9165 and 5390 kc/s. The decision signal was VL4KX and common check transmissions have been made to VL4EA in Brisbane. Through the years, as safety of communications within the phone community improved, the significance of the Auxiliary Radio Community because it was referred to as, declined, and VL4KX grew to become of little use following the removing of everlasting workers from 4QL.

In 1977 one other miscellaneous service was established at Cramsie, this time for phone subscribers’ VHF radio concentrator operation. A 200 toes excessive guyed mast was erected on the property with a small constructing for tools at its base. VHF aerials have been mounted on this mast for receiving and transmitting. Some minor distortion of the horizontal radiation sample of the principle 4QL mast was brought on by this construction which was erected on the sting of the principle earth mat.

When the final everlasting OIC, Jeff Cirson, left 4QL in 1983, the issues of sustaining the property grew to become apparent. At unattended stations small upkeep issues rapidly grow to be bigger and with out fixed consideration, a stage could be reached when it’s not financial to retain all of the amenities. Three workers homes have been offered for removing and in 1986, confronted with a serious overhaul of the principle transmitter constructing, it was determined to exchange it. Approval was given for the erection of a small constructing behind the principle construction, and to put in in it a single 10 kW new transmitter to exchange the ageing BTM-10. This work was undertaken in 1988.

It’s meant that the outdated constructing and the remaining home can be eliminated when handy.

The brand new constructing is just like that supplied at 4RK, a Logan unit, however on stumps to keep away from any risk of flooding. The prevailing storage is now the emergency engine room, utilizing the engine from the outdated set up. The brand new transmitter, a Nautel Amphet 10, Serial No. 236 has an output impedance of 50 Ohms, and through a J.N.S. TF10 50 to 200 Ohm matching unit, is linked to the 6 wire 200 Ohm transmission line on the terminal tower simply exterior the constructing.

A brand new coaxial cable has been laid from the transmitter to the standby radiator. It will obviate the awkward standby feeder connection beforehand made to the principle line and can allow the principle line to be freed for upkeep at any time. Panel mounted knife switches within the Logan constructing join the transmitter to the coax line when required. The road is laid in conduit and is Andrews Heliax kind LDF6-50.

A 50 Ohm check load equipped by Radio Transmission Engineering of Guildford NSW, is mounted on a bench adjoining to the transmitter and linked as required through a knife swap.

The officers in cost, each appointed and appearing, at 4QL have been:

1947 – 49               Ken Bytheway

1949 – 53               Pat Albion

1954 – 58               Don Guthrie

1959 – 62               Keith Smith

1962 – 63               John Holland and Don Guthrie

1963 – 67               Invoice Beeson

1967                      Russ Dahl

1968                      Ian Turnbull

1969 – 76               John Holland

1976 – 80               Allan Abbott, Dave McLeod

                            (Caretakers from Longreach Alternate)

1980 – 83               Jeff Cirson

1983 – 88               Longreach Alternate Workers

1988 –                    Rockhampton Broadcast Service Centre workers.

Many different workers have served at this relatively distant however crucial station. Dwelling circumstances within the Central West are steadily uncomfortable because of the location and the local weather. In summer season it’s the extreme warmth, within the Moist it’s mud and floods and at most different instances, flies. Nonetheless the station has been operated successfully for over 40 years and continues to serve the inland communities because it was initially meant to do.

4QB – Pialba[edit]

With Rockhampton and Townsville served by regional transmitters and the Dalby station beneath development, consideration was turned within the late 1930’s to the Maryborough district.

As soon as once more website investigation was the accountability of the PMG Melbourne Analysis Laboratories, and a celebration made exams at two websites, in all probability in 1937. The check transmitter was believed to have been rated at 500 Watts and a T-aerial supported by two 60 toes masts was used. The websites have been Pialba and Oakhurst, the latter being about 5 miles west of Maryborough. A discipline energy map was ready displaying the 2 service areas, however no energy or working frequency was indicated.

No additional progress was made and the struggle intervened. Nevertheless the matter was not forgotten and from the survey proof, Vern Kenna, the Divisional Engineer of the Radio Set up group, chosen the current Pialba website throughout the early 1940’s.

In 1944, Col Elworthy, an Engineer of the Radio part, went to the Pialba website with a surveyor of the Division of the Inside and took check bore samples with a hand auger to find out the character of the bottom in order that the anchors and base block for the proposed mast may very well be correctly designed. Queensland Engineering Report QB4 describes this work.

In October of that yr a contour survey of the positioning was made, in all probability by Ray Myler of the Drafting Part, and a website plan was ready displaying the mast location and the structure of the earth mat. Negotiations for the acquisition of the property had been happening for a while and acquisition was suggested within the Commonwealth Gazette on 26 April 1944. The property was obtained from W. Skillington and was described as Resub A of Sub Four of Por 4, Parish Urangan, Nation March. The world was 54 acres, Three roods, Three perches. It had been used for a restricted quantity of agriculture however on acquisition was mendacity idle.

The chance was taken to lease a home and land referred to as “Seaby”, from Mrs Fairlie, located throughout Lengthy Road from the principle block. On the expiration of the lease in 1953, the “Seaby” property was bought for the Commonwealth. This home grew to become the transmitter constructing, and a 2 kW AWA transmitter kind 4J5129 was put in in it. The valve complement of this transmitter was oscillator 42 pentode, buffers 807, drive 805, energy amp 4 833A triodes. 6J7G pentodes have been early stage audio amps, adopted by an 8003 driver and 4 833A triodes within the modulator. Excessive stress rectifiers have been mercury vapour diodes 872A. A cathode ray tube was mounted on the entrance of the cupboard displaying a trapezoid modulation depth sample. The set up started in 1947 with Otto Burmester in cost. His workforce comprised Ian Byrnes, Jim Plunkett, Les Nauman, Dinny Lorrigan, Fred Emerson and A. Dorwood. Vern Kenna was Divisional Engineer answerable for the set up and Geoff Beetham assisted with planning within the workplace and on website.

The decision signal was 4QB and the working frequency allotted was 560 kc/s.

A metal lattice mast 250 toes excessive and guyed at two ranges was erected by contractors Johns and Waygood in August 1947.

The transmission line 1026 toes lengthy was of 6 wire, 200 Ohm impedance and the coupling unit, L-C kind, was housed in a metallic field which was a part of the road terminating tower on the base of the mast. A single flip loop about 10 inches in diameter was inserted within the feeder between coupling hut and mast, to offer some additional impedance to lightning currents.

The earth mat comprised 120 radials of 200 lb copper wire, buried 6 inches, every 720 toes lengthy. As well as a round copper mesh display screen was laid across the base of the mast to a radius of 38 toes. It was woven of 100 lb wire right into a 1.5 inch sq. mesh. This display screen was put in to look at the advance in effectivity because of the decrease loss within the floor close to the aerial base.

The determine of benefit of the system was measured earlier than and after the set up of the display screen. The values have been 163 and 170.Four millivolts per metre per mile per kilowatt. Contemplating the price of set up, the display screen was scarcely worthwhile, and the experiment has by no means been repeated. The aerial resistance with out display screen was 11.Eight Ohms and 10.1 Ohms with display screen. Col Williams made the sphere energy measurements, and Vern Kenna reported the ends in Queensland Engineering Report QB8.

Mast obstruction lighting was supplied with choke feed within the coupling hut. Two engine producing units for emergency energy have been put in in a storage behind the transmitter home. They have been a Southern Cross diesel driving a 30 kVA Braybon generator, and a Lister diesel kind 38-4, Serial 60/11701, driving a 27 kVA Mawdsley generator.

The station was opened on 14 January 1948 and transmitted the ABC Regional Program, carried by PMG landline from Brisbane.

The official opening was held within the Maryborough Faculty of Arts at 9.15 PM when a recorded speech by Senator D. Cameron was performed. The Federal Member for Large Bay, B. Corser had additionally recorded a speech for the event. The ceremony was attended by the Mayor of Maryborough, Alderman R. D. McDowell and the ABC was represented by its chairman R. J. Boyer. G. Glenister the ABC’S assistant Queensland Supervisor, B. Wright the Queensland information editor, and announcer Ted Sheppard had additionally come up for the event.

Leisure was supplied by the Maryborough Federal Band beneath the baton of J. J. Kelly. Agnes Tait on the piano and Harold Hodgkinson baritone additionally carried out.

A report of the opening was carried within the Maryborough “Chronicle” in its challenge of 15 January.

For native broadcasts, a studio was later put in within the Faculty of Arts constructing, the place the primary ABC Regional Officer was Hugh Peddie. This was not accomplished till November 1950 nevertheless.

The primary OIC of the station was Gordon Andrews who loved the Pialba vacation resort till 1964. He was adopted by Keith Ross and in 1976 Russ Dahl took over and remains to be in occupation.

560 kc/s was an interim frequency, and in a serious shuffle of wavelengths in Sept 1948, Pialba was given 910 kc/s. This resulted within the aerial working at 1 / 4 wavelength and a brand new determine of benefit measurement was made by Doug Sanderson and Maurie Palmer in March 1953. The brand new worth was 194, and appreciable enchancment over the outdated determine of 170. Nevertheless the upper working frequency suffered larger attenuation and the service space was shrunk, the sphere energy on common falling at the least 6 db.

This introduced renewed requests for “one thing to be finished for Maryborough” and in 1953 there was a proposal for an influence enhance to 10 kW. A constructing structure was ready, however the mission was not superior at the moment. A 10 kW transmitter with a 2 kW standby was proposed.

Ten years later, a second 2 kW transmitter was put in, giving the station workers larger peace of thoughts. A single transmitter set up was at all times a supply of workers nervousness. This transmitter was just like the present unit, and had been recovered from 4RK.

Noel Medlin an engineer from the Australian Broadcasting Management Board visited many areas in Queensland throughout February and March 1959 and made suggestions for improved broadcast companies. This plan for the Pialba service space envisaged a directional array for 4QB to enhance the sign in Maryborough and Bundaberg and a 10 kW transmitter inland within the Abercorn district working in synchronism with 4QB on 910 kc/s.

This plan fashioned the premise for the last word association of a 10 kW station at Eidsvold, omnidirectional, and a directional two mast aerial system at Pialba additionally working at 10 kW.

Throughout 1963 plans for a brand new transmitter constructing on the comer of Halcro and Lengthy Road, within the north east nook of the principle property have been beneath dialogue and have been finalized in November of that yr. A contract was let in April 1964 to Hug Brothers of Maryborough for the constructing erection and it was obtainable for set up in January 1965.

Two STC 5 kW kind 4SU-55B transmitters, serial numbers 64472 and 64475, with a combiner kind 792SU-ID have been put in within the new constructing.

John Searle was the engineer in cost, and his discipline OIC at Pialba was Jim Plunkett who was assisted by Les Nauman, Col Huddy, Jeff Adams and Ron Sergeant.

A brand new emergency engine generator was additionally supplied, a Lister HAG diesel driving a 30 kVA three section 415 Volt alternator. This was an Electrical Development Firm RF17 KG-5 machine. An underground 400 gallon gasoline tank was put in with a 45 gallon inside tank refilled by hand pump.

To supply the directional attribute required by the unique Medlin plan, two vertical lattice metal masts have been equipped and erected by the Electrical Energy Transmission firm. The triangular part masts have been Eight toes a aspect, and 450 toes excessive. To present further electrical peak a 70 toes diameter high loading body consisting of six arms with fill in wires was supplied. The masts have been 270 toes aside and on a 79 diploma true bearing.

A mixed earth mat was laid, every part containing 120 radials, the longest being 730 toes.

These new masts have been erected on the positioning of the unique 4QB radiator and as this was eliminated earlier than the brand new masts have been constructed, a standby aerial was supplied as an interim measure. It was of Eight inch diameter metal pipe, 150 toes excessive and matched to the 200 Ohm 6 wire transmission line with a tapped inductor. Its base impedance at 910 kc/s was 12.2 – j115 Ohms.

A restricted survey of its service space was made by Keith Ross in March 1965.

This standby radiator was erected within the south east nook of the positioning and it was essential to clear the Paper bark melaleuca timber from the world. This was finished by W. Miller of Nickenbah in September 1964, supervised by lineman Robin Bell.

The directional sample of the brand new set up was roughly cardioid with a small lobe in direction of the east. The ability division and section management elements have been mounted within the coupling hut of the east mast.

Coaxial cable for the transmission line had been thought of at one time, however 200 Ohm open wire 6 conductor line was finally used.

Obstruction lighting tools was supplied on the brand new masts however was not required till April 1971. The masts have been nevertheless, painted in worldwide orange and white. The unique mast had been lit and had proved to be of worth to fishermen in Hervey Bay. When the brand new masts have been discovered to be unlit, the native Chamber of Commerce lodged complaints, but it surely was some years earlier than the Pialba fishermen’s beacons have been once more seen throughout the Bay.

Because the service was to be synchronized with the brand new Eidsvold transmitter, very excessive stability crystal oscillators by Sulzer of USA have been supplied. In depth measurements have been made by Central workplace Analysis Part workers, to find out the audio delay to be inserted within the Maryborough to Pialba program line at 4QB to make sure the proper section relation between the audio inputs on the Pialba and Eidsvold transmitters. This section relationship was essential because it minimised the distortion skilled by listeners within the zone round Biggenden the place the carriers have been of virtually equal energy. Because the management oscillators have been maintained barely off actual synchronization, the carriers drifted into and out of section over the widespread reception space, at a charge of roughly as soon as in each 1 and a half minutes. Distortion was most evident on the time when the carriers have been out of section.

Measurements of the traits of this system strains have been made by the PMG Analysis Laboratories workers and appropriate delay equalizers designed. The work was described in Analysis Lab. Report No. 6088 by Subocz and Yelverton. A.J. Gibbs designed the equalizers on the Analysis Labs.

Presently, this system to each stations was fed from a standard level on the Maryborough Alternate and open wire strains have been in use. Through the years, these strains have been modified and cable carriers and broadband microwave routes have been used. Audio delay of a hard and fast quantity was now not attainable and reception within the service overlap zone deteriorated considerably leading to a lot public criticism. The issue was compounded by way of 910 kc/s which, being twice the same old intermediate frequency of superheterodyne receivers, resulted in a whistle being heard in most units when tuned near the frequency. This was a nuisance till the frequency was modified to 855 kc/s in November 1978.

The brand new transmitters have been placed on check in October and early November and went to air formally on Eight November 1965.

The outdated 2 kW transmitters have been recovered, one going finally to Christmas Island, whereas the opposite was utilized by the Wi-fi Inspector in Brisbane to check candidates for Broadcast Operators Certificates. This one finally went to the Technicians Coaching Faculty in Hesketh Home, Elizabeth Road, Brisbane the place in 1986 it nonetheless was.

The transmitters have been refurbished on the Radio Set up Meeting Store at Perry Park, Brisbane by Tony O’Brien, Gerry Vanderhoven and Jim Weeks.

The outdated Lister engine generator was offered.

The Southern Cross set had beforehand been eliminated and put in on the Brisbane Metropolitan Studios, then at Alice Road, within the metropolis.

In October 1966 a discipline energy survey of the mixed stations Pialba and Eidsvold was made by Doug Sanderson and in July 1967 a determine of benefit and polar diagram test was finished by engineer Ian McBryde. After the frequency was modified to 855 kc/s by Sanderson, Gordon Gilbert and Garry Waite, one other polar sample test was made. Whereas adjusting the present sampling loops half means up the masts, workers have been attacked steadily by magpies which had nests within the mast.

The design report for the Pialba aerial tuning system was ready by Ken Endacott of Central workplace in 1964. All of the elements have been assembled on the Perry Park Set up Depot, the massive inductors being manufactured by Brisbane PMG Workshops.

“Different workers” actions at 4QB have been the set up of a small guyed mast and the availability of a single channel VHF radio phone system for Orchid Seaside on Fraser Island, and the constructing of a PMG Line Depot on a part of the north west nook of the printed website, fronting Halcro Road.

As workers retire or transfer from the station, 4QB will finally grow to be unattended and be maintained from a proposed Maryborough district Broadcast Service Centre in all probability positioned at Childers.

4QY – Kamma[edit]

4QY the Nationwide Regional station for the Cairns district, went to air on 20 January 1950, offering an efficient service in an space hitherto counting on an detached sign from 4AT Atherton.

A station for Cairns had been into consideration for a few years and a propagation survey had been undertaken by the Melbourne Analysis Laboratories of the PMG Division in 1937. Assessments have been carried out from a website referred to as Inexperienced Hill about Four miles north east of Gordonvale.

The outbreak of struggle in 1939 put a cease to plans for the Cairns Station, though some reduction was obtained in 1941 when the Commonwealth Authorities took over the Atherton industrial station 4AT, and transformed it to nationwide standing. The sign in Cairns was solely 300 microvolts per metre with doable fading at evening, so {that a} extra highly effective native transmitter was badly wanted.

In November 1944 Vern Kenna, Divisional Engineer, Broadcasting in firm·with a Properties Officer of Division of Works, named Harrison inspected a number of doubtless websites within the Gordonvale space and advisable one 3/Four mile east of the railway siding of Kamma, Three miles north of Gordonvale.

The district is dedicated to sugar cane cultivation with little or no unused land. Nevertheless the 32 acre property at Kamma was unsuitable for cane and was coated with small and medium timber, and was obtainable for buy from its proprietor, Giovanni Piacentino, at a worth a lot lower than sugar cane land. The property description: a part of Sub Three of Portion 175, parish Trinity, county Nares.

The acquisition was finalized and notified within the Commonwealth Authorities Gazette in January 1946.

Shortly after this, in March 1946, a contour survey of the positioning was made by Division of the Inside surveyor J. E. Stevenson and this enabled particulars of mast man lengths to be calculated.

As the positioning was on the plane path to Cairns some dialogue passed off with the related authorities as to the allowable mast peak, and this was lastly selected as 135 toes. For the anticipated station frequency of 890 kc/s this was a really brief mast, however the discipline energy subsequently produced in Cairns was sufficient at that stage of the town’s growth.

The mast was of triangular cross part and guyed at one degree solely. The construction didn’t want to hold plane warning lights and was not required to be painted.

A contract for the availability and erection of this mast was let with Johns and Waygood who accomplished the construction in April 1948. At this stage the positioning had been cleared solely to the extent obligatory for the mast erection and it was not till early 1949 that the rest was cleared to permit laying of the earth mat. This was of the sort now usually used, 120 radials every about 0.Four wavelengths lengthy. This work was finished by Radio Part line workers, who additionally constructed the RF transmission line, the primary 6 wire kind for use by the Nationwide service in Queensland.

Plans for the transmitter buildings had been beneath dialogue since mid 1945 and by December of that yr the Division of Works and Housing had finalized a plan. A contract was let in December 1947 to Kyneston and Andrews of Cairns and the constructing was accomplished in December 1948.

Gear set up started early in 1949 with Invoice Graham-Wilson, John Talty, Alec Barron and Zig Fergus. Some preliminary work had been finished by Ian Byrnes and Bob Britten, however they didn’t proceed.

The principle station switchboard nevertheless, was not constructed and put in till November as a result of restrictions and submit struggle materials shortages. The board was constructed by a contractor in Brisbane and railed to Cairns.

The transmitters equipped for 4QY have been STC 2 kW output, kind 4SU-14. Two have been obtained and operated as fundamental and standby. The valve line up in these transmitters was crystal oscillator 6V6G, isolator 6V6G, buffer 807 (2 in parallel), driver 3C/150A, energy amplifier push pull pair of 4279A triodes. The audio chain was push pull all through. 1st audio 6J7G, 2nd audio 6V6G, third audio 3C/150A, cathode follower driver 3C/150A, modulator 4279A. The excessive stress rectifiers have been mercury vapour 872A.

The 4279A valves finally grew to become out of date and STC produced a barely modified model, the 4279Z. These valves have been then utilized in all 4SU-14 transmitters with out modification. An emergency engine generator set was put in. It was a reconditioned Ruston and Hornsby VSO/Three diesel driving a Bayley and Grimster 415 Volt 15 kVA alternator.

A Coventry Climax fireplace engine and pump was put in in a separate shed and later 4000 gallons of fireside water was held in two tanks.

The prolonged set up time of 1 yr was as a result of submit struggle shortages of fabric and in addition to extended electrical energy and rail strikes, however by January 1950 all was prepared. Closing testing and commissioning of the station was finished by Arthur Clark of the Brisbane workplace of the Radio Set up Division.

This system line from Brisbane in these days was on the open wire route, with an audio bandwidth of 5 kc/s and it was not till 1967 with the availability of improved PMG amenities {that a} 10 kc/s bandwidth was obtainable.

4QY was formally opened at a ceremony held within the Cairns Metropolis Council chambers with 80 invited friends current. It was reported within the “Cairns Publish” of 21 January 1950. On Friday evening at 6.53 PM on 20 January 1950, recorded speeches have been performed over this system line from Brisbane, by the Postmaster Basic H. C. Anthony, the Chairman of the ABC, R. J. Boyer and the Member for Leichhardt, T. V. Gilmore. This a part of this system was taken on relay to different ABC stations.

Following the regional and nationwide information bulletins a program of native leisure was held for the friends, presided over by the Mayor of Cairns, Alderman W. H. Murchison. Between 7.30 and eight.30 PM the next artists carried out: Eleanor Morris (piano), L. Roberts (baritone), W. Hughes (viola), Mrs A. Roberts and Mr L. Wynne (duet) with Joan Wilmett as accompanist.

Eric Sholl the Queensland ABC supervisor mentioned that it was hoped to ascertain a studio in Cairns quickly, and that lodging was being leased for that goal. The native studio was really put in some years later on the nook of Abbott and Shields Streets and operated there till 1965. By then the ABC had assumed technical management of studios and the brand new tools was put in by ABC workers within the State Authorities Insurance coverage Workplace on the nook of Shields Road and the Esplanade.

The primary officer answerable for 4QY was Eric Gough who spent seven years there.

Though discussions had been held between the related Authorities Departments as early as 1948 and preliminary plans drawn up, no residence for the OIC was obtainable till November 1954, nearly 5 years after opening. A modest low set home was constructed subsequent door to the transmitter constructing on the japanese aspect. The contractor was A. L. Underwood, of Cairns.

Aerial effectivity measurements have been made in March 1950 by Doug Sanderson of the Radio Laboratory and detailed in Queensland Engineering Report QB24. On the working frequency of 890 kc/s the determine of benefit of this brief mast was 134 millivolts per metre at one mile for one kilowatt.

In July 1952 a discipline energy survey of the station’s protection was made by George Barr of the Radio Laboratory workers and the outcomes recorded in Queensland Engineering Report QB48.

The primary main working change occurred in September 1953 when the frequency was modified to 940 kc/s. This had the impact of accelerating {the electrical} peak of the aerial and the effectivity of radiation improved, giving a determine of benefit of 153. The station was to function on this wavelength till January 1971 when it moved again to 800 kc/s. In November 1978 one other spherical of modifications occurred when the 9 kc/s service spacing rule got here into impact. 4QY was allotted 801 kc/s right now the place it stays at current. The determine of benefit at this frequency has not been measured however might be not a lot better than 100.

Throughout 1956 an computerized fireplace alarm system was put in within the transmitter constructing and linked to the Gordonvale Fireplace Station.

Eric Gough left in 1957 and Gerry Elliott took cost for a yr till Don Guthrie arrived and stayed for the following 10 years.

The final OIC of 4QY was Ern Lengthy who noticed the tip of full time staffed upkeep in 1973. The station then grew to become unattended and was serviced by workers of Telecom’s Cairns Radiocom and Broadcast Centre till the formation of the brand new Queensland Broadcasting Department’s Cairns Broadcast Service Centre in 1986.

When the station grew to become unattended, it was made safer in opposition to doable cyclone and storm injury with strengthening of doorways and the availability of mesh throughout home windows and air flow intakes.

Not lengthy afterwards, in February 1977, the now uninhabited residence was offered to D. M. McDougall and Co. of Edmonton and eliminated.

Life handed peacefully sufficient at 4QY throughout the 1950’s, though a extreme cyclone in 1956 minimize the electrical energy provide to the district and the station ran on the emergency engine generator for 4 days. Eric Gough’s report on this cyclone is attention-grabbing.

Cyclone – sixth March, 1956 – 4QY Report Injury: There was no injury finished to any of the 4QY technical installations. The one constructing injury was one blind blown down and one water tank overflow pipe blown down on the station constructing.

Industrial Energy: The industrial energy provide was interrupted at 6.40 AM on Tuesday 6 March 1956. It was restored at 9.15 AM on Friday 9 March 1956. There was additionally a 9 hour interruption on the next Saturday, and a 2 hour interruption on the Sunday.

Throughout all the above intervals the station’s emergency diesel generator was operated. No bother was encountered with the emergency energy provide.

Programme Line, Brisbane – Cairns: The programme line was misplaced south of Townsville at 7.40 PM on Monday 5 March 1956. Substitute service was supplied, however all strains have been misplaced south of Townsville 18 minutes later. The programme line from Townsville to Cairns was misplaced at 9.00 AM on Tuesday 6 March 1956. On Saturday, 10 March 1956, a service channel was restored at 3.30 PM, a 5 kc/s line was supplied at 4.30 PM, and the programme line was restored from Townsville to Cairns at 6.35 PM.

Throughout all the time that there was no programme from Brisbane reaching Cairns by land-line, the conventional programme was broadcast with assistance from the 4QY receiver.

Native Broadcasts: Though the conventional programme and the programme patch strains have been misplaced between Cairns and 4QY from 9.00 AM on Tuesday till 12 Midday on Saturday, 4QY was ready to make use of certainly one of its two cable pairs to the Cairns Trunk Room.

All of the scheduled periods from the Cairns Studio have been broadcast by 4QY. As well as, a few pressing police messages from the Cairns Studio, have been additionally broadcast.

Emergency Communications: At no time was Kamma out of communication with Cairns. Though 4QY had misplaced its programme and programme patch strains to Cairns, there have been nonetheless 2 cable pairs working. 4QY was ready to make use of certainly one of these pairs for telegraphic communication to and from Cairns Telegraph Room.

It was famous that 4QN may work a transmitter and a receiver on his outstation·community, and on the identical time function a transmitter and a receiver on his Brisbane circuit. 4QY was in a position to function one transmitter and one receiver on the emergency community at anyone time. Accordingly, 4QY contacted 4QN and famous that he may work lnnisfail and Cooktown efficiently. 4QN then dealt with the important visitors from these stations. VL4EW, Atherton, was additionally in a position to be of help with Cooktown and lnnisfail.

4QY then targeting dealing with visitors from the Cairns Telegraph Workplace to the Brisbane Telegraph workplace. This circuit was closed down at 7.00 PM on Friday 9 March 1956.

In all, roughly 1000 telegrams and 2000 phrases of press have been both despatched or acquired by way of 4QY’s emergency communication.

E. W. Gough Supervising Technician. 4QY, Cairns. Throughout the 50’s the PMG Division had arrange a community of excessive frequency transmitters and receivers in distant areas in order that emergency communication may very well be maintained between Publish Places of work and main centres. The tools for the Cairns district was put in at 4QY. The primary unit was an ATM 150 transmitter for low energy C.W. working and later a 200 Watt AT 14, with the decision

signal VL4ER. These outdated items have been changed in 1962 by a 60 Watt Racal transceiver designed for single aspect band voice operation.

Common exams have been constructed from zone centres resembling 4QY to the management centre in Brisbane, with its receivers at Capalaba and transmitters at Hemmant. The principle frequencies allotted for this emergency service have been 5390, 9165 and 12210 kc/s. Dipole aerials minimize for these frequencies have been erected in any respect centres. Different aerials put in at 4QY have been for receiving the Brisbane inland HF stations VLQ9 and VLM4 to be used as an emergency program supply within the occasion of program line failure. Within the early days when the lengthy open wire route was in use from Brisbane to Cairns there have been occasional failures. One double doublet excessive frequency aerial and a rhombic have been supplied for this service.

Some further aerials have been erected in 1965 when a personal excessive frequency hyperlink was put in to work between Weipa and the Comalco workplace in Cairns. The tools a 500 Watt Racal was owned by the corporate, however PMG radio workers put in it. Two log periodic excessive frequency aerials have been erected and to make room for these, the 4QY rhombic was eliminated. There was area nevertheless for the erection of a Vee aerial as an alternative to the rhombic.

By 1971 the Weipa system was now not required and the corporate offered its radio·tools. The log periodic aerials have been purchased by the PMG Division and subsequently used for a personal radio hyperlink from Cairns to the manganese mine on Groote Island. This service ceased in 1979 and one log periodic was dismantled. The Vee aerial, now not used, was additionally eliminated right now.

Simply previous to this, small Nationwide and Industrial TV translators have been put in within the 4QY constructing, and every mast of 1 log periodic was used to assist one of many TV aerials.

In 1966 the Mulgrave Shire Council prolonged the water provide mains and 4QY was linked to “city” water for the primary time.

No standby aerial was supplied for 4QY till 1968 when a 100 toes excessive mast was erected some 315 toes to the west of the principle radiator. This new mast was equipped by R. Edmondston of Marrickville and was erected by broadcast linestaff. Eight high loading wires, every 60 toes lengthy at 45 levels have been supplied to present an elevated electrical peak, and a few rearrangement of the earth mat was undertaken, extending out to the west website boundary.

A coaxial feeder was laid of 71 Ohm impedance, and a community to match this to the transmitter output of 200 Ohms was supplied. The aerial was matched to the coax with a tapped inductor.

Neil Howard was the engineer answerable for this standby set up.

Early in 1969, some 20 years after set up, this system enter and check racks of apparatus have been changed. Ken Vinton was the person in cost on the spot assisted by Peter Chew and Ron Prepare dinner. Neil Howard gave engineering supervision and Otto Burmester supervised the technical particulars. A brand new management desk was put in additionally, and the emergency engine room given an up to date management cubicle.

The outdated Ruston diesel was finally changed by a brand new Dorman diesel driving a 35 kVA McColl alternator, about 1973.

Presently plans for the operation of 4QY as an unattended station have been being made and a distant management system was put in with the management centre on the Hartley Road Radiocom Terminal which was totally staffed. Engineers Dave Ellis and Paul Chippendale supervised the planning and commissioning of the system. The management tools, a tone signalling system referred to as “lnterscan” was equipped by Cutler Hammer Australia Pty ltd, and at this stage all upkeep workers have been withdrawn from 4QY. Most have been moved to the Radiocom Centre to kind the nucleus of a broadcast upkeep workers answerable for 4QY, 4AT and 4MS.

With the formation of the Broadcasting Directorate inside Telecom and the institution of Broadcasting Branches in all States, operation and upkeep of 4QY is now within the arms of a purely broadcasting group with headquarters in Cairns. The OIC of this new depot is Bob Sullivan, whose workers journey broadly within the Cairns district and are answerable for MF stations as far afield as Weipa, Thursday Island, Mossman and Atherton, and the various TV and FM stations on this giant space.

====4QA – Mackay

This regional station got here on air in early 1951, however the potential for such a service had been beneath dialogue for some years earlier than that. There’s a Central Workplace Melbourne drawing dated June 1945 displaying the estimated service space of a transmitter at Mackay utilizing 2 kW on 1160 kc/s right into a quarter-wave vertical radiator.

Constructive discipline work started in early 1948 when a survey of doable websites was made by Wes Halstead, Radio Survey Officer. 5 doubtless areas have been listed, west of the city at Erakala, south at Dundula and north alongside the street to Slade Level Street. The ultimate determination was made by Vern Kenna, Divisional Engineer Radio Part for a website simply inland from the Mackay Outer Harbour fronting Slade Level and this was obtained.

There have been two blocks within the transactions, one undeveloped, owned by P. O’Loughlin, and the opposite containing a home, tank and windmill owned by J. H. Dalrymple. The home had been in-built 1944.

Preliminary discussions with website homeowners had been held by T. B. Payne a property officer of the Division of the Inside, and Morrie Unwin OIC of the Rockhampton phone district.

The survey test of the 2 properties was made by surveyor A. G. James in July 1949 and the purchases have been finalized in September of that yr.

An area PMG Division technician, W. B. Graham, occupied the home till December, when preparations have been made with a neighbour Mrs Bernard to regulate the property till set up workers have been on website.

A PMG Drafting Part surveyor, Ray Myler, made a contour survey of the property in October 1949 and plans have been accomplished for the station structure.

The property was largely low mendacity land, a few of it tidal swamp however the space the place the home stood was elevated and appropriate for the transmitter constructing. A stand of melaleuca timber occupied the northern a part of the low mendacity space, however the the rest of the property was clear. The everlasting fundamental transmitter constructing was not supplied initially and the tools was put in in three small picket garages erected on website in 1950.

Two STC 2 kW transmitters kind 4SU-14C, serial numbers 32279 and 32280 have been obtained and put in within the short-term buildings. Just one was totally commissioned on the time, the second not being prepared for service for some six months afterwards. These transmitters have been just like these put in at 4QY Cairns in 1950, and are nonetheless in service 38 years later. The working frequency was 720 kc/s.

The installers Maurie Palmer, John Talty and Alec Barron beneath the management of Invoice Graham-Wilson arrived in 1950 and after the Radio linemen with Foreman Don Corridor had poured concrete foundations, erected the three stations buildings which have been obtainable in package kind.

These picket precut buildings have been standard at the moment as a low price storage used at PMG lineyards. They’d been promoted by Claude Faragher, one time Deputy Director Queensland PMG Division.

The strains workforce then turned their consideration to the aerial system. An Eight inch diameter metal pipe mast was erected on the flat beneath the station ridge and linked through an L-C community to the transmitter with a buried coaxial cable. This was metal wire armoured, in all probability kind AS26 of 100 Ohm attribute impedance to match the transmitter output.

The earth mat comprised 120 radials every 190 toes lengthy of 200 lb per mile copper wire.

The pipe mast was mounted on a metal body about Three toes excessive as the world was anticipated to be inundated within the moist season sometimes. The coupling hut was equally raised. The precautions have been justified, as heavy rain simply earlier than the opening date, 37 inches in 74 hours raised the water degree alarmingly and workers needed to wade in and get better the coupling elements. The coupling cupboard and base insulator have been submerged and the property remained a swamp for a lot of months. Common flooding has been a unbroken characteristic of 4QA through the years and precautions have been taken when the everlasting aerial system was put in seven years later.

The mast was guyed in 4 instructions, at three ranges, and eight high loading wires every 106 toes lengthy have been put in at 45 levels from the mast high. This gave a base resistance of Eight Ohms. No copper wire bonding was used, because the pipe sections have been screwed.

The determine of benefit of this electrically brief mast was measured in September 1952 by Doug Sanderson and got here out at 124 millivolts/metre/mile/kW.

Every transmitter had its personal constructing and it was meant that the third unit would accommodate an emergency engine generator. Nevertheless as this was not supplied initially, the constructing was used as a workers room and workplace. The Engineer answerable for this set up was Frank Sharp, and the Divisional Engineer for installations was Mick Corridor who took a eager curiosity within the proceedings and was current for the flood and the commissioning.

This system line from Brisbane in these days was open wire and the bandwidth was 5.5 kc/s. No native studio was supplied in Mackay till some years later.

Program transmission started at 6.55 PM on Thursday 18 January 1951 and the official ceremony was held within the Mackay Masonic Corridor at 8.15 PM, and relayed to interstate networks.

The Mackay “Each day Mercury” reported the motion in its challenge of 19 January.

A recorded speech by the Postmaster Basic H. L. Anthony was performed to 100 friends. The native member C. W. Davidson additionally spoke. Senator I. Wooden extolled the virtues of the native industrial station 4MK which had been the mainstay of broadcasting in Mackay for therefore lengthy. Nevertheless the stability was restored by Claud Faragher, the Director of Posts and Telegraphs, Queensland, who praised the work of the Radio set up workforce who constructed 4QA.

The ABC was represented by the Chairman R. J. Boyer, Eric Sholl the Queensland supervisor, this system director J. P. Wallis and the announcer Graham Webster.

Hilda Woolmer performed two piano items and soprano Joan Pascoe, Florence Pollock mezzo and Peter Lettice tenor, entertained.

And so one other empty area within the nationwide radio protection map of Queensland was crammed in.

The everlasting upkeep workers who took over after the opening have been George Marshall OIC, Ian McManus, Invoice Beason and Bob Moffat, technicians.

The station was totally staffed for the following 20 years. When Marshall left for 2CR Cumnock in 1956, he was succeeded by Don Oliver. Between 1961 and 1969 Ern Venables was in cost and the final OIC was Keith Byrnes. Of the unique technicians solely Bob Moffat remained at 4QA till his retirement, when everlasting staffing ceased.

In 1971, station supervision was within the arms of workers on the close by Mount Oscar Radio communications centre, who used a Telscan management system for surveillance. When the Broadcasting Directorate was fashioned inside Telecom, a broadcast service centre was arrange at Mackay with Arthur Nayler in cost, and the operation of 4QA reverted to Broadcasting Department management in 1986.

However, again to the early days.

In September 1952 the station service space was measured by George Barr of the Radio Laboratory, who assisted Doug Sanderson with the willpower of the aerial effectivity.

Preliminary sketches for the everlasting constructing have been begun in 1950 and revised in 1951. An estimate was ready in 1952 however even by 1954 the plans have been nonetheless beneath assessment. It was not till Could 1957 {that a} contract to construct was let to D. Pratt of Wooden Road, Mackay and the work was accomplished early in 1958.

A fourth storage kind constructing was erected by Premier Builders of Mackay in 1956 to accommodate the primary emergency engine generator which was put in in March 1957. It was a 25 kVA Hodson and Gault 3-phase alternator pushed by a Ford V8 petrol engine.

The contract for the station’s fundamental aerial was let to Johns and Waygood in early 1955. Some metal was delivered to the positioning in September 1956 however rain prevented a begin.

Check bores and soil exams had been made on the placement of the mast by Fred Percy and Greg Grant in 1954. Water was current not far beneath the floor and this made concrete anchor block set up troublesome. Pumps have been required. Bearing exams on the soil have been finished utilizing a 500 gallon water tank mounted on a lever system to allow the specified exams hundreds to be utilized.

An area contractor beneath J. and W. supervision started on the concrete work in October 1956 and regardless of rain, all concrete was full by December. 1957 was a moist yr and the mast erection didn’t start till October. It was full on 17 November 1957.

The brand new mast was 170 toes excessive, a metal triangular lattice of 6 ft. aspect, guyed at 135 ft. with a six arm 50 ft. diameter capability high. The mounting block was 6 ft. excessive to keep away from floodwaters.

The earth mat was standard, 120 copper wire radials 547 toes lengthy. It was put in by contractors, Redhead Bros. of Mackay.

Because the transmitters had an output impedance of 100 Ohms, a 9 wire unbalanced transmission line was constructed. There have been 5 earthed wires and Four lively wires with a single picket crossarm and traditional phone kind insulators on every pole of the road. This had a attribute impedance of 103 Ohms.

The aerial coupling field was additionally mounted above flood degree, or so it was thought on the time. (It had subsequently to be raised even greater within the flood of 1977). The coupling unit was a easy L-C kind to match the road to the 16.Four Ohm aerial.

Brian Robinson was the engineer answerable for the aerial commissioning and the removing of the 2 transmitters from the storage buildings into their new dwelling in 1958-59. He was assisted by technician Maurie Palmer in Could 1959 in checking the brand new enlarged service space ensuing from the upper effectivity of the brand new aerial. The coastal strip was coated from Bowen within the north right down to Flaggy Rock within the south and inland up the Pioneer River so far as Netherdale on the foot of the Eungella Vary.

Some concern had been expressed on the odd form of the radiation sample and this was investigated by Ralph Bongers and Doug Sanderson in September 1960. It was discovered to be because of the unique pipe mast appearing as a parasitic radiator and the impact was eradicated by disconnecting the coupling unit from the mast.

The relatively naked sandy ridge on which the station was constructed was regularly improved by the planting of cypress pines and coconut palms. These latter got here from Coconut Avenue at outdated 4QN, Clevedon and have been planted by Ian McManus.

Due to the frequent and generally very long time immersion of the man anchor blocks, the metal started to indicate indicators of significant corrosion and to alleviate this, the concrete was constructed up in order that the protruding anchor metal could be above regular water degree. New anchor metal was constructed into the prolonged blocks and the blokes have been shortened. This work was finished by the Radio linestaff in June 1966 and in November Johns and Waygood despatched their Mr. Carlson to regulate the man tensions. The mast was guyed in three instructions, at one degree solely.

The anchor block most steadily affected by swamp water finally confirmed appreciable erosion of the concrete at floor degree and repairs have been obligatory in 1986.

In 1967 plans have been ready for a brand new engine room and this brick constructing was accomplished by the tip of the following yr. A brand new 6 cylinder Lister diesel driving a 35 kVA Dunlite alternator kind LADMF was put in by technical workers Ron Harris, Les Nauman and Jeff Laidlaw. It was commissioned by engineer Neil Howard. The outdated engine was offered by PMG Provide Department in 1970.

About this time there was a common transfer to exchange mercury vapour diode rectifiers with silicon diodes and the 872 and 5U4G mercury items have been retired in August 1967.

The subsequent main modified occurred in 1970 when this system enter tools was changed, the brand new gadgets being put in in what had been till then, the workplace of the officer in cost. On the identical time the station was ready for unattended operation. Gear to permit supervision and management from the Mackay Radiocommunications Centre at Mount Oscar was put in. It was a system referred to as “Telscan” made by Electrical Management and Engineering.

Everlasting workers have been withdrawn from 4QA and by 1971 the station was unattended with management and upkeep as required, exercised from Mount Oscar, the headquarters of the Radiocom workers in Mackay.

In Could 1972 the working frequency was modified from 720 to 760 kc/s, the retuning being effected by Mount Oscar workers. The subsequent change, to 756 kc/s was made in November 1978 when Australia modified to 9 kc/s service spacing.

About this time, city water was linked to the station however to not the residence. Rain water tanks and a bore had sufficed as much as that point, however as tanks and bore had deteriorated it was financial to vary to city provide. Varied Telecom workers rented the residence till early 1976 after which it lay idle. In Could 1980 the Postal and Telecommunications Division agreed that it was now not required, and in November 1981 it was offered for removing to H. Ryan of Mackay. Solely the concrete base stays at the moment of what was in its time, a really enticing two storey nation residence.

Investigations of the native drainage have been carried out at varied instances however little or no could be finished to minimise the gathering of water on the property. For the reason that station was constructed, nice native modifications have taken place, with the constructing of a sugar storage terminal between 4QA and the ocean, and the filling in of adjoining low mendacity land for industrial use.

In 1979 a slim strip of the positioning fronting the Slade Level Street was transferred to the State to permit a brand new railway line to be constructed between the economic space and the rail siding of Erakala.

Lightning broken the outdated coaxial cable to the standby aerial in Could 1983 and it was changed with 50 Ohm Andrews LD5-50, a transfer which necessitated the rematching of the mast and the transmitter output feed to the standby. Senior technical officer Chris Russell and engineer Kent Lechmere attended to this.

Early within the lifetime of the station, a transmitter kind AMT 150 and a receiver have been put in to kind a part of the PMG Division’s emergency community. This technique was able to working to Brisbane and had aerials for five, 9 and 12 Mc/s. It remained in use till the station grew to become unattended in 1971.

Because of fears that floods within the Pioneer River may someday injury the cables by which the 4QA program was carried, a VHF transmitter within the 160 Mc/s band was put in to attach the native studio in Mackay to the transmitter. It doesn’t appear that it was ever required and it was eliminated a number of years in the past.

In 1986 station upkeep was taken over from the Mount Oscar Radiocom workers by the newly fashioned Mackay Broadcasting Service Centre with Arthur Nayler as officer in cost.

4GM  Gympie[edit]

In 1867 James Nash found gold beside the Mary River at a spot referred to as Gympie. It proved to be an exceedingly wealthy goldfield. The floor materials first discovered had been shed from reefs of quartz and the mining of those saved the sphere lively for over 50 years.

One of many reef mining areas was at Monkland within the hills on the southern outskirts of Gympie and it was right here that 4GM was in-built 1951. An outdated partly crammed and coated in shaft on the property is at the moment a reminder of the hectic days of the gold rush, and a few corroded Chinese language money cash as soon as discovered on the positioning, a sign that Chinese language miners have been at Gympie within the early days, as they have been on most goldfields. Immediately the one ore crushers are within the Monkland mining museum and the world is residential and light-weight industrial.

The primary documentary proof {that a} radio station was being thought of for Gympie is a PMG Central Workplace drawing of an estimated service space for a station. This drawing CN392 of 29 August 1945 was amended to CF44 a number of years later and the unique specs have been erased. All that may now be seen is a faint observe {that a} T aerial was proposed. A faint outer discipline energy contour for 0.5 millivolts per metre would point out that both a low frequency or a excessive energy was contemplated. Neither have been to eventuate, the station lastly being 200 Watts on 1540 kc/s. [SD16]

In November 1945 the Director Basic PMG Division, instructed Queensland workers to pick a website and steered that one south of city would greatest serve the small railway communities within the space. Brisbane workplace engineering workers inspected the district and early in 1946 requested the Property and Survey part of the Division of the Inside to inquire into and worth a possible website. This was “Fairview” on the nook of Noosa Street and Fairview Road, Monkland, a small property owned by the Misses Cahill.

The property was on Fairview Hill at an elevation of 280 toes and its space was 9 1/Four acres. It constituted Portion 136 of Gympie Parish within the County of March. The world was largely overgrown aside from an space across the homeowners’ dwelling fronting Noosa Street. The home was estimated to be about 60 years outdated at the moment.

The property was on the market and negotiations continued till late 1949 when the acquisition was gazetted. The gazette famous that the land was now Commonwealth Authorities property to a depth of 1,500 toes, presumably to safeguard in opposition to a doable renewal of mining.

In October 1947 Ray Myler a surveyor of the PMG Drafting Part, Brisbane, contoured the positioning and Wes Halstead, Buildings Department Properties officer took check borings to find out basis circumstances.

The homeowners vacated the property in April 1950 however a yr elapsed earlier than any broadcast work started.

An area contractor constructed a small timber transmitter constructing and an emergency engine room and two AWA 200 Watt transmitters kind 2J51316 serial no.s 10 and 11 have been put in with a 25 kVA single section 240 Volt Dunlite alternator pushed by a Ford V8 petrol engine.

Standard excessive degree anode modulation was used within the transmitters with a pair of 828 pentodes modulating an 810 triode. The excessive stress rectifiers have been initially 872A mercury vapour however have been changed lately by stable state diode stacks.

The 120 toes excessive metal lattice guyed mast aerial was erected by the Deeco Metal Development Firm of Granville, NSW, who had a contract for the availability and erection of comparable kind masts at Lithgow and Port Lincoln.

The earth mat for the radiating system consisted of 120 copper wires laid radially, every 257 toes lengthy, buried 6 inches within the floor and spaced at Three levels in azimuth. On the working frequency of 1540 kc/s this was a radial size of 0.Four wavelengths. As the bottom was very rocky in locations, the 6 inch depth was a considerably arbitrary determine!

The RF output from the transmitters was conveyed to the aerial through a 200 Ohm impedance 6 wire line. The aerial coupling unit was an L-C community mounted in a weatherproof copper field. Each coupling field and aerial have been enclosed by a picket picket fence.

Duncan Russell-Corridor put in the transmission line and the earth mat and Les Nauman was answerable for the engine set up.

It was meant that the transmitters would function as fundamental and standby with computerized change over on failure. Because the station was to be staffed solely a part of every day, a really complete management system devised by engineer Ed Powe, was put in which may very well be operated from the Gympie phone trade. The overall association was to workers the station by one man throughout the morning and one other in late afternoon and night leaving the center of the day unstaffed.

The set up proceeded throughout the first half of 1951 and the station was able to go on air in August.

A check broadcast of recorded music was performed on the night of 13 August and the official opening passed off from the Gympie City Corridor on Friday 17 August at 7.15 PM.

The opening was carried out by the Postmaster Basic, H. L. Anthony in a recorded speech. This was adopted by addresses from the ABC chairman R. J. Boyer and the Federal member for Fisher, C. F. Adermann. Different speeches throughout the proceedings have been the Mayor, Alderman R. N. Witham, the appearing Director Queensland PMG Division L. A. Morrison and E. Ok. Sholl the ABC Queensland supervisor.

80 Gympie residents have been among the many invited friends, and leisure was supplied by native artists and the choir of the Gympie Musical Union.

At the moment Vern Kenna was Divisional Engineer Radio Installations and Frank Sharp was the Group Engineer answerable for the set up. Technical workers concerned with the set up and testing included Ian Byrnes, Bob Prepare dinner, Cec Plastow, Leo Moloney, Bob Britnell, Jack Barden, Ken Stratton and Don Brownlie. Don was left answerable for the station instantly after the opening.

The primary OIC of the brand new station was Max Francis who took up residence together with his household in the home on the property later within the yr. His technician was Ernie Foster and each males continued to function the shifts till mid 1964 when staffing preparations have been diverse. Francis moved to Mount Goonaneman T.V. station and Foster joined the Gympie Phone Alternate workers. Supervising Technician Ralph Tinney of the trade grew to become answerable for station operation. From then on, 4GM was maintained by Alternate workers who visited the station periodically for exams and common housekeeping. Tinney moved into the residence in January 1965 and lived there for a number of years.

A discipline energy survey to find out the service space of the station was made by George Barr and Doug Sanderson in Could 1952 and in March 1953 the determine of benefit of the aerial was measured by Maurie Palmer and Sanderson. By this time the working frequency had been modified to 1570 kc/s. The determine of benefit was decided as 188 mV/m per mile per kilowatt, near the anticipated worth.

Because the years handed it was discovered that in good seasons there was an unmanageable development of grass and in 1956 the primary grazing lease was negotiated with a Mr Betts for a 5 yr time period. The rest of the positioning fencing was accomplished right now. Grazing was continued with a Mr Simpson taking the lease from 1960 to 1975. Since then there have been no affords to graze cattle and Gympie Alternate workers organize mechanical grass reducing when wanted.

With the institution of the Gympie airport, 4GM’s mast was thought of to be a doable hazard and in 1960 it was painted in the usual white and orange color bands.

Technically the 60’s handed uneventfully, the one modifications being the availability of exhaust followers within the engine room to maintain the warmth down, and the removing of the outdated storage and the constructing of a brand new one.

After 20 years operation varied tools replacements and additions have been made. In August 1971 a number of of the unique STC tools racks have been changed by Barry Neilson and Gerry Vanderhoven and within the following yr a tape participant was put in to exchange the disk machine initially supplied when the station was staffed. 4QS Dalby has at all times been obtainable as a supply of program to be used when the Brisbane line fails, utilizing a hard and fast tuned receiver, however the tape machine was a helpful again up and may very well be operated remotely. In the identical yr the outdated picket picket fence around the mast and coupling field was changed by Morton Welding and Brokers for Nambour with a sequence wire construction.

The large occasion of 1972 was the alternative of the outdated petrol electrical emergency generator with a brand new Three cylinder air cooled Lister diesel driving a 15 kVA Dunlite Three section alternator. On the time it was hoped to extend the ability of 4GM to 2 kW, therefore the massive generator. This got here to nothing and no energy change has been made, 4GM remaining at 200 Watts.

The next yr the outdated unique management desk was changed by a brand new emergency program console, the set up being made by Jeff Laidlaw and Gerry Vanderhoven. Additionally in 1973 {the electrical} wiring of the transmitter constructing was renewed and a brand new switchboard put in by Pringle Electrics of Gympie.

Minor modifications to the supervisory system have been made in 1975 by Doug Frith and Chris Howard. In the identical yr an extended wanted emergency mild was put in within the engine room.

A minor frequency change occurred in November 1978 from 1570 to 1566 kc/s. This was because of the 9 kc/s Australian service frequency spacing plan. The brand new oscillator items have been put in and the transmitter tuning adjusted by native Alternate workers.

In 1978 approval was given for a phone pole storage rack for Gympie Telecom Traces to be constructed on the positioning and this was finished behind the engine room. Telecom used the positioning once more the next yr when a Main Works social gathering was working within the district on a big cable job. Some caravans for workers use occupied the positioning and the empty residence was used as an workplace.

It was apparent about that point that the outdated residence was of no additional use and because it was normally unoccupied it was advisable that it’s eliminated. Consequently in 1980 the Division of Communications gave approval for its disposal and sooner or later it was offered to Caloundra Demolishers and eliminated in 1983.

The transmitters underwent a serious overhaul in 1981 when Ian McManus and Ian Bielenberg utterly rewired each items. The transmitters have been by then 30 years outdated. They’re at current in good working order and are able to the identical efficiency as after they have been commissioned in 1951.

This station was supplied to serve the town of Gympie and its rapid environment and it’s nonetheless performing this responsibility. The native inhabitants has not diverse significantly and the sign of about 30 mV/m over the constructed up space remains to be fairly sufficient. There have been rumours at instances of a brand new station of upper energy nearer to the coast however nothing constructive is understood on the time of writing. Definitely an improved nationwide sign is required within the Maroochy – Noosa coastal area, however this can be handled by different means. The current sign in Gympie have to be maintained and it’s unlikely {that a} medium frequency transmitter serving the coastal strip would additionally serve Gympie.

The way forward for 4GM because it now could be, appears assured for a while but, though the age of the transmitters should restrict their life expectancy.

4SO – Southport[edit]

4SO is located adjoining to Peerless Avenue, Mermaid Seaside, within the coronary heart of the Gold Coast. It’s only some hundred yards from the seashore and contains a 5 acre block of pure Gold Coast sand.

Discussions in 1950 between the PMG Division and the Australian Broadcasting Management Board resulted in a choice to ascertain a station within the Southport space, and the Director Basic instructed Queensland PMG workers in October of that yr to arrange plans for a station.

Website survey work was carried out in November and December 1950 by Doug Sanderson and George Barr utilizing a 150 Watt transmitter mounted in a left hand drive struggle surplus GMC van. Automobiles of this kind had been used as cellular broadcasting stations throughout the struggle, and the Federal transmitter kind BC325-Eight was able to operation within the medium and excessive frequency bands. Whereas stationary, the van engine may very well be coupled to a generator which equipped energy to the transmitter. A tubular pipe 45 toes excessive was used as an aerial along side a easy earth system laid on the floor. The check frequency was 1530 kc/s. 4 websites have been examined, three close to the coast and one inland in direction of Nerang. The hinterland right here is relatively low mendacity and flood degree inquiries have been made. The positioning lastly chosen was flood free and greatest served the coastal strip the place a lot of the residential areas have been concentrated.

The station proposal was for 200 Watts on a frequency of 1590 kc/s and an space of 5 acres was required. The land was half State Authorities Scenic Reserve, and half owned by the Roman Catholic church. Negotiations for buy started in 1951 and the acquisition appeared within the Commonwealth Gazette on 28 February 1952. The deal with was Peerless Avenue, Mermaid Seaside.

Pegging of the positioning for the assorted installations was finished by Fred Percy of the Drafting Part, assisted by Neil Howard of the Broadcast Part.

The Commonwealth Division of Works and Housing ready plans for a small picket transmitter constructing with a separate emergency engine room, and a contractor named Stubbs started work late in 1951. The principle constructing was accomplished and tools set up begun in Could 1952.

Inside electrical work was finished by contract and the Metropolis Electrical Mild Firm ran in a single section mains connection.

As the positioning when cleared was largely naked sand it was determined to erect the mast first and defer the laying of the earth mat till some grass cowl had been established. It was feared that the regular coastal winds would rapidly erode the naked floor, so grass seed and soil high dressing was utilized.

The radiator was designed by Clyde Manuel of PMG Brisbane Drafting Part and was a 6 inch diameter metal pipe in screwed lengths, 107 toes excessive. The assembled mast was laid out on short-term helps and all guys and lifting deal with connected. A picket pole 30 toes lengthy was used as a pivoted jury and the mast was winched upright. It was guyed at 4 ranges in 4 instructions.

The primary units of man wires have been changed in 1959 as a result of heavy rusting and this second set lasted till 1967 when plastic coated wire was put in. This was not very efficient and because the situation of the wire contained in the plastic coating couldn’t be ascertained, plain wire guys have been fitted in 1976 and are nonetheless in affordable situation. On the working frequency this mast was 0.18 wavelengths lengthy and had a base resistance of 18 Ohms. No plane obstruction lighting was required however the mast has been painted white to minimise corrosion from the salt spray from the seashore. To help in inspection and upkeep, pole steps have been fitted some years later.

The earth mat was standard, 120 radial copper wires, 255 toes lengthy which was 0.Four wavelengths on the working frequency.

The RF transmission line was a buried coaxial cable of 75 Ohm impedance however of unknown kind. It was changed in 1960 by a 51 Ohm coaxial cable kind PT81M. A spare was laid on the identical time.

Coupling between the cable and the mast was by L-C community housed in a copper field on the base of the mast.

Duncan Russell-Corridor was answerable for the erection of the aerial, the laying of the earth mat and the set up of the armoured feeder cable from the transmitter constructing to the mast.

In contrast to 4GM Gympie, this station was designed to function routinely when not staffed and the design of the mandatory management circuitry was finished by Eddie Powe, an engineer of the Radio Set up workers. The set up work on website was supervised by Invoice Graham-Wilson who had the companies of Les Nauman, John Talty, Alec Barron, Jim Plunkett and Maurie Palmer. The Divisional Engineer responsibie for the mission was Vern Kenna.

On the Brisbane Royal Nationwide Assn. present, the “Ekka” of 1952, the PMG radio show[SD17]  featured the brand new Southport station. Every year at that interval, the PMG a part of the ABC exhibition studio was dedicated to some topical work at the moment beneath set up. Massive pictures depicted workers engaged on workplace design, discipline survey, set up and testing and a scale mannequin was constructed to indicate the structure of the positioning with aerial, earth mat and buildings. The Brisbane Drafting Part was answerable for the paintings of the show.

The engine generator put in by Les Nauman and Duncan Russell-Corridor was a Studebaker straight Eight petrol engine driving a Three section, 415 Volt, 15 kVA generator. This was a lot bigger than was wanted for the station, however the set had grow to be obtainable from the metropolitan studios at Alice Road, having been changed there by a diesel engine. A 1000 gallon water tank was positioned adjoining to the engine room to offer cooling water for the engine. It was saved full with a float valve faucet linked to the city water mains. This was wonderful till a extreme drought in 1953 precipitated the native council to severely ration water. As a safeguard, a spear with pump was put in by a neighborhood contractor, T. M. Pidgeon, and a very good provide of contemporary water obtained.

All was now prepared and 4SO went on air on 11 October 1952.

The completed constructing was fairly enticing, low set and resembling different homes within the space, with a sealed drive-in flanked with flower backyard beds. 1′

The 2 200 Watt Philips transmitters kind 1648 serial numbers 101 and 102 stood within the centre of a spacious transmitter corridor, and in an adjoining room was the management desk and the audio and distant management racks. A glass panel afforded a view of the transmitters from the management desk.

The transmitters have been standard with a single stage anode modulated closing utilizing a QB3/300 tetrode. These valves are used within the push pull modulator as properly. All different levels, each RF and AF, use the beam energy 6V6G tetrode. The excessive stress rectifiers have been 866 mercury vapour initially, however have been changed with stable state diode assemblies.

Though the station was designed for unattended operation, it was for the primary eleven years of its existence beneath the each day care of a senior technician. Trainee technicians usually frolicked there as properly. The officers who had cost of 4SO in that point have been:

1952 – 53               Errol Sutter

1953 – 54               Ken Stratton

1955 – 56               Chris Jeffrey

1956                      Ron Buglar

1957 – 58               Keith Smith

1958 – 63               Gerry Elliott

After this, the station grew to become totally unattended, receiving fault and upkeep consideration from the workers of the Southport Phone Alternate and extra lately from the Surfers Paradise Alternate. Technical workers from the State Broadcasting Department Brisbane now go to 4SO quarterly for a full scale overhaul as properly.

The service space of the brand new station and the effectivity of the aerial system have been decided shortly after the opening by George Barr and Doug Sanderson. As a result of very poor conductivity of the sandy website, the bottom losses have been excessive and as a consequence of the modest energy, brief aerial and excessive working frequency of 1590 kc/s, the service space was not very in depth. It did nevertheless, at the moment adequately cowl the city of Southport and the populated coastal strip extending right down to Coolangatta. Since these days, the inhabitants of the Gold Coast area has expanded north and south and inland in order that a lot of this new constructed up space is poorly served.

As time handed varied minor modifications have been made. In 1955 the engine room was prolonged to make a small retailer for bigger gadgets resembling garden mowers, hoses and many others.

In 1961 the outdated Studebaker was retired and a brand new Petter AVA2 diesel driving a 6 kVA single section Magnicon generator was put in. It was new, having been equipped on a 1958 contract. The cooling water tank was subsequently now not wanted, and when it grew to become rusty it was eliminated. The spear pump was likewise redundant and because the station grew to become unattended in 1963 the necessity for backyard and garden water was significantly lowered.

Throughout the 1960’s, a PMG Line Depot was established on the positioning however was eliminated in 1988. Massive portions of cable and conduit have been usually saved on the positioning when the Main Works Part had main works in progress on the Gold Coast. The power was referred to as the Mermaid Seaside Main Works Depot.

There was a neighborhood proposal in 1969 to make use of a recovered STC 2 kW transmitter from Adelaide at 4SO, however no approval was obtained and the work didn’t proceed.

With the Australia large change to 9 kc/s service spacing, the frequency of 4SO was modified in November 1978 to 1593 kc/s. A brand new crystal oscillator was all that was required with minor retuning within the RF levels and the aerial coupling unit.

Due to its age, this system enter and management tools was modified now and again and finally it was determined to exchange it utterly. To this finish a simplified rack of apparatus was put in in 1984 as a short lived measure, however earlier than the alternative of the outdated racks was begun, it grew to become know that main modifications to 4SO have been being contemplated. A survey of all Commonwealth Authorities property was taken and the worth of the 4SO website was acknowledged. The Division of Communications thought of a brand new website within the Merrimac space however the potential for changing the station with an F.M. service transmitting from Mount Tamborine was additionally doubtless. Varied works such because the renewal of the constructing roof have been deferred as was the alternative of the audio tools.

Finally, in 1987, the choice to shut 4SO was made, and a website for an FM transmitter was sought on the Beachmont [SD18] Plateau overlooking your complete Gold Coast.

4MI – Mount Isa[edit]

The rising mining city of Mt. Isa had by 1958 a inhabitants approaching 15,000 however radio reception was nearly non existent. The closest stations within the medium frequency band have been 4QL and 4LG at Longreach, 350 miles away. Few folks have been conscious of, or listened to the Brisbane brief wave stations VLQ9 and VLM4, in order that there was appreciable curiosity within the announcement that the Postmaster Basic had authorized a station for Mt. Isa in January 1958.

The Queensland Radio Part of the PMG Division was suggested of the minister’s determination and requested to pick an appropriate website for the proposed station which was to have an aerial energy of 200 Watts, and function on a frequency of 1080 kc/s.

Frank Sharp an engineer of the Radio Part and Stan McLennan a properties officer of the Buildings Department went to Mt. Isa in March 1958 to search for websites, and got here again with six doubtless spots marked on their map. As with all websites, consideration needed to be given to entry, energy and water provide, proximity of air fields, the extent of the radio protection required and the topography of the world.

On account of this choice survey in March 1958, one website was advisable and after clearance by the Division of Air and Civil Aviation, was authorized by the Australian Broadcasting Management Board in February 1959. The decision signal 4MI was additionally allotted at the moment.

Because the native mining firm had plans to develop an space referred to as the Northern leases just a few miles north of Mt. Isa, and because the station energy was small, a compromise was obligatory in order that the positioning would serve the residents of the proposed new space was properly as the present city.

The positioning chosen was adjoining to the Lake Moondarra Street, some Three miles north of the city. It had an space of simply over 34 acres and was Crown land, a part of Occupation Lease 434. The floor was flat with just a few low shrubs and a few spinifex.

By April 1959, the Queensland Lands Administration Board had given “permissive occupancy” so website work may start.

PMG Drafting Part surveyor Ray Myler pegged out the positioning and measured contours.

Tenders have been invited in June for the constructing however none have been acquired. Ok. D. Morris and Sons of South Brisbane have been then invited to cite and sooner or later obtained a contract to assemble a transmitter constructing and an influence room for the emergency engine generator. The buildings have been obtainable for the set up of apparatus in April 1960 and in that month the land acquisition was listed in Commonwealth Gazette No. 28 of 21 April 1960. The land was described as portion 33, parish Haslingden, county Rochedale.

A contract had been let with Commonwealth Electronics for 200 Watt transmitters, however when it grew to become doubtless that supply could be delayed, preparations have been made to switch two Philips kind 1648 transmitters from Armidale the place they have been awaiting set up. Some thought had been given to utilizing the 200 Watt Tasmas recovered from 4QL Longreach, however in the long run this was not obligatory. The 2 Philips transmitters have been just like these put in at 4SO Southport and bore serial numbers 111 and 112.

The transmitters have been acquired in Brisbane in Could and examined on the Perry park set up depot.

The valve lineup of the Philips transmitters was 6V6GTs oscillator, buffer and RF driver, with a QB3/300 triode as an RF closing stage. The audio chain was push pull with 6V6GTs within the 1st amplifier and driver, and a pair of QB3/300s within the modulator. The principle excessive stress rectifiers have been 866A mercury vapour, however as a result of excessive working temperatures, these have been later modified to xenon crammed 2G/402A rectifiers. Some years later, 1974, the QB3/300 valves have been modified to Eimac 4/125A which have been discovered to have an extended life. The xenon rectifiers have been subsequently changed with silicon diodes for larger reliability.

Permission to put in an aerial as much as 140 toes excessive had been granted by the Aviation authorities, supplied it was painted orange and white. No lighting was required. It was determined then {that a} metal pipe radiator could be financial and plans for this have been drawn within the Brisbane workplace of the Drafting Part. Set up engineer Ron Tolmie organized for the pipe to be sizzling dip galvanized inside and outside, and it was taken to Mt. Isa and erected by the falling jury technique by Radio Part linestaff beneath the supervision of Duncan Russell-Corridor. One copper

bonding wire was used from high to backside. Pole steps at 1 foot spacing have been connected to the mast. The earth system comprised 120 radials every 210 toes lengthy of 200 lb copper wire.

An emergency engine generator set, a Lister 12.5 kVA, single section, was put in, and served the station for a few years. Nevertheless in 1974, in expectation of a station energy enhance, a brand new Lister 35 kVA, Three section with Dunlite generator was put in by Buildings Department. By this time there have been different transmitters within the constructing for the Mt. Isa to Macarthur River excessive frequency radio phone circuits, however the hoped for Nationwide transmitter energy enhance didn’t eventuate.

The station was designed to be unattended and though usually computerized in operation, alarm and standing info was required on the Mt. Isa Phone Alternate. In lots of respects the system was just like that beforehand constructed into 4SO Southport.

In Could electrical energy was linked to the constructing and tools set up started. Senior technician Ken Lund was in cost with the help of Bernie Bischa, Don Olsen and Trevor Linton. The engineer related to the design was Brian Robinson.

Program line provision was in hand, and the regional program was to come back through Townsville utilizing service channels of the J12 open wire system. Col Crick rearranged the community switching tools within the ABC’s Townsville studios to present a separate outlet for 4MI if required.

The station was examined out and prepared for service in July 1960 and the official opening was on Monday the 11th at a ceremony in Mt. Isa’s Henderson corridor.

The Chairman of the ABC Sir Richard Boyer launched the member for Kennedy, Mr. W. J. Riordan who opened the station. Additionally current have been Mr. D. Felsman ABC Supervisor for Queensland, Mr. E. C. A. Brown Director Posts and Telegraphs Queensland, Mr. Alex Inch, and Mt. Isa Mines Basic supervisor Mr. J. W. Foots.

For the primary two years the station was staffed by a Senior Technician on day shift solely. Geoff Backnell .stayed till September 1960 and was adopted by Bob Whelan. In April 1961, John Holland took over and in August 1962, upkeep of the station grew to become the accountability of the OIC Mt. Isa Phone Alternate. Workers visited the station for changes or faults solely.

In July 1971 the accountability for the operation of 4MI was transferred to the Mt. Isa Radiocom centre which had been established following the development of the Townsville to Mt. Isa microwave phone route. By this time additionally it was doable to acquire a program circuit of 19 kc/s bandwidth over the brand new route. The earlier circuit was of seven kc/s bandwidth from Towsnville to Cloncurry on the J12 service, however was degraded between Cloncurry and Mt. Isa by way of a 5.6 kc/s bodily circuit.

Within the days of open wire strains it was not unusual for this system to be of poor high quality or not obtainable as a result of line faults. To cowl such eventualities, excessive frequency radio receivers have been equipped at 4MI, and rhombic aerials directed in direction of Brisbane enabled to brief wave stations VLQ9 or VLM4 to be acquired. If the standard was acceptable, this system may very well be rebroadcast. Later, tape recorders have been used in order that recorded music may very well be broadcast throughout program line failures. Workers to find out the standard taped music was immediately obtainable and may very well be linked routinely.

The common annual rainfall at Mt. Isa is barely 15 inches and initially three 2000 gallon tanks have been equipped to catch roof water. Nevertheless quickly after opening, city water was linked to the positioning and when later the tanks have been eliminated as a result of corrosion and injury by shotgun blasts, they weren’t changed.

Regardless of the excessive temperatures within the constructing, the tools carried out properly, however in 1976 an improve of this system enter tools was undertaken by Jeff Laidlaw and Bob Hudson. Little or no work has been obligatory on the transmitters.

As a result of sparse and erratic nature of grass development within the district, upkeep of the positioning has not been an issue. Some shrub regrowth has been eliminated sometimes and an off-the-cuff settlement has permitted just a few horses to graze at instances. No formal grazing leases have ever been let for this website.

In 1976 the aerial circuit was checked for tuning and required solely a really small adjustment to the loading coil to revive unique circumstances. The dummy aerial hundreds have been additionally checked and located to be unchanged since set up. Queensland Engineering Report QB296 describes the exams.

The RF transmission line is buried coaxial cable, kind PT81M with a attribute impedance of 50 Ohms. No issues have been recorded with this line, in order that the spare cable, supplied initially, has by no means been required.

500 Watt single sideband transmitters working within the 3, 5 and 9 Mc/s bands have been put in as a part of a radio phone system giving the Mt. Isa Mine communication with its distant mining website of Macarthur River within the Northern Territory. 4 100 toes lattice metal masts have been erected to hold the transmitting and receiving aerials for this service. The impact of those masts on the polar sample of 4MI has not been checked.

The upkeep accountability for 4MI by way of periodic main inspections and changes now resided on the Broadcast Service Centre at Townsville, with native Telecom Mt. Isa workers obtainable for emergency repairs.

4QD – Emerald[edit]

Following a go to to Central Queensland in March 1959 by Noel Medlin, an engineer of the Australian Broadcasting Management Board, the Minister authorized the proposal to put in a 50 kW transmitter within the Emerald district. An earlier A.B.C.B. proposal to function the Emerald station at 2 kW, synchronized with 4RK Rockhampton and with a directional aerial, was not additional thought of.

It had been decided that atmospheric noise ranges have been much less extreme on the excessive frequency finish of the medium frequency band than on the low frequency finish therefore the frequency authorized for Emerald was 1550 kc/s. This was additionally a transparent channel, and it was hoped that the relatively giant skywave sign produced at evening could be utilized by listeners in different elements of the State the place reception was usually poor. The first goal of the brand new station was to serve Springsure, Emerald, Clermont and Blair Athol. At the moment no coal mining cities to the north east had been established so the deliberate preparations gave the impression to be sufficient for the district.

In September 1961 the Engineer in Chief requested {that a} website be chosen for the Emerald station and in July 1962, Ed Kennewell, an engineer of the Brisbane Radio Part, organized a check transmission from a website 4 miles north of Emerald. He used a modified AT14 transmitter giving 365 Watts right into a 50 toes excessive pipe mast with just a few brief earth radials. Discipline strengths have been measured at a number of locations alongside the radial roads from Emerald and the positioning location gave the impression to be passable. The check was made on 1580 kc/s.

Workers on the survey have been Ralph Bongers, Bruce Ziebell and two trainees. The proposed website was on grazing land on a property referred to as “Emerald Downs”. A number of areas within the neighborhood have been appropriate though a part of one could have been topic to occasional flooding from Retreat Creek as a result of again up water from the Nogoa River.

The property homeowners have been Robert Robertson and Ian Murray and negotiations have been begun with them by the Division of the Inside.

The Departments of Air and Civil Aviation have been approached and no objections have been raised to the proposed mast. In June, Doug Sanderson of the Radio Part with Invoice Latham of the Constructing Department went to test the websites, and two surveyors from the Drafting Part, Nichols and Healy took website contours and earth auger exams. Three toes depth of black soil was discovered to cowl the positioning.

Progress in direction of website acquisition was gradual and as a safeguard, Sanderson and a Constructing Department Properties Officer Wes Halstead, went to Emerald in December 1963 to search for an alternate website. An appropriate space was discovered just a few miles west of Emerald adjoining to the freeway, however as settlement on the “Emerald Downs” property was reached early in 1964, no additional curiosity in different doable websites was wanted. The acquisition of the “Emerald Downs” website was famous in Commonwealth Gazette 19 of 11 March 1965 and the switch was settled in March 1967.

Tenders for the transmitter constructing have been referred to as in April 1964 and the profitable tenderer was T. F. Woollam and Son of Newmarket, Brisbane. The constructing was accepted from the builder in July 1965.

A contract for a residence was let in November 1964 to Rossiter and Craft, builders of Longreach.

The transmitters chosen for this station have been obtained on contract from STC of Sydney. The 50 kW 4SU-38J serial quantity 69896 was examined and accepted on the manufacturing facility in November 1964 and shipped to Brisbane on the Burns Philp vessel “Bulolo”. The standby transmitter, a 10 kW 4SU-48A serial quantity 70131 was accepted in Could 1965.

A contract for the principle radiator was organized with Electrical Energy Transmission (EPT) of Sydney in Could 1964. The mast was to be 310 toes excessive, sectioned at 163 toes above base. EPT have been behind of their mast manufacturing nevertheless, and a brand new mast was obtained from the Utility Tower Firm of the USA. It was a sort 340 and arrived in November 1965. The brokers have been the Collins Radio Co. of Melbourne, who organized for the mast to be erected by M. A. Michael of Perth and this was finished on the finish of the yr. This contractor additionally poured the mast basis and man anchor blocks, and samples have been examined by Foremost Roads Division, Rockhampton.

The usual kind earth mat of 200 lb per mile exhausting drawn cooper was laid by the Radio Part line workers with Ray Beutel in cost. A tractor to drag the wire plough was lent by the PMG’s Rockhampton Engineer Division. The work was finished in July 1965.

The principle mast transmission line was coaxial cable, Andrews HJ8-50A, buried in a trench from the transmitter constructing to the aerial tuning hut. A trenching machine employed from the Emerald Shire Council was used.

Coupling tools within the hut was obtained from STC.

The mast base block was sheeted with copper which was prolonged out about 7 toes from the bottom underground and linked to the earth radials. Measurements confirmed an enchancment in determine of benefit from 248 with no sheeting to 254 with the ultimate association.

The measured impedance on the aerial present meter within the coupling hut was 150 – j290 Ohms. This was the worth with the mast operated as a half-wave construction with the part insulator brief circuited.

Roadworks across the station and to the mast have been the accountability of the Emerald Shire Council.

Because it was desired to attain the utmost doable fading radius and be certain that Blair Athol was not subjected to unacceptable evening fading, a design for a centre fed mast was proposed. An excessive amount of work was finished on strategies of feeding energy to the mast on the part level and particulars of elements have been finalized. It was hoped that centre feeding would decrease the excessive angle radiation at all times current with a base fed radiator, and so scale back the downcoming skywave within the outer areas of the service space 60 to 70 miles from the station. Though the bottom conductivity was good within the Emerald space, the excessive frequency used, 1550 kc/s, precluded a big discipline energy on this outer space. The skywave in fact, is unbiased of floor conductivity and a few fading was anticipated.

With the delay in manufacturing skilled by EPT and stress for an early opening, the chance was taken to cancel the mast contract and purchase a really skinny radiator from abroad. As the present distribution on a skinny mast was anticipated to be considerably just like that designed for the centre-fed thicker EPT mast, it was determined to make use of standard base feeding of the brand new mast and this was finished with the part insulator short-circuited, and the mast working at {an electrical} peak of 0.53 wavelengths.

Studies on the proposed centre feeding have been ready by Don Gray, Engineer of Broadcasting H.Q. Melbourne.

The transmitters have been taken to Emerald by PMG transport in July 1965 and unloaded by a crane employed from the Emerald Farmers’ Centre. The Supervising Technician Bernie Bischa was on website to oversee, however common set up work didn’t start till the start of September. Brian Robinson, Engineer of the Brisbane Radio Set up Division was in cost and Lindsey Birch was the Divisional Engineer at the moment. A lot workplace planning and sketching was finished by Invoice Graham-Wilson, Senior Technician. Otto Burmester was the workplace Supervising Technician.

Workers putting in at Emerald included the next: B. M. Bischa, R. J. Beutel, B. J. Clancy, C. N. Goff, F. A. Heritage, J. N. King, W. J. Krebs, R. P. Lacey, A. F. O’Brien, B. W. Pickers, L. P. Rennick, B. E. Robinson, Ok. D. Steiner and V. Suosaari. It had initially been proposed to make use of 200 Ohm 6 wire transmission strains, however when it was determined to make use of 50 Ohm coaxial cable it grew to become obligatory to change the output impedance of the transmitters. Accordingly A. G. Rolph from STC got here to Emerald and fitted the mandatory elements to attain the change. This was in mid December 1965.

The valve complement of the 50 kW transmitter was crystal oscillator 6V6G, isolator 6V6G, first buffer two 807 in parallel, second buffer 3C/150A, driver 3J/192E, energy amp three 3J/261E in parallel. The 9,000 Volt excessive stress provide used six mercury vapour diodes kind 2V/561E.

The audio part was push pull: 807, 3C/150A, 3J/192E and 3J/261E modulator.

The valve rectifiers have been subsequently changed by banks of silicon diodes and in October 1983 the modulator was modified to triodes TBL12/25 as these have been lighter, cheaper and of a present make. The ability amplifier was additionally transformed. The 10 kW unit had a transistor outfitted crystal pushed exciter with solely two levels of valves within the RF line. The driving force was a tetrode 4/250A and the ability amp a parallel pair of triodes, Three x 2500A3. The 4,800 Volt excessive stress rectifier consisted of silicon diodes. The audio aspect was push pull, starting with transistors 2N915, adopted by two levels of 4/250A and at last the modulator Three x 2500A3.

The 50 kW unit was just like these put in at 4QN and 4QR. At Emerald for a while after happening air, bother was skilled with occasional arc-over within the energy amplifier valves and corona rings have been fitted. Opinions differed as to the supply of the difficulty, some believing {that a} defective batch of valves was the probably trigger. Nevertheless, stray arcing from closing anode to earth has occurred many instances since then, even after the 3J/261E valves have been changed by TBL12/25s.

In January 1966, Bischa left the service and was changed on the set up workforce by Jim Plunkett.

Opening date was set for the 4th February and at 6 AM the station started utilizing the ABC Regional program. The official opening was relayed that night with speeches by the Postmaster Basic, Alan Hulme; the Federal member for Kennedy, W. J. Riordan; the Emerald Shire Chairman, R. C. Morton and the chairman of the ABC, Dr. J. R. Dowling.

The pleasure of constructing and opening a brand new station was brief lived. At 7.41 AM on the 10th February the bottom insulator of the mast failed, caught fireplace and 4QD went off the air.

When the smouldering fragments of the insulator had been extinguished the station OIC Frank Nolan, assisted by responsibility technician Rennick and trainee Ryan, ran out 1 / 4 wavelength of copper wire for an emergency aerial. Plunkett’s set up workforce, who have been nonetheless on the station for minor ending, arrived for work and the emergency wire was suspended between a receiving aerial pole and the nook of the principle tuning hut. After matching, it was doable to run the 10 kW transmitter into this at lowered energy by 11.40 AM. The sign was only some millivolts per meter in Emerald however 4QD was again on air.

At this stage, the standby radiator had not been erected so a windup Hills tower was taken from Brisbane by truck and erected 200 toes north of the station buildings. On 12th February, this was wound as much as 100 toes and fitted with six 50 toes lengthy high loading wires. Fifteen copper wire radials have been laid out every 100 toes lengthy and a easy coupling community was fitted in a small metallic field. A size of outdated armoured coaxial cable had been positioned in Brisbane and this was used as a 50 Ohm transmission line. As its score was not recognized, the ability of the standby transmitter was restricted to three kW. With this low output, the motive force for the ability amplifier was very sad and its anode ran purple sizzling.

Assessments confirmed the system to be inside tolerance so it was put to air at 6 AM on 13th February. Doug Sanderson flew to Emerald to oversee this emergency radiator work. See Queensland Engineering Report QB216.

The standby aerial set up progressed and it was prepared by the tip of the month. On 2 March the principle radiator had been restored utilizing spare epoxy insulators and went into service once more at 10 kW solely as a precaution.

The sequence of occasions throughout the failure shouldn’t be recognized. Whichever insulator collapsed first, the mast, (or its high part) would have fallen vertically about 12 inches, and the jar would have damaged the remaining insulator. Because it was, the highest part of the mast narrowly missed whole collapse as, after its part insulator disappeared, it grew to become caught in opposition to the highest of the decrease mast part and remained on this precarious place. Some tough work with a pump and hydraulic ram was essential to allow a alternative insulator to be inserted at this part level. The decision of the PMG Analysis laboratories was that the epoxy materials of the insulators was not a great medium for this goal, though it had presumably been in use abroad and was equipped with the mast.

Each epoxy insulators have been changed later within the yr with standard porcelain varieties and no bother has been skilled since. Energy restored at this stage to 50 kW.

In an endeavour to find out the benefit of working such a skinny mast at varied electrical heights, a collection of measurements was deliberate, to look at fading at varied distances. It was proposed to check the sign from the principle mast with that from the brief standby working on an in depth frequency of 1625 kc/s.

The standby was a 72 toes excessive, 10 inch triangular cross part Deeco mast with high loading wires, and it was assumed that because the vertical radiation sample of a brief mast is well-known, it will give a reference customary on the fading check factors in opposition to which the principle mast may very well be judged. {The electrical} peak of the principle mast was diverse throughout the exams by adjusting the inductance of a loading coil inserted on the part level.

Tony O’Brien was concerned with the fading measurements and the adjustment of the principle mast. The work was finished throughout 1967.

The outcomes have been inconclusive, random skywave reflections being acquired from evening to nighttime. The issue gave the impression to be the dearth of uniformity within the ionospheric reflection zones, and no helpful knowledge resulted from the exams. The mast was to have been checked for fading when fitted for feeding on the part level additionally, however this was by no means finished though a base inductor was constructed. The mast has remained in service as an unloaded 0.53 wavelength radiator with the part insulator brief circuited.

One other catastrophe struck the station at the start of 1967 when the tuning stub of the standby mast was destroyed, apparently by overheating. The standby had been high loaded with “umbrella” wires to current a parallel enter resistance of 50 Ohms to match the feeder and to allow the unfavorable reactance to be cancelled with a brief circuit stub of coaxial cable. The issue inflicting the injury was by no means solved because the stub present was apparently properly throughout the cable rankings. Nevertheless the mast was rematched with a standard L-C community and has given no additional bother.

At set up, the stations’ water provide was from roof catchment and was held in tanks. The station being totally staffed and with the will to beautify the environment with shrubs, grass and flowers, it was quickly evident that pure assortment of water was going to be insufficient. City water at Emerald was a bit too far-off and a bore on the property was determined upon. This was drilled in early 1969 and a very good provide of 400 gallons per hour was obtained at 425 toes It was relatively alkaline and never appropriate for ingesting however was sufficient for different home functions.

This water provide was augmented in 1983 by connection to a fundamental which had been constructed alongside the freeway by the Dampier Mining Firm. It was referred to as the Gregory Coal Mine Pipeline and was equipped from the Selma Weir on the Nogoa River, managed by the Queensland Water Assets Fee. The station is equipped with an emergency engine generator of 60 kVA capability. A Rolls Royce SF65 “Falcon” diesel drives a Petbow 3-phase alternator. This plant will run the 10 kW standby transmitter however not the 50 kW.

With the Australia large change to 9 kc/s service spacing within the medium frequency band, 4QD was moved from 1550 to 1548 kc/s in November 1978.

4QD has been staffed since opening and the OIC’s have been Frank Nolan 1966, Keith Byrnes 1966-68, Ern Venables 1969-78, Don Clark 1978, John Siganto 1979-84 and Jeff Cirson 1985. The station is now half attended solely, as an output of the Rockhampton Broadcast Service Centre the place Cirson is the officer in cost.

4QO – Eidsvold[edit]

The opening of 4QB at Pialba in 1948 supplied some restricted enchancment to the inland areas between Monto and Gayndah, though nothing approaching half a millivolt per meter was obtained. The sign at Gayndah was simply over 300 microvolts, whereas Monto was measured at barely 100.

On account of an investigation of reception circumstances on this space by Noel Medlin, an engineer of the Australian Broadcasting Management Board, in 1959, a choice was made to ascertain a 10 kW transmitter, and the final space half means between Monto and Eidsvold was steered.

In 1961 the Board steered {that a} website at Abercorn south of Monto ought to be investigated and in mid 1962 transmission exams have been constructed from the Langley Flats space close to Abercorn. The check transmitter was organized by engineer Ed Kenneweli who was assisted by technical officer Ralph Bongers. On this expedition, exams have been additionally carried out at Mundubbera and Eidsvold.

After consideration of the outcomes, the A.B.C.B. determined that the ultimate website ought to be at Eidsvold and so in September 1962 Kennewell and a Buildings Properties officer A. J. Ryan interviewed homeowners of doubtless websites within the space and made some suggestions. On the identical time the Departments of Air and Civil Aviation have been suggested of the intention to construct a doable tall mast.

Block No. 831 owned by Mrs. M. Hartwig was chosen and negotiations to purchase it have been begun in January 1963. Additional transmission exams have been required by the A.B.C.B. and in April a modified AT14 transmitter able to working at 350 Watts right into a 100 toes excessive wind up metal mast was ready by engineer Des Fulton and operated from Eidsvold by Bruce Ziebell and Des Erbacher. Doug Sanderson supervised the sphere operation.

Discipline energy surveys have been then made by Noel Medlin of the A.B.C.B., Peter Kelleher, engineer of the PMG Brisbane Radio Laboratory and technicians in coaching Harry Weatherhead and L. Foran. The transmitter was mounted in a big motor van and pushed by a 1-1/2 kVA diesel alternator. This transmitter used a parallel pair of 813 tetrodes in its energy amplifier.

Later within the yr Ray Myler of the Brisbane Drafting Part took contours of the positioning and the Buildings Department made check bores.

Consideration was being given to the technique of offering program to this station, which was to function in synchronism with 4QB Pialba. Audio phasing was essential to minimise distortion within the equal sign energy zone and it was thought {that a} VHF radio hyperlink between Pialba and Eidsvold may be efficient. A common survey of doable paths was undertaken by Sanderson, Wightman and Bacon (of Central Workplace) however no path profiles have been ready. Within the occasion, land strains from Maryborough to Eidsvold have been used. The required delay and equalizing tools was designed by the Central Workplace Analysis Labs and measurements have been manufactured from line traits by Subocz, Craig and Wilcox.

In Could 1964 a contract for the development of the brick transmitter constructing was let to P. J. Bryant of Gayndah and in December the residence contract was organized with A. N. Jensen of Maryborough. Each buildings have been accomplished about June 1965 though entry for the set up workers was obtainable in April.

The principle radiator was 450 toes excessive with six high loading spokes every 35 toes lengthy. This gave an efficient peak of 0.53 wavelengths at 910 kc/s. It was erected by Electrical Energy Transmission Pty Ltd and accomplished in August 1965.

On the identical time a standby mast 102 toes excessive was put in. It was made by Deeco Constructions of Lidcombe, NSW.

Ray Beutel and his Radio Traces workforce laid the earth mats for the aerials, 120 radials of 200 lb wire in every case, 540 and 350 toes lengthy respectively. Two customary 6 wire 200 Ohm transmission strains have been additionally put in.

Tractors to be used in laying the earth wires have been employed from native homeowners A. Shultz and R. Drinkwater. The principle mast was wired for obstruction lighting however this has by no means been required.

The supervising technician for the set up workforce was Bernie Bischa, assisted by Tony O’Brien, Ken Self, Brian Clancy and Des Allen. Engineering supervision was by John Searle.

The transmitters put in have been a pair of STC 5 kW kind 4SU/55B/S with a combining unit kind 4SU 74B. These have been just like these at 4QB Pialba being put in on the identical time.

A 30 kVA diesel electrical plant was put in within the engine room which was a part of the principle constructing. A Lister HAG diesel drove an Electrical Development Firm Three section 415 Volt alternator kind RF17-KG5. It was wired for computerized begin up on mains failure, however because the station load was in extra of the generator score, one transmitter solely, was linked to the emergency provide.

The unique gasoline tank was buried, however through the years it grew to become corroded and leaky and in 1977 this 500 gallon tank was changed by a brand new 250 gallon unit, mounted at floor degree simply exterior the engine room. For cover, a brick enclosure was constructed round it.

The station was prepared for operation in November 1965 and a few check transmissions and discipline measurements have been made with the transmitters on 920 kc/s. This was obligatory as 4QB was working on 910 kc/s and the service areas have been overlapping.

The delay and equalization tools for this system feed was put in at 4QB and closing changes have been made on account of listening exams by Lindsay Birch, Noel Medlin and Kev McKerral of Central Workplace within the Biggenden and Dallarnil areas, as right here the indicators from 4QO and 4QB have been about equal energy.

The station RF oscillators have been adjusted to offer one beat each 90 seconds, though this was not a crucial determine. To test this, exams have been made at Mount Goonaneman TV station every Sunday and if required, minor frequency changes have been made at Pialba to revive the connection. A receiver with a chart recorder giving indications of the AVC voltage produced by the composite sign from each stations was used to indicate the frequency distinction.

4QO went on air with ABC Regional Program on 29 November 1965.

The primary OIC of the station was Russ Dahl who watched over its first yr of operation. He was adopted on the finish of 1966 by Invoice Beeson who stayed till he retired from the service in 1979. Mark Little and Ned Kerr crammed in for a time till John Musa took over in 1980. On 1 April 1983 the workers have been withdrawn and 4QO grew to become unattended. Technical workers on the Mundubbera Phone Alternate took over supervision of the station at this stage.

A full discipline energy survey of the mixed stations was made in October 1966 by Radio Part workers and that is documented in Queensland Engineering Report QB237 by Sanderson.

In November 1978 the frequency of 4QO and 4QB was moved to 855 kc/s with no obvious change in protection or efficiency. No determine of benefit measurements have been manufactured from the 4QO aerial on the time of set up, however some restricted checks have been made in September 1979 by Sanderson and Bruce Williams which gave a determine of 248.

This synchronizing experiment has not been with out its issues. The steadiness of the station oscillators has been good, however through the years, modifications have occurred to this system feeds and the rigorously adjusted phasing has been disturbed, leading to elevated distortion within the equal sign zones. The unique open wire strains to Pialba have been finally changed by a cable service system and in time the Maryborough to Eidsvold strains have been dismantled and microwave broadband techniques put in. It thus proved inconceivable to keep up an optimum section relationship between the audio inputs to 4QB and 4QO, and a few reception deterioration has needed to be accepted within the Biggenden district. Solutions have been made for the set up of a low energy transmitter to serve Biggenden and extra lately the potential for an FM station at Mount Goonaneman TV website carrying the regional program utilized by 4QO. By the tip of 1987 no agency choices had but been made for improved reception within the overlapping main service areas of 4QB and 4QO.

4QW – St. George[edit]

The choice to construct a regional station at St. George was reached solely after appreciable discipline work in south west Queensland, designed to find a website greatest suited to serve the very giant space involved.

Through the years frequent complaints about poor reception within the south west a part of the State had been made by shire councils and members of graziers’ associations, and in December 1958, Noel Medlin, an engineer of the Australian Broadcasting Management Board went on a tour of investigation within the space. He interviewed many individuals, individually and at public conferences, and made measurements of discipline strengths, fading and noise on these transmissions, nevertheless poor, which have been usually utilized in these distant districts.

Because of heavy afternoon and night static steadily marring reception on the medium frequency band, some use was being manufactured from VLQ9 the Brisbane Nationwide Excessive Frequency Inland Service, however as few receivers have been tunable on decrease frequencies, the superior reception of VLM4 couldn’t be appreciated by most listeners.

After observing the state of affairs at Roma, Charleville, Quilpie, Cunnamulla, Bollon and St. George, Medlin got here to the conclusion {that a} 10 kW transmitter may most usefully be employed from a website close to Bollon. Nevertheless there have been different doubtless choices.

A while later, in April 1961, ministerial approval was given for a 10 kW station to function on 710 kc/s within the space, and a choice was required as to the very best website. Accordingly the PMG Division and the Management Board thought of exams which might give the reply.

At the moment the Australian Broadcasting Fee favoured Cunnamulla and the PMG (Queensland) believed St. George could be greatest. As 7NT Kelso in Tasmania additionally used 710 kc/s, a directional system was required and varied solutions have been made as to doable patterns of radiation. A Cunnamulla station would serve Quilpie and Charleville however not Roma and St. George. A rise in energy of 4QS Dalby to 50 kW was proposed. A St. George website would serve Roma however not Charleville and Quilpie in order that low energy transmitters could be required at these locations. In September 1961, the Board determined {that a} collection of propagation measurements ought to be constructed from check transmissions at St. George, Bollon and Cunnamulla in order that an engineering determination may very well be made.

A check transmitter was ready by Des Fulton, an engineer within the Radio Part, utilizing a modified AT14 transformed for 710 kc/s and with a excessive effectivity closing stage giving some 500 Watts of RF output.

This was put in in a GMC van which had been acquired from wartime disposals some years earlier than and was very appropriate for the aim, having an on board 110 Volt alternator pushed by the automobile engine.

A wind-up Hills Teletower 100 toes excessive was obtained and fitted with an inductance on the high with a 20 toes whip to achieve some further efficient peak. Within the discipline the mast was guyed with metal wire on the decrease part and nylon line on the higher ranges. An earth system of 12 radials every 300 toes lengthy was used at every website and the unattenuated E x D values have been measured to be 47 millivolts per metre at a mile from St. George and Bollon, and 60 at Cunnamulla. The latter website was on good black soil and clearly had decrease earth losses.

Two discipline events have been outfitted with RCA WX2D moveable discipline energy meters and with the transmitter successively arrange at St. George, Bollon and Cunnamulla, measurements have been revamped the entire S. W. space, from which floor conductivities may very well be decided.

The surveys have been carried out throughout October and November 1961 by Doug Sanderson, assisted by Trevor Linton and Bruce Zeibell technicians, and trainees T. Moore, R. Hobson and N. Bolton. Frank Sharp the Queensland A.B.C.B. engineer noticed the exams being constructed from St. George.

Outcomes of this survey have been introduced in Queensland Engineering Report QB141.

From these exams the choice to construct the station at St. George was lastly made by the Management Board in October 1962 and the PMG Division was requested to discover a appropriate website. Stan McLennan the assistant properties officer from PMG Queensland Buildings Department went with Doug Sanderson to St. George in December and three doubtless blocks inside just a few miles of city have been chosen. By March of the next yr the Board had determined to make use of one of many websites fronting the Moonie Freeway, a part of “Moolabah” a Perpetual Lease Choice No. 2069 owned by H. C. Kemp, some 6 miles north east of St. George. Particulars of the proposed websites got in Queensland Engineering Report, QB157.

Negotiations for acquisition have been carried out by the Division of the Inside throughout the latter a part of 1963, and permissive occupancy was obtained.

A contract was let with Electrical Energy Transmission for the erection of two metal lattice masts for the directional aerial system. They have been to be 680toes excessive with capability hats and so spaced and fed that the sample would have significantly lowered radiation within the route of 7NT Kelso. This might minimise the impact on 7NT reception which can in any other case have been degraded by the night-time skywave radiation from St. George. The sample being symmetrical, there was a corresponding null within the route of Dalby, however listeners in that route have been adequately catered for by 4QS.

The masts have been erected within the interval June to December 1965. Robin Bell of the Radio linestaff supervised concrete sampling, and testing of the cylinders was finished by the Foremost Roads Division in Brisbane. Previous to this, the positioning had been cleared by a neighborhood contractor, check borings made to help in mast basis design and the earth mats laid for fundamental and standby aerials. Duncan Russell-Corridor supervised this latter linework and Line Foreman Ray Beutel made the ultimate inspection of the finished fundamental masts. The standby mast was erected by radio workers.

The principle masts have been painted and lit to evolve with plane obstruction necessities, however the decrease peak standby didn’t require this and was left plain galvanized as equipped.

Six wire transmission strains of 200 Ohm impedance have been used. Energy dividing and phasing items have been housed within the first tuning hut and the output taken to the second tuning hut by a run of six wire line. The road to the standby mast was continued on previous the mast within the type of stub tuning.

The standby mast was a light-weight responsibility Deeco lattice metal construction, 120 toes excessive with inclined wire high loading adjusted to present the mast a parallel base resistive element of 200 Ohms. The reactive element was cancelled by the transmission line stub.

A contract was let to J. M. Kelly Constructions Pty Ltd of Toowoomba in June 1964 for the transmitter constructing, and to W. H. Kennedy of St. George for the official residence. The principle constructing was obtainable for set up of apparatus in March 1965 and the residence accomplished two months later. The OIC of the PMG putting in workers, Brian Reich, occupied the residence throughout the station set up.

The transmitting tools was equipped by STC on contract 28941 and comprised two 5 kW excessive degree anode modulated transmitters kind 4SU-55B/S, serials 66913 and 66915, with a combining unit kind 792SU-ID, serial 66292. The valve line up was oscillator 807, isolator 807, buffer 807, RF driver 4-125A, energy amp Three x 2500F3 triode. The audio aspect was push pull all through utilizing EF37A and 4-125A within the first two amplifiers, 4-125A within the cathode follower driver and a pair of three x 2500F3 within the modulator. The excessive stress rectifier was a silicon diode meeting.

Program enter tools racks have been assembled and wired within the set up depot at Perry Park.

On the time of set up, this system line was open wire through Roma and the station usually took the identical program as 4QS. The native Toowoomba studio was nevertheless, wired in order that St. George may very well be given a separate program if required. The bandwidth at the moment was 5 kc/s solely, however after the set up of the so referred to as “section seven” microwave tv bearer from Roma to St. George, a 10 kc/s channel grew to become obtainable on this bearer, and that is the current association. Some early morning fading happens on this route, however in any other case the reliability is excessive.

Initially aerials have been erected to obtain 4QS and the Brisbane excessive frequency VLM4 in case rebroadcast was wanted, as a result of regular line failure.

When transmitter energy grew to become obtainable in March 1966, Len Mor, an engineer of the Radio Part started the adjustment of the directional aerial system. As much as that point Brian Robinson had exercised engineering supervision of the set up and had written Queensland Engineering Report QB194 on the calculation of polar patterns such because the one required for the St. George array. The unique design was ready by Ken Endacott, an engineer of Central workplace. Mor’s report is QB250.

To help within the adjustment to the specified sample, in depth pegging was put in out to five miles and discipline energy readings taken to find out the impact of energy and section changes.

The proper sample was achieved and the station went on air at 6 AM on 7 April 1966.

The St. George newspaper “The Balonne Beacon” reported the opening briefly. A recording was performed at 6.15 PM throughout which the Federal member for Maranoa, W. J. Brimblecombe appearing on behalf of the Postmaster Basic Alan Hulme, declared the station open. The chairman of the ABC, Dr. J. R. Dowling additionally spoke.

Discover of the approaching opening had been positioned within the newspaper on 24 March. No editorial or different remark appeared in print regardless of the significance of the occasion.

The mast section and present sampling loops have been Collins kind 564A mounted properly up every mast within the neighborhood of a present most. Indications have been transferred by coaxial cables of equal size to a Nems Clarke section monitor within the first tuning hut.

The emergency engine generator put in by Les Nauman, was a Lister diesel kind HA6 with an Electrical Development Firm (Wolverhampton) brushless alternator kind RF17KG/5, Three section, 415 Volts, of 30 kVA score. The tools was equipped by McColl Electrical Works of Springvale, Victoria. An inside day tank and an exterior, underground 500 gallon tank have been put in for the diesel gasoline. The conventional electrical energy provide was from the N.S.W. grid. Because of corrosion and water entry, the underground gasoline tank was changed in 1975 by an elevated mannequin of the identical capability.

As the common annual rainfall at St. George is barely 20 inches, it was determined to offer an earth dam to gather floor water to enhance the roof catchment tanks. An excavation about 100 toes sq. was supplied and fenced however through the years it didn’t show very passable and the availability was finally boosted by the availability of a pump on the close by Balonne River with a pipeline to the dam.

As a result of muddy nature of the dam water, a filtration plant was put in in 1972, however the entire system was plagued with issues and when the station grew to become unattended in 1978 the necessity for this additional water provide diminished and preparations have been made to desert it.

It had initially been meant that the grazing licence would require the dam water for inventory, however this was by no means taken benefit of, though the fence was sometimes pushed in by cattle and sheep making an attempt to get on the water.

Aside from the freeway frontage, the 4QW website was by no means fenced and grazing rights have been held by H. C. Kemp and Mrs. Kemp till 1977. For the following 5 years rights have been held by B. Barr of St. George and since 1982 by C. J. Lindores.

The dam will little question maintain water intermittently in future, notably after rain, however it’s not required for 4QW use. Because of its being topped up with river water up to now, it helps a inhabitants of small fish and a species of freshwater Unio mussel. Water tortoises have been seen at instances and water fowl frequent the world.

After the station opened, the primary OIC was John McCulloch. In 1967 Claud Singleton got here for 3 years, adopted within the subsequent triennial by Invoice Smallegange. The final 5 years throughout which the station was staffed noticed Errol Black as officer in cost. By 1978 nevertheless, the technical workers had diminished as a result of transfers and finally solely Black remained, attending the station on day shift. Together with his resignation in August 1978, the times of everlasting workers at 4QW got here to an finish, and the oversight of the station was transferred to the OIC of the St. George phone trade, with Roma Radiocom workers answerable for periodic visits of inspection and testing.

The one important tools modifications at 4QW since its opening have been an upgrading of this system enter racks in 1984. Assessments on the radiated aerial patterns have proven no considerable change within the place or magnitude of the nulls. The 1978 frequency change from 710 to 711 kc/s was effected by a change of oscillator crystal solely, and no energy division or phasing changes have been made within the aerial circuits.

For the reason that residence was offered and eliminated in 1984, the water system has been reorganized, and storage for firefighting and washroom is now depending on roof catchment solely.

An attention-grabbing growth has been the development of nests beneath the constructing eaves by giant numbers of swallows, now undisturbed because of the absence of workers. The mud nests have been eliminated sometimes, however have been rebuilt subsequent season in order that it now appears pointless to attempt to hold the constructing clear.

Upkeep accountability for 4QW now lies with the Broadcast Service Centre based mostly at 4QS Dalby with Bob Horsley as OIC.

4HU – Hughenden[edit]

Earlier than the institution of the native ABC Regional transmitter, the railway and pastoral city of Hughenden had solely 4QL Longreach as a nationwide program supply. The daytime sign energy was 2.5 millivolts per metre, sufficient in winter, however being 180 miles from the transmitter, night-time reception was inevitably marred by skywave fading.

Approval to ascertain a station at Hughenden was given by the Minister of the day on 17 October 1969, and it was to function on 1570 kc/s into a brief aerial with an influence of 50 Watts.

Two STC stable state transmitters kind 4SU-85C, serial numbers 33099 and 33104 have been delivered in July 1971 on Contract 40194. They have been able to 130 Watts output however have been in the reduction of to 50 Watts for this set up.

Hughenden was a demodulating station on the Telecom Townsville to Mount Isa microwave trunk route, and on the positioning in McLaren Road a 250 toes self-supporting metal tower and microwave repeater constructing have been used for broadcast aerial assist and tools housing. The aerial was a single wire a couple of quarter wavelength lengthy, supported by the microwave tower on the higher finish, and secured at a small coupling field properly out from the bottom of the tower making the aerial 12° off vertical. A 50 Ohm coax ran again to the repeater constructing and the transmitter. Just a few copper wire radials have been laid on the floor.

Nationwide Regional program was obtained through open wire landline from Townsville as no demodulating tools was in use at Hughenden at the moment on the microwave route.

4HU opened on 1 October 1971, giving glorious service to the city and its surrounding homesteads.

Simply earlier than opening day, in depth exams have been made to find out what interference, if any, was being precipitated within the microwave bearers or to the 50 Watt LGT tv transmitter put in in the identical constructing and working on Channel 9. Whereas the printed service did trigger some measurable noise on some telephony channels it was not severe and no interference to the TV image was precipitated.

When the brand new phone trade constructing was constructed on the positioning it grew to become obligatory to maneuver the printed coupling unit, and Engineer Des Fulton devised a brand new aerial with its coupling field close to the bottom of the tower. This aerial system was a type of folded monopole utilizing the tower because the central earthed part. The enter part was of wires supported by standoff rod insulators up every leg of the tower.

Probably as a result of the tower was not bonded for RF, aerial tuning was unstable and frequent returning was obligatory. As equipped, the transmitters used closing stage semiconductors which had little margin to deal with the detuning brought on by aerial variations and lots of output transistors have been destroyed. STC nevertheless equipped new heavy responsibility Motorola Transistors and these have given significantly improved reliability.

This folded monopole proved to be an obstruction to lineman engaged on the tower, and as well as there have been frequent breaks of standoff insulators.

The monopole was deserted and a brand new aerial fitted just like the unique, 1 / 4 wavelength of 100 lb copper wire suspended from a timber beam on the tower with a small coupling field beside the radio constructing. Gordon Gilbert put in this new system.

This association functioned till Hughenden grew to become a demodulated centre and an computerized trade was put in. At this stage it was determined to maneuver 4HU to a different website.

A brand new website was chosen 3/Four mile distant from the microwave constructing, on the western fringe of city, reverse the hospital.

The Division of Administrative Companies started negotiations with the Flinders Shire in August 1978 and finalized the transaction in August 1980.

The positioning was small and gently sloping in direction of the west. It was sq. and 210 toes a aspect.

Linestaff beneath Duncan Russell-Corridor put in the aerial and earth mat on the finish of 1980 and with set up full, service started from the brand new location on 12 March 1981, on 1485 kc/s and 50 Watts, the frequency having been modified in November 1978.

The tools constructing was a small ARK hut on the concrete slab.

As a result of solely native service to Hughenden was required, excessive effectivity of aerial and earth system was not important and solely 30 earth radials have been put in with a mean size of about one eighth wavelength.

The aerial and man system was designed by Central Workplace Buildings and is of 5 inches diameter galvanized metal pipe, 86 toes excessive. It’s guyed in three instructions and 30 toes of every of the three high guys is linked to the aerial to behave as umbrella wire high loading.

The aerial is bodily one eighth of a wavelength, and a run of impedance throughout the printed band exhibits that the values are nearly an identical with a 6 inch diameter pipe aerial at 4SO Southport, 106 toes excessive. It seems then that the highest loading is equal to an additional 20 toes of peak.

A brief size of coaxial cable connects the transmitter to the aerial coupling field mounted on the within wall of the constructing behind the transmitters. The feed to the aerial goes by way of the wall from contained in the coupling field so there are not any uncovered RF feeders contained in the buildings. The aerial is kind of near the constructing and the feeder is a brief size of copper tube with two 5 inch diameter lightning choke turns. The aerial mast on the rear of the constructing is enclosed by a man-proof fence.

The aerial coupling is of the only coil kind, tapped for a line enter of 50 Ohms.

Aerial impedance is 4HU frequency is 13 -j73 ohms and regular aerial present is 1.9 Amps.

As operation in these days was not 24 hour, the station was began and stopped by a time clock.

Audio and service monitoring was carried out by a Racal receiver kind RA7913 on the phone trade, and after hours alarms have been prolonged from right here to the Townsville Radiocom centre at Yarrawonga. A peak lopping room airconditioner was put in to deal with the excessive Hughenden summer season temperatures, though the transmitters have been rated to 50°C.

An aerial determine of benefit and common discipline energy survey was carried out in October 1981 by Doug Sanderson assisted by Technician Invoice Syratt. (See QLD Engineering Report QB 443) The determine of benefit was 152 mV/mile/kw.

The sphere in Hughenden exterior the Publish Workplace was measured at 32 millivolts per metre, a worth properly in a position to present good day and evening service even in summer season to the 1,800 inhabitants.

The rolling downs and degree nation round Hughenden proved to have an excellent efficient conductivity. The 1 mV/metre contour was positioned 26 miles west of the city, a exceptional consequence with a transmitter energy of 50 Watts. The sphere energy contour map is drawing QK 6217.

First-in upkeep for 4HU at that stage was the accountability of the native phone trade workers with general supervision from the Mount Isa Radiocom depot. Nevertheless, because the institution of a Broadcast Division inside Telecom and particularly, a Broadcast Service Centre at Townsville, upkeep accountability is now vested on this latter growth.

It has been mentioned that with 4JK Julia Creek and 4QL Longreach each giving a discipline in Hughenden at about 2 mV/m there isn’t any want for 4HU, however this ignores the night-time fading from each stations and the requirement for a big sign to compete with summer season static. For the folks at Hughenden, 4HU is a necessary service.

4MS – Mossman[edit]

Till the institution of 4MS in 1973, Mossman and district have been with out an sufficient Nationwide service.

Listeners there, relied on indicators from 4AT Atherton and 4QN Brandon, neither of which exceeded 200 microvolts per metre. The transmitter at 4QY south of Cairns didn’t serve the Mossman space both.

In Could 1968 the Australian Broadcasting Management Board requested the PMG’s Division to conduct a discipline survey within the Mossman space with a view to number of a website for a station.

Accordingly John Crossingham, Engineer, assisted by technicians Brian Clancy and Tony O’Brien arrange a check transmitter within the space between Mossman and the coast in August 1968.

A windup Hills tower 115 toes excessive with some high loading wires was fed with 35 Watts of RF at 970 kc/s derived from a modified STC exciter unit. This was powered by a conveyable engine generator.

From the outcomes of the sphere energy readings taken, it was clear that this common space would function an appropriate everlasting transmitter website and a number of other doubtless blocks of land have been marked for investigation.

Land round Mossman is dedicated to sugar cane rising and all areas are strictly assigned for this goal. Consequently land gross sales aren’t frivolously made and properties change arms at excessive costs. Appropriate land for the proposed station was discovered, nevertheless, a part of a public tenting reserve beneath the management of the Douglas Shire Council. The Council had no objections, and an space of 28 acres was transferred from State to Commonwealth possession. The block was described as portion 347, parish Whyanbeel, county Solander. It was a part of reserve R44, adjoining to the Prepare dinner Freeway about Three miles north of Mossman.

The positioning was closely timbered and low mendacity in elements with acacia, melaleuca and eucalyptus timber predominating.

Negotiations with the Shire Council have been carried on by Lindsey Birch, Divisional Engineer Radio Set up, and Deegan, a properties officer of the Division of the Inside.

The survey of the required space was made in November 1970 by Division of the Inside surveyor P. Regnault.

In April 1971 permissive occupancy of the positioning was granted and closing settlement made in March 1972.

PMG Brisbane Drafting Part surveyor Ray Myler ran a contour survey of the block in February 1972 and located a number of areas beneath water. With an annual rainfall of some 92 inches, plainly the tenting reserve was not a great spot for tenting. Subsequent enhancements in drainage have minimised water issues nevertheless.

Ministerial approval for a 1 kW, 600 kc/s station with a 200 toes excessive aerial was given in October 1969 and two AWA 500 Watt transmitters have been ordered. These BTM-P5 transmitters, kind 1J61650 have been to function in parallel through a combiner kind 2J63736.

The valve complement of the BTM-P5 is: RF oscillator 6AK5, buffer 5763, driver 6146, closing amplifier a pair of 4‑250A in parallel. The audio chain is push pull, audio driver 2E26, modulator 4-250A. The excessive stress rectifier used a pair of 872A mercury vapour diodes.

The clearing of timber from the positioning was finished by the Douglas Shire Council after the moist season, in June 1972. Radio line workers then laid the earth mats and erected the principle and standby aerials.

A contract for the transmitter constructing was let to T. F. Woollam and Son, of Newmarket, Brisbane, and this was obtainable for tools set up in November 1972. The construction was of brick with a galvanized metal roof.

The principle aerial at 200 toes and the standby at 100 toes have been of comparable “Skillfast” triangular part metal lattice of two toes a aspect. Each have been high loaded with sloping “umbrella” wires. The earth mat was restricted to 120 wires 450 toes lengthy which was solely 0.28 wavelength on the 600 kc/s working frequency. Standard 6 wire transmission strains have been constructed to the small aluminium coupling huts at every aerial.

Presently the engineer answerable for 4MS was Neil Howard with Senior Technical officer Frank Nolan, and the sphere workers for the set up have been Brian Clancy, Jim Weeks and Gary Waite.

The emergency energy provide put in was a 15 kVA Three section Davey Dunlite alternator pushed by a Lister air cooled diesel.

4MS got here on air on 26 February 1973 and initially was staffed by day solely by Jim Weeks. Quickly nevertheless, Cutler Hamer lnterscan distant management tools was prepared and the station was managed by workers of the Cairns Radiocom Centre. Jeff Cass and Ken Howard finalized the set up of this tools.

A discipline strangth survey and determine of benefit measurement was made in August 1974 by technicians Bob Sanders and Gary Waite. It was discovered that the sugar cane lands of the Mossman district have been throughout the service space of the station though the closely forested ranges constituted severe screening for valleys within the Daintree area.

On 23 November 1978, 4MS modified frequency to 639 kc/s, the retuning being finished by workers of the Cairns Radiocom Centre.

Mossman has no ABC studio, this system being beneath the management of the Cairns studio which feeds Mossman, 4QY Cairns, 4WP Weipa, 4AT Atherton and 4TI Thursday Island with Regional program containing native Cairns content material.

Station upkeep is now solely the accountability of the Cairns Broadcast Service Centre.

4JK – Julia Creek[edit]

Though the Julia Creek district had been receiving affordable reception from 4QL Longreach because the opening of the Cramsie website in 1954, the world to the north extending to the Gulf was poorly served.

Accordingly the Australian Broadcasting Management Board requested the PMG Division to make a discipline energy survey based mostly on a Julia Creek website. Such a survey was arrange in September 1968 from a check website a mile west of the city.

A Hills windup mast 100 toes excessive was used along side a regionally constructed transmitter of 66 Watts output on 760 kc/s, and because of the glorious floor conductivity, measurements may very well be made as far afield as Mount Isa, Normanton, Croydon and Hughenden. Outcomes of the survey, carried out by engineer John Crossingham are given in Queensland Engineering Report QB 265.

From this info, the Board advisable to the Minister the institution of a station at Julia Creek, and this was authorized in October 1969. Early in 1970 the Board issued the technical specification which required the station to be of 10 kW score, with a two mast directional aerial system working on·570 kc/s. The sample was to be cardioid with the minimal in direction of the south east.

Some doubtless websites have been chosen by officers of the Queensland Radio Part and one was authorized by the Board in June, 1970. It was on leasehold land run by the Argyle Pastoral Firm and was described as Portion 43, Parish Hilton, County Eddington, and had a frontage to the principle street some 5 miles east of Julia Creek. Permissive occupancy was granted in October 1971.

The positioning was 114 acres, flat and treeless, with heavy brown soil.

A contract for the masts was let to Ascom (Qld) Pty Ltd, and the positioning was surveyed and positions pegged by engineer Neil Howard of the Radio Part and H. W. Lestrange, surveyor from the Division of the Inside, in November 1971.

The contractor poured the mast base foundations and man anchor blocks earlier than Christmas and started the erection of the masts in Could 1972. The PMG consultant on website throughout these actions was Ok. Mansfield, Radio Part lineman. The masts have been painted orange and white bands and have been lit at evening for plane warning functions by a small 6 kVA generator briefly positioned on the base of 1 mast.

On completion in June, the masts have been checked for verticality by Terry Holmes, PMG draftsman.

The masts have been 640 toes excessive, spaced 432 toes aside on a bearing of 345 levels. A spoked capability “hat” of 70 toes diameter loaded the masts to an efficient peak of simply over half a wavelength. Man insulators have been made by Nilsen Porcelains (Aust) and the bottom insulators by Osaka Togyo Kaisha Ltd of Japan.

All concrete samples have been examined by the Foremost Roads Division depot at Cloncurry.

The subcontractor for the set up of the mast lighting wiring and fittings was Norris Electrical Pty Ltd of Townsville.

In October 1972, linestaff laid the earth mats and contracts have been positioned for the constructing and the emergency engine generator.

The principle constructing and the 2 aerial tuning huts have been constructed by J. Scott Pty Ltd of Rocklea, Queensland, and entry to those was obtainable by Could 1973. They have been brick with sheet metal roofs. Because the station was to be unattended, no residence was wanted.

The transmitters have been equipped by STC Sydney and two 5 kW items have been used, kind 4SU-105F, with a combiner kind 792SU-3F, giving 10 kW into the 200 Ohm line of normal 6 wire development.

The RF exciter in these transmitters was transistorised, solely the motive force and closing being valves. The driving force was a 4/125A triode and the ultimate a 3CX2500F3 triode. Within the audio aspect the primary amplifier used two 2N915 transistors, the second a pushpull pair of 4/125A triodes, the modulator driver a pushpull pair of 4/125A triodes, and the modulator a pair of 3CX2500F3 triodes. The excessive stress provide used silicon diode rectifiers.

Energy splitting and phasing tools was put in within the first tuning hut and the output for the second mast was conveyed by a connecting size of 6 wire transmission line.

The adjustment of the principle directional aerial system was made by engineers Paul Chippendale and Dave Ellis and reported in Queensland Engineering Studies QB290 and QB291.

Different aerials erected on the positioning have been two receiving rhombics for VLQ and VLM excessive frequency transmissions which may very well be used for emergency rebroadcast, and a 4JK standby mast. · This was 202 toes excessive and high loaded with sloping umbrella wires. These aerials have been put in by Radio Part linestaff.

The emergency engine generator was equipped by Pye Industrial Gross sales (Davey Dunlite Division) of Adelaide and comprised a Lister HRS6, 1500 rpm, 80 hp supercharged diesel driving a Three section, 45 kVA Dunlite alternator.

An “lsgus” time clock was supplied to begin and cease the transmitter each day. Set up workers at Julia Creek have been Barry Nielsen, technical officer, with technicians Jeff Laidlaw and Geoff Maconachie. Engineering supervision was by Neil Howard with Lindsey Birch as Divisional Engineer.

After the station opened at 6 am on Tuesday, 31 July 1973, technician Gerard Vanderhoven was employed as day shift upkeep man for the following two months. In direction of the tip of the yr Cutler Hammer telesignalling tools was put in at 4JK and the Townsville Radiocom Centre at Yarrawonga, to offer alarm and management amenities. Technical workers concerned in these works have been Jeff Cass, Ken Howard, Robin Kilgour, Garry Waite and T. Mix.

The native Telecom technical workers of Julia Creek have been appointed to the “first in” upkeep accountability, with the Radiocom workers at Mount Isa coping with main issues. Throughout the day the alarms have been prolonged to Mount Isa and at evening to Yarrawonga, the Townsville Radiocom centre.

In early 1976 some modifications have been made to the supervisory tools at Townsville, Julia Creek and Mount Isa and the workers concerned from the Brisbane Radio Part have been Doug Frith, Bob Perkins, Bob Hudson and Jeff Laidlaw.

4JK shared the frequency of 570 kc/s with 2BH Damaged Hill and 2YA Wellington, New Zealand. In November 1978 the frequency was modified to 567 kc/s when many modifications have been made to accommodate the brand new 9 kc/s service spacing plan.

The principal issues at 4JK have been environmental. Shortly after opening it was discovered that the constructing was not proof in opposition to the entry of a neighborhood insect generally known as a “gidgee bug”. Numerous 1000’s of those invaded the tools room and precipitated some transmitter outages. Improved screening quickly minimised the issue.

The excessive temperatures of the inland have additionally taken their toll of transmitter elements, regardless of the continued use of air conditioners in summer season.

4JK broadcasts the ABC Regional program. Initially program got here from Townsville to Mount Isa through the Telecom broadband microwave route and was despatched again to Julia Creek on an open wire service system. In 1983 tools grew to become obtainable to get better this system from the broadband tools at Julia Creek, and the earlier association was deserted.

Current accountability for the operation of 4JK is vested within the Broadcast Service Centre, Townsville, the place the officer in cost is Graham Stead.

4WP – Weipa[edit]

Till the institution of 4WP at Weipa, medium frequency broadcast reception was nearly non existent there. Radio Australia and a few inland excessive frequency companies of the ABC resembling VLQ, VLR and VLH may very well be acquired by these sufficiently , however the daytime broadcast band was lifeless. The opening of 4WP on 1 July 1975 was, subsequently, a welcome occasion for the folks of Weipa.

This city, about 150 miles south of Cape York on the west aspect of the peninsula was established by the corporate Commonwealth Aluminium Company Restricted (Comalco) for the aim of mining the aluminium mineral, bauxite. The inhabitants on the time of the constructing of 4WP was about 2,500.

Weipa as a possible broadcasting station website was first thought of round 1970 when it was anticipated that the Minister would approve its provision. It was thought {that a} small 50 Watt transmitter would in all probability be advisable, however no approval was given at the moment.

By the tip of 1971, the Australian Broadcasting Management Board was planning on a 100 Watt station on 1040 kc/s, however in September 1972 the ultimate plan appeared, for a 500 Watt transmitter.

Broadcasting Headquarters in Melbourne accordingly ordered two AWA 500 Watt transmitters, kind BTM-PS, for a fundamental and standby set up.

Dave Ellis, engineer of the Brisbane Radio Set up Part went to Weipa in January 1973 to debate websites with the Comalco folks, and chosen a 24 acre block a couple of mile from the city centre. It was portion 38 of Particular Bauxite Mining lease No.1.

Approval for the erection of a 150 toes excessive aerial was obtained from the Division of Civil Aviation, with the proviso that it’s lit and painted, being on the strategy path to the Weipa Airport. This utilized till 1982 when lighting was now not required. The Division of Companies and Property proceeded to barter the sale of the leased land to the Commonwealth.

In September 1973, Terry Houses from the Brisbane PMG Drafting Workplace surveyed the positioning and pegged out the positions for the aerial, the constructing and a receiving rhombic.

It was determined to make use of a transportable 1000 line phone trade kind constructing, and to suit it out as totally as doable in Brisbane. This was finished, with the 2 transmitters at one finish with this system tools, and a 15 kVA diesel generator set for emergency provide, on the different finish.

The constructing thus outfitted was taken on a low loader to Cairns with Ron Harris driving the escort automotive. From Cairns it glided by sea to Weipa, the place it was collected by Comalco workers with a crane and positioned on its stumps on the 4WP website.

Radio line workers had already erected the aerials and laid the earth mat and the 50 Ohm coaxial cables. Two cables have been laid and two an identical coupling items, equipped by AWA have been put in with a changeover swap.

The principle aerial was equipped by A. G. Miers Pty Restricted of Burwood, Victoria. This was of triangular part, 2 toes a aspect, and 152 toes excessive with 9 sloping high loading wires every 78 toes lengthy, at 45 levels. This gave a base impedance of 30 – j35 Ohms.

The earth mat was standard, 120 radials every 400 toes lengthy.

The coaxial cables have been Andrews HJ5-50.

A rhombic aerial for receiving the Brisbane excessive frequency station VLQ9 was supplied to acquire rebroadcast program within the occasion of a fundamental program line failure, however through the years it has not usually been of adequate high quality for such use. A tape recorder with ABC bulletins and music has largely been used throughout program line outages.

The station was put in at Weipa by Peter Werner, Jeff Maconachie and Gerry Vanderhoven with oversight by Ron Harris. Paul Chippendale gave engineering assist, and the aerial system was commissioned by Doug Sanderson.

The station went on air on 1 July 1975, with ABC regional program through the studio in Cairns.

A determine of benefit measurement and a discipline energy survey was made in August 1975 by Bob Sanders and Gary Waite, Radio Part technicians. The determine of benefit got here out as 189 millivolts per metre at one mile for one kilowatt and the service space proved to be restricted on this poor conductivity nation to a radius of about 15 miles. With nearly your complete inhabitants targeting Weipa, the service space is passable.

As 4WP was designed to function unattended with native supervision by the Weipa Phone Technician, a distant management and monitoring system was put in. It was a Cutler Hammer “lnterscan” with the Cairns finish on the Radiocom Centre. Closing set up of this tools was finished by Ron Harris and Ken Howard later in 1975.

Duty for the station now lies with the workers of the Cairns Broadcast Service Centre.

4TI – Thursday Island[edit]

Thursday Island, simply north of Cape York, was named by Captain Bligh in 1789. It’s a small, waterless, hilly island referred to as Waiben to the native Torres Strait Islanders, and T.I. to everybody.

Regardless of its small measurement and lack of everlasting water provides, it grew to become the chief settlement within the north, because the anchorage was protected. It was a daily port of name within the steamship period and the centre of actions within the pearling days. Immediately there are cultured pearls farms within the space, however the pearling luggers have gone.

There isn’t any airstrip on T.I. and travellers arrive on close by Horn Island and attain their vacation spot by bus to the wharf and ferry to the Thursday Island jetty.

Modern-day communication has been till lately UHF radio phone hyperlinks from Milman Hill on T.I. to Bamaga, the aboriginal group city close to Cape York, then by open wire telephony down the Peninsula. The route has now been modernised and there’s a Telecom broadband microwave facility all the way in which to Cairns.

Till the set up of 4TI, broadcast band reception at Thursday Island was nearly non existent. The closest station was 9PA Port Moresby, 350 miles away throughout the Coral sea. Radio Australia and the Brisbane H.F. Inland service on VLQ9 have been sole suppliers of radio information and never very top quality music. By the use of selection, the eager listener may tune to the brief wave companies from Port Moresby and Indonesia.

Background to Institution: As early as 1971 the then Australian Broadcasting Management Board proposed a 50 Watt broadcast transmitter for Thursday Island and revised the plan to 1,000 Watts in December 1971. Nevertheless, ministerial approval for the set up was not given on the time.

Little extra was heard till in early 1975 the A.B.C.B. suggested that it proposed to make use of a 2,000 Watt set up housed within the Abroad Telecommunication Fee constructing on Thursday Island, and to share the OTC lengthy wave vertical radiator. This determination introduced a direct response from OTC and Telecom – neither discovering something of benefit within the proposal. Nevertheless all engineering objections to the plan – remoteness of the positioning for professional upkeep, complexity and excessive price of apparatus required for sharing, risk of adverse cross modulation issues, full absence of engineering appraisal of other websites (e.g. Bamaga) – have been overruled and no additional dialogue or investigation was permitted. OTC finally authorized the operation in precept however reserved the suitable to reject the station if unresolvable issues persevered or have been found within the first six months of trial operation.

With this distinctive background, station planning started. Due to the bizarre nature of this set up, extra element is given in what follows than in different station chapters.

Provision of station: Ministerial approval was given in August 1976 however no funds have been obtainable from Treasury for the 1976/77 monetary yr.

In October 1977 a technical officer from the Cairns Radiocom Centre (Des Allen) went to Thursday Island and measured the OTC vertical radiator for base impedance at frequencies of curiosity. Later that month John Robertson Eng Class Three Central Workplace, Doug Sanderson Engineer Class Three Radio Part Brisbane, Alan Timmins State Engineer of Posts and Telecommunications Division Queensland, and Ray Beutel Line Inspector Radio Part Brisbane went to Thursday Island to look at the OTC amenities and to make some check transmissions utilizing a conveyable 100 Watt transmitter on 950 kc/s from the OTC vertical radiator. From the restricted discipline energy measurements made it was concluded that the radiator effectivity was passable. There’s appreciable high loading within the type of Four horizontal wires connected to this radiator, Different observations steered that there may very well be a necessity for wavetraps within the receivers on the OTC receiving website some half mile from the transmitters. The road inspector reported that some guys have been in want of alternative, some insulators chipped and the mast bonding corroded and in want of renewal. The OTC constructing confirmed proof of appreciable mud ingress from the adjoining unsealed island ring street and in view of this and the proximity of the ocean it was concluded that airconditioning could be important for the printed tools. The price of airconditioning the OTC constructing was deemed extreme and plans have been made for a sort 521 phone trade kind constructing to be airconditioned and used as a transmitter and program enter tools constructing.

Two STC 1 kW transmitters with combining unit initially meant for Kununurra, W.A. and supplied as Merchandise 25 of Contract 44953 have been transferred to Queensland and have been retuned to 1062 kc/s, the ultimate revised frequency for Thursday Island.

Varied gadgets of program enter tools equipped as merchandise 43 of the contract have been chosen the place applicable. Not one of the distant management tools was used.

It was agreed that emergency energy for the station could be obtainable from the OTC diesel engine generator set. As area within the 521 kind constructing was restricted, OTC agreed to the set up of a Three section mains regulator of their emergency engine room.

Engineering design and oversight of the mission in Queensland was by Doug Sanderson. Others engaged on the set up at varied instances have been Tony O’Brien, Barry Neilson, Dave Laing, Bob Perkins, Peter Curtis and Gerry Vanderhoven. Rod Thompson, Engineer Class 3, from Headquarters, supplied help with the coupling unit design and testing within the discipline, The 521 kind constructing made by Telecom within the Brisbane workshops was outfitted in Brisbane with the transmitters and program tools, and brought by low loader to Cairns. The remainder of the journey was by ship and the constructing was positioned on its concrete slab on the OTC website in March 1979.

As a precaution in opposition to RF heating and rectification, the interior aluminium wall sheeting was spot welded between adjoining sheets.

It had been agreed that the design of the coupling unit to allow operation into vertical radiator on 488.5, 500, 512 and 1062 kc/s could be undertaken by the Broadcast Development group in Central Workplace, Melbourne, and to facilitate this, one other collection of radiator impedances was made by the Cairns Radiocom Workers (Mike McGuire) in August 1978. The ultimate design of the coupling unit concerned quite a lot of giant RF inductors and their manufacture was undertaken by the Brisbane Telecom Workshops. Sundry ceramic and vacuum variable capacitors needed to be obtained from abroad. This coupling tools was mounted on benches in a sort 511 transportable trade constructing.

Settlement was reached that OTC may, if tools failures precipitated issues with OTC transmissions, take away the broadcasting tools from circuit. The OTC unique coupling tools cupboard was integrated within the new coupling constructing and solely required the operation of two knife switches to position it in circuit freed from the broadcasting tools. The nationwide transmitters would in fact be turned off on this state of affairs, however may in all probability function into an emergency aerial not related to the OTC mast.

The brand new coupling constructing was mounted on a concrete slab adjoining to the bottom of the OTC vertical radiator.

Operation of the conventional lengthy wave frequency altering controls on the OTC receiving station causes contactors to function within the coupling constructing, switching the suitable matching items into circuit.

Due to delays in receipt of elements for the coupling unit, it was determined by P and T Division to place the station to air utilizing a short lived radiator. A light-weight responsibility Hills tower 105 toes excessive was subsequently erected by the Radio strains workers close to the transmitter constructing and tuned for 1062 kc/s. Base enter impedance was measured as 26 ­ j260 Ohms. The resistive element was very excessive for a one eighth wavelength radiator however was little question because of the very poor earth mat used. OTC stipulated that their fundamental earth mat was not for use with the short-term NBS radiator, so six brief radial wires have been run out on the floor. The transmitters have been efficiently operated into this short-term system and started radiating the Nationwide Regional program on 18 June 1979.

Throughout the previous week check transmissions of music and requests for reception reviews have been broadcast throughout the day and for an hour within the evenings.

Program Line: On the time of opening 4TI, Brisbane program reached Cairns by standard microwave bearer circuits. From there to Bamaga about 500 miles of open wire line have been used with a program service. The Bamaga to Thursday Island hyperlink was by UHF radio, terminating on Milman Hill. Demodulated audio was obtainable right here and fed over cable through the trade to the OTC website.

Rebroadcast and emergency program: To cowl the occasional lengthy disruption of program which may very well be anticipated throughout every moist season, a reel to reel Teac tape recorder with 10 inch reels was equipped. This machine has reversal amenities and can play constantly with ABC recorded music and apology bulletins.

Two Crystal locked Racal 7915 receivers have been additionally supplied, working in parallel variety from two sloping V‑aerials organized for reception from the South. They have been fitted for reception of the Brisbane excessive frequency stations VLQ9 and VLM4, and the regional stations 4QN Brandon and 4QD Emerald.

On the transmitter a small working desk fitted with a gramophone turntable and a microphone was supplied in accordance with customary apply. It may very well be linked to the audio tools through a patch twine.

Design Philosophy: Due to the distant location (500 miles from the Cairns Radiocom Centre) and the restricted workers and tools at Thursday Island, each effort was made to simplify the circuitry.

The principle aerial coupling tools was properly engineered with top quality capacitors and heavy responsibility inductors. Two generously proportioned coaxial feeders have been supplied as fundamental and spare with easy knife swap changeover at every finish.

The transmitters are in parallel with a combiner. Both transmitter could be put to air away from the combiner by operation of a easy knife swap within the combiner cupboard.

Two heavy responsibility Sandhurst externally mounted air conditioners specifically designed for salty and humid atmospheres recirculated air within the transmitter constructing. The transmitter cooling air is recycled throughout the constructing, in order that little or no make up air is launched from exterior.

Two temperature sensors are mounted on the entrance face of this system enter tools rack. One operates when the room temperature reaches 90 levels F (on air conditioner failure) and sends an alarm to the trade. The second is about to function at 110 levels Fahrenheit and swap off each transmitters. They will solely be restored by manually working a swap related to the temperature relay. The room usually operates at about 80 diploma F and after air conditioner failure, some 45 minutes elapse earlier than transmitter shut down happens.

Foremost Aerial Coupling Gear: The Four channel coupling tools circuit was designed within the Broadcast Development Part in Central Workplace Melbourne. Since OTC operates its 2 kW transmitter repeatedly on 488.5, 500 and 512 kc/s, three separate coupling channels have been supplied for these, and one for the NBS transmitter on 1062 kc/s. It was desired that no OTC channel in use would considerably alter the tuning of the NBS channel and that there could be no important cross modulation both means. The preliminary settlement between OTC and Telecom additionally specified a most allowable OTC energy loss within the coupling tools of 1.5 dB.

The preliminary design supplied theoretically for not more than 0.6 dB loss in any OTC channel and 0.9 dB loss within the NBS channel.

The primary try and align the tools was made in Oct 1979 by Thompson and Sanderson, assisted by Vanderhoeven. As a result of the impedances contained in the hut have been significantly totally different from these beforehand measured on the base of the mast, the L/C ratios of the coupling parts weren’t optimum and energy losses exceeded the allowable quantities. Assumptions had been made as to the anticipated values of impedance contained in the hut and the circuit designed accordingly. Nevertheless as a result of stray capability and inductance launched by modifications to the earth system, the putting of the ARK coupling hut adjoining to the mast and the removing of the unique OTC coupling field, the design was not optimum for the brand new circumstances. Losses have been unacceptable and the experiment was terminated.

After workplace redesign utilizing the precise measured values, a second try at alignment was made in November with Dave Laing, Tech, Radio Lab, aiding. After some Eight days of concentrated effort it was accepted that appreciable structure modifications within the hut have been obligatory if the system was ever to operate accurately.

The ARK511 coupling hut is lined with aluminium sheeting with all sheet junctions spot welded to kind a steady electrical display screen. This internal display screen is linked to the earth mat. The unique OTC coupling field is mounted on a metal body bolted to the ground simply contained in the door. A shelf for the NBS coupling tools runs alongside one wall and meets in a nook of the room the three cabinets of OTC coupling tools which line an adjoining wall. Due to the amount and measurement of the elements, spacing between coils is small however coupling results have been minimised by mounting adjoining coils mutually at proper angles. Because of restricted finance and poor availability of appropriate RF contactors, some surplus contactors have been obtained from South Australia Radio Part and used for switching the OTC coupling items. It was essential to mount these in the course of the OTC benches and run busbars to both finish. These busbar runs adjoining to coils within the rejector circuits precipitated lack of Q and elevated stray coupling in order that there was inadequate rejection of NBS sign again into the OTC transmission line. This precipitated unacceptable crosstalk. As well as, as a result of a beforehand unknown output energy management circuit related to the OTC transmitter, the NBS induced voltage precipitated a discount in output energy of the OTC transmitter.

It was determined to rearrange the contactors and the structure of the center OTC coupling bench, and line every bench with copper sheet in an endeavour to scale back stray couplings. Whereas measurements have been being made, the short-term NBS aerial needed to be remoted from earth in order that mutual coupling results into the principle OTC radiator wouldn’t have an effect on its impedance. Nevertheless it was not doable to equally isolate the OTC standby aerial because it was in very frequent use, and measuring issues arose accordingly. Static from tropical storms was additionally excessive and transmissions from ships within the space precipitated interference to bridge measurements.

An excessive amount of details about the complexities of this method was obtained throughout this era, however as no answer may very well be discovered with the present bodily structure, it was determined to return at a later stage when the rearrangements had been made.

Consequently Thompson and Sanderson returned to Thursday Island in March 1980 with technician Perkins and put the earthing and screening materials into place. The 4 benches have been lined with copper sheet and all linked along with additional runs of two x 1/Eight inch copper strap from the principle earth radial ring conductor surrounding the coupling hut and mast. Some coils have been repositioned to minimise couplings and the changeover contactors have been eliminated and mounted on the hut partitions at every finish of the benches to minimise lengthy runs of busbar. Two further contactors have been used, one Multronics and one Johnson which had been made obtainable from spare shares in Brisbane.

These modifications altered the Q and inductance of all coils and full readjustment of all circuits was required. Happily adequate disk ceramic capacitors have been available to deal with the modified values required. As stray coupling was now eradicated, it was doable to regulate all circuits, and glorious matching and inter-station rejection was achieved. The circuit was examined to air and each transmitting techniques carried out properly by way of loss and VSWR. Nevertheless though bridge and voltmeter measurements gave very excessive values of rejection when examined statically, extreme cross modulation was obvious when program modulation was utilized from the 4TI transmitter.

Discussions with Jack Ross, South Australia Radio Part, revealed that extreme cross modulation in twin frequency coupling items at Reynella, 5AN-5CL, had been traced to using variable vacuum capacitors in widespread paths. The excessive voltages various at modulation frequencies apparently precipitated mechanical variations leading to audible results and small however important capacitance variations.

It was determined subsequently to exchange the variable vacuum capacitors with mounted ceramic disks and on a go to in June 1980 this was finished. Prior to creating any modifications, exams for cross modulation have been made and it was discovered that there was negligible audible impact. No constructive cause for the change was ever discovered. Nevertheless at this stage in depth upgrading of elements was made by OTC workers engaged on a low frequency transmitter and it’s doable that earlier cross modulation could have been occurring within the OTC transmitter as a result of excessive degree NBS fields surrounding the constructing and tools. The state and extent of the OTC constructing earth couldn’t be ascertained. It’s well-known that cross modulation results could be produced by defective earth contacts at excessive energy twin frequency installations. On the identical time the switching was rearranged to permit using one rejector group within the OTC system as an alternative of the three beforehand used. This was finished by putting the Multronics contactors in order that the OTC circuits may in flip, feed into the enter of the only rejector group. Because the switching is finished with OTC energy off and because the selective NBS rejector group shouldn’t be switched on the aerial aspect, contactor sparking was eradicated. These mains operated contactors, nevertheless, don’t have any producers’ assured life, and as OTC operations are quite a few it was although fascinating to transform to hoover contactors that are low voltage DC operated and have a assured life of two million operations. This was later finished by Harvey Ferrall and no additional issues have been encountered.

Because the voltages measured throughout the parallel and collection coils of the rejector system didn’t agree with these anticipated on consideration of the particular tuned circuits, it was suspected that coupling between coils was occurring. The collection elements have been subsequently moved to a different bench, and extra constant outcomes achieved.

It’s the present opinion of Central Workplace Analysis Labs that there isn’t any advantage in silver plating giant inductors. The industrial plating processes depart the floor in a finely granulated state and make use of varied components within the baths which may scale back the floor conductivity beneath that of pure copper. To keep away from corrosion it was advisable that the copper tubing be cleaned with wonderful abrasive paper and painted with Wattyl lncralac. This was authorized as having glorious dielectric properties. After closing coil clamp positions have been discovered, the coils have been cleaned and coated. It had not been doable to acquire excessive purity copper tubing for the inductors and bizarre plumbers grade was used. Coils are Q3 and This autumn kind, made within the Brisbane Telecom Workshops to drawings QR658 and QR2679.

Aerial Impedance: A frequency/impedance run was taken on the aerial knife swap adjoining to the aerial ammeter. The essential values are:

488.5 kc/s                          4.65 – j57 Ohms

500                                    4.95 – j50

512                                    5.30 – j41

1062                                  259 + j800

On the OTC frequencies, the massive quantity of high loading of the radiator resulted in low unfavorable reactance however very low resistance. Actually, first resonance occurred at 550 kc/s the place the resistive element was solely 6.5 Ohms.

Standby radiator: Due to the shared use of the principle radiator, a standby aerial for 4TI was supplied.

A brief sloping wire was erected between the transmitter constructing and a 70 toes excessive metal tower close by, giving a size of 100 toes. This aerial had a really low resistance and a really excessive reactance, and at 2 kW extreme corona occurred on the high and the porcelain feed out insulator on the wall of the transmitter constructing was destroyed.

A number of makes an attempt at collection coil loading have been made, however though the aerial was finally thought of usable, the excessive RF discipline within the adjoining OTC constructing necessitated a change in location.

The ultimate association was a sloping wire about 200 toes lengthy utilizing one other 70 toes metal tower properly away from the OTC constructing. This wire had an enter impedance of 22 – j50 Ohms at 1062 kc/s. It was obligatory to offer corona rings on the tip insulator adjoining to the tower, however when this was finished the system was secure with full energy enter and no interference was precipitated to OTC tools.

Due to the congested nature of the island, no formal aerial effectivity exams have been made and solely spot discipline strengths have been measured across the island and on the Horn Island airport.

Though the sphere energy is small at most of the outlying islands, reception has been significantly improved within the Torres Straits areas.

To enhance the usefulness of the station, each day 2 hour native applications have been begun in 1985 from a studio owned by the Torres Strait Islanders Media Affiliation. These periods are produced and introduced by native Thursday Island folks.

Due to the lengthy land line concerned, the 4TI program was generally interrupted and on this case tape recorded music was substituted. For the reason that Aussat satellite tv for pc has grow to be obtainable, ABC program could be acquired on the Thursday Island TV station the place entry to the satellite tv for pc’s transmission is accessible. Gear was put in in Could 1986 in order that this dependable program can be utilized for rebroadcasting by 4TI within the occasion of a standard program line failure.

4TI is within the Cairns Broadcast Service Centre district, however rapid fault clearance can usually be organized by the native Telecom technical workers on the island.

4CH – Charleville[edit]

Charleville on the Warrego is a serious pastoral centre some 700 km west of Brisbane with a city inhabitants approaching 4,000.

For a few years the one dependable medium frequency reception has been from the native industrial station 4VL. Poor to honest indicators from 4QL Longreach supplied the one daytime Nationwide listening obtainable, though VLQ9 and southern states home excessive frequency companies have been additionally utilized by these sufficiently with appropriate receivers.

Sporadic agitation for a neighborhood Nationwide station has occurred through the years, and in 1967 a draft proposal from the then Australian Broadcasting Management Board listed a station for Charlevilie synchronized with 4QL Longreach. By mid 1972 approval was anticipated in order that the station may very well be open by the tip of 1974. No approval got here.

In July 1982 a Division of Communications plan was launched with the suggestion for a Charleville station synchronized with 4QS Dalby on 747 kc/s. This was opposed by the ABC for causes involved with programming. One other plan for utilizing 1062 kc/s was put ahead however using this comparatively excessive frequency was not favoured.

A agency request from D.O.C. was acquired in March 1984 for a website to be chosen for a station utilizing both 585 or 603 kc/s, 10 kW, with a two mast directional aerial system. This was adopted quickly afterwards with a choice to make use of 603 kc/s and to maneuver 7ZL from that channel to 585 kc/s. It was steered that the positioning ought to be to the south or west of Charleville and accordingly in Could 1984 Doug Sanderson, Engineer of the Queensland Broadcasting Department, went with Steve Fennell to the world and chosen some doable websites. (Queensland Engineering Report QB455). In October the plan had been modified and the requirement was now for a website north of Charleville.

Sanderson and Mike Collins then positioned an appropriate website in a disused State Authorities Tenting Reserve 19 km north, adjoining to the Augathella street. This website was accepted by the Division and negotiations have been begun for an appropriate space to be made obtainable for the proposed new radio station. The positioning was flat and sandy with a medium cowl of cypress, eucalypt, erymophylla and different western shrubs and was held on a grazing lease by a close-by property “Gowrie”. Because the radio website was to not be fenced, no inconvenience was anticipated to the cattle. Kangaroos and some rabbits additionally frequented the world.

In October 1985 ranges have been taken over the positioning by Drafting Department surveyor Alan Banham assisted by Doug Sanderson and Greg Anderson. A Telecom Broadcasting Directorate headquarters determination was made to order a stable state 10 kW transmitter, kind Amphet 10, from Nautical Digital Laboratories of Nova Scotia, Canada, through the Australian agent JNS Digital Industries of Melbourne.

It was determined {that a} trendy 400 line phone trade moveable constructing could be perfect for the transmitter, and a smaller ARK511 constructing available as surplus on the Broadcast Set up Depot would swimsuit as an emergency engine generator room. Two small 40 line RCMX trade buildings acquired from Telecom have been for use as mast coupling huts.

Throughout 1986 the transmitter and program enter tools have been put in within the 400 line constructing on the outdated Broadcast Set up Depot at Peel Road, South Brisbane.

Constructing’s Engineering Companies (Telecom) took the smaller constructing to their depot at Salisbury and fitted it out with a reconditioned diesel generator set. This was an English Electrical Dorman 6DA engine direct coupled to a Dunlite 35 kVA three section alternator kind D.A.D.A.B./MF.

Each transmitter and engine buildings have been later taken by street to the Charleville website and mounted on concrete stumps.

The South West Queensland Electrical energy Board supplied a brief spur into the station from their 22 kV Charleville to Augathella feeder.

Earlier in 1986 Grant Beaumont went to the positioning and pegged out the world to be cleared. The contractor organized by Housing and Development Division was B. R. Buchan of St. George.

By July the clearing was full and the entry street laid down and the primary load of coaxial cable, earth wire and different {hardware} was delivered. The Broadcast Linestaff then put in the concrete mast bases and man anchor blocks for the 2 90 metre metal lattice masts. These have been made by Andrew Antennas of Melbourne. The fellows and insulators have been assembled by A. Noble and Son (Qld). Radio linestaff ploughed within the earth radial wires and erected the masts.

Many of the mast sections have been delivered in October 1986 with some elements not being obtainable till Could 1987.

Throughout Could the time consuming process of adjusting the system for the proper working circumstances was in progress. Measurements have been made to find out the mutual impedance between the masts and therefore the coupling elements obligatory.

The specification for the station equipped by the Division of Communication detailed the present ratios and phasing for the aerials. It was determined to mount the ability dividing and section management element within the transmitter constructing and to run a separate buried coaxial feeder to every mast. An L-C coupling community was then put in in every coupling hut on the mast bases and the entire system adjusted to supply the specified discipline sample. This comprised a lobe of radiation in direction of the east and one to the west with minimal radiation on bearings of Eight levels T and 162 levels T to present skywave safety to future stations in Papua New Guinea and Tomerong in NSW.

Because the working frequency of 603 kc/s was a transparent channel by day, sample adjustment, which concerned a great deal of discipline work with discipline energy measuring tools, was in a position to be undertaken in daylight.

4CH went to air on 5 June with the ABC Regional program through the Longreach studio. No formal opening ceremony was organized, the announcer merely including 4CH to his record of name indicators – “RK, QD, QL and CH”, certainly the quietest opening of a serious nation regional station ever.

Workers concerned with the set up at varied instances have been, on the technical aspect, Tony O’Brien, Grant Beaumont, Peter Cusack, Paul Lamprechet, Paul Davies and Mark Williams. Radio linestaff have been Dave Southby, Vern Berry, John Stevens, John Kirkwood, Kerry Williams, Michael Fenney, Michael Anthony, Steve Rover and Terry Byrne.

Challenge engineer was Doug Sanderson.

The brand new Broadcast Service Centre at Dalby was given upkeep accountability for this station with the Charleville Telecom Alternate technicians obtainable for emergencies.

Program for 4CH is that used at 4QL and arrives at Charleville Alternate through Telecom radio bearer. The path to the transmitter is at the moment open wire however a cable from Charleville to the positioning is being deliberate.

Due to the in depth use of stable state gadgets within the transmitter and program enter tools, lightning surge suppressors have been fitted within the energy mains and program strains.

Computerized supervision of 4CH is supplied by digital tools which indicators faults to a monitoring centre in Brisbane, utilizing the Telecom cellphone system.

VLQ – Brisbane – VLM[edit]

!n 1941 the property which was to grow to be the Brisbane Metropolitan Broadcasting website at Bald Hills was within the means of acquisition. Its first station was to be within the excessive frequency band designed to hold the ABC program to inland Queensland.

Headquarters drawings ready throughout 1941 for the design of the aerial supporting constructions seek advice from “the Brisbane HF transmitting station'” which was to be of 5 kW score.

On the positioning the present farmhouse and different buildings have been being eliminated and by October 1941 the brand new transmitter constructing was being constructed.

By January 1942 the plan had grow to be agency for a 10 kW transmitter and a contract was let with STC of Sydney for manufacture.

The sort produced was an A880An appropriate for broadcast use. This was the third unit of the sort constructed, the primary two being A880B items for the Royal Australian Air Pressure, a 14 kW for Laverton and a 20 kW for Ballarat, in all probability for telegraph use.

When accomplished, the transmitter was delivered to Brisbane by truck. Vern Kenna who was the Divisional Engineer for Broadcast Set up on the time recollects that the automobile was powered by producer gasoline derived from burning coke. The shortages of petrol throughout struggle time had resulted in lots of automobiles being transformed to this gasoline gasoline. The transmitter was initially anticipated to function within the 3, 6 and 9 Mc/s bands on 6070, 9635 and 3330 kc/s and aerial drawings have been ready for this. Actually the station by no means radiated within the Three and 6 Mc/s band, two frequencies within the 7 Mc/s and one within the 9 Mc/s band being lastly used. The aerials have been half wave horizontal dipoles, and 4 hardwood poles have been erected in a line oriented to present an angle of fireside of the radiation of 310 levels true to swimsuit the inland Queensland goal space. The poles have been 66, 110 and 44 toes excessive, supporting in line the 7, Three and 9 Mc/s aerials. All aerials have been fitted with reflectors.

Transmission strains have been 600 Ohm impedance, two wire balanced.

Set up proceeded throughout 1942 with Arthur Clark in cost. Clarrie Boettcher put in the pipe work for the water cooling system required for the ultimate amplifier valves. The pumps, equipped in duplicate, have been by Thomas Engineering and have been pushed by 2 3/Four HP three section 2,900 rpm motors. Just one set was in use at a time. These pumps equipped water to chill the anodes of the ability output valves on the charge of 6 gallons per minute. A fan cooled exterior radiator was mounted close by and distilled water was required. Because the anode voltage was 12,000 Volts it was essential to make use of pure low conductivity water and a nonetheless was put in to make sure a provide.

The valve complement of this transmitter was crystal oscillator and oscillator amplifier – each 4061A pentodes, first and second RF buffers and modulated amplifier – 4282B triodes, first and second speech amplifiers – 4046A pentodes, modulator 4212E triode, 1st RF amplifier 4251A triode and two triodes, kind SS1971 in parallel as the ultimate linear energy stage. Minor rectifier 83V, medium voltage rectifiers 866A and additional excessive stress rectifiers kind 4078A, mercury vapour, six mounted in a row with a seventh as spare and recognized regionally because the “seven dwarfs”. In later years, all valve rectifiers have been changed by silicon diodes.

Modulation was utilized to the anode and display screen of the modulated amplifier.

4 crystals may very well be mounted within the oscillator which was an untuned Pierce. Subsequent frequency doubling, relying upon working frequency desired, was achieved within the first buffer stage. The transmitter was able to 10 kW output within the vary Three to 20 Mc/s.

The output impedance of the transmitter was 80 Ohms and a bridge L-C community was used to match to the 600 Ohm impedance of the transmission strains.

The transmitter and program tools have been prepared at the start of 1943. Aerial tuning was effected however not with out the manufacturing of some very loud modulated arcs because of the prevalence of bugs and occasional mistuning. All was properly in the long run and the station went to air on 17 February 1943.

Early monitoring notes made at 4QS Dalby present that the preliminary 7 Mc/s frequency was 7250 kc/s however this was modified quickly to the ultimate determine of 7240 kc/s. Early testing within the HF bands generally exhibits surprising co-channel interference and it’s doubtless that this was the case. The station settled right into a routine operating VLQ2, 7215 kc/s, from 6 AM to 10 AM, VLQ3, 9660 kc/s from 10.15 to six.15 PM, then VLQ, 7240 kc/s, from 6.30 PM to midnight. Fifteen minutes was allowed for the frequency retuning.

The frequency schedule existed till about 1947 when the 7 Mc/s band was vacated and transmission grew to become mounted on 9660 kc/s. Regardless of modifications within the photo voltaic cycle, no different frequencies have been ever utilized by VLQ. A brand new transmitter working on 4.9 Mc/s, VLM, got here into service in 1949 so some frequency variety was obtainable from then on.

VLQ continued to function till in 1968, a brand new 10 kW unit, STC kind 4SU-48B was put in. Outdated devoted was put into standby service, however was once more on full nationwide program schedule between December 1973 and Could 1976 throughout which period the 48B was engaged on a Radio Australia service to Papua New Guinea.

Because the SS1971 valves have been changing into exhausting to get and dearer, exams have been finished in February 1973 on the STC alternative 3Q213E and these have been discovered to be passable. When the availability of SS1971’s ceased just a few years later, the 3Q collection have been used repeatedly.

The contract for the brand new transmitter was let to STC in April 1967 and unit quantity 92176 was prepared for manufacturing facility check by PMG engineer John Searle on the finish of November.

The set up was finished by Bob Hansen assisted by Tony O’Brien and Invoice Krebs and the transmitter was prepared for service in 1968.

The valve line up of the 48B was crystal oscillator 6AMG pentode, isolator 6146 tetrode, first and second harmonic mills 6146, output two 6146 in parallel, RF drive amplifier two 4-250A tetrodes push pull, and energy output two 3x2500A3 triodes in push pull.

The audio aspect was push pull all through. 1st audio EF86 pentode, 2nd audio 4-250A tetrode, and cathode follower drive 4-250A tetrode and modulator 3x2500A3 triode.

No valves have been used within the rectifier circuits. Excessive stress was 4,800 Volts.

As talked about above, the transmitter was on Radio Australia service from 1973 to 1976. It was operated on 11880 kc/s utilizing a rhombic aerial.

From 1976 to the current, the 48B has operated full time as VLQ9 on 9660 kc/s.

In 1949 a contract was let to STC for a brand new 10 kW transmitter for a service to be operated with the decision signal, VLM.

Because it was required to start the transmission as quickly as doable, presumably to carry the allotted frequency, a short lived service was begun on 7 September 1949 utilizing a 200 Watt AT14 transmitter, feeding an extended inclined wire which ran from the transmitter constructing to an attachment on the MF pipe radiator. Presently, no fundamental aerial for the working frequency 4917.5 kc/s was obtainable, however quickly afterwards the outdated VLQ Three Mc/s aerial was eliminated and a delta matched dipole put as a substitute to hold the brand new 10 kW transmitter. This was a 4SU-12A within the new “corio sand” color, an orange-biscuit shade.

The valve complement was oscillator, isolator, 1st and 2nd harmonic mills, all 6V6GT; Buffer 807, buffer amplifier, push-pull 813 tetrodes; driver, push-pull TG10 triodes; energy amp push-pull 3J/221E triodes.

The audio line was push-pull all through. 1st speech amp 6J7G pentode; 2nd speech amp 6V6GT beam tetrode; third speech amp 3C/150A triode; mod driver TG10 triode; modulator 3J/221E triode.

The rectifiers have been fundamental HT 4078Z, six valves; minor HT 872A’s.

The rectifier valves have been later changed by silicon diodes and in 1981 the 3J221E was changed by a Philips valve TBL12/25, a lot cheaper and really a lot lighter in weight.

The set up was accomplished by January 1951 and operated into the brand new dipole. Website work was beneath the management of Supervising Technician Otto Burmester.

On 1 June 1953 the frequency was modified to the current certainly one of 4920 kc/s.

Due to reviews that VLM was inflicting evening time interference to VUM Madras in India, the ability was lowered to five kW after 11 PM every evening. This was in June 1956, however the aerial had already been lowered to 50 toes in August of the earlier yr. Whether or not these expedients improved the Indian reception or not was by no means revealed to the operators at Bald Hills. The matter seems to have been forgotten and the nightly in the reduction of of energy was discontinued in December 1966. The aerial peak was not restored, nevertheless, and has not been thus far.

In 1966, wiring in VLM had deteriorated and for about Three weeks, whereas Gordon Gilbert rewired the defective sections, VLM operated once more at 200 Watts utilizing an AT14 transmitter.

In July 1966, each VLM and VLQ have been placed on related third community program in order that both station may very well be utilized by nation regionals as a supply of emergency rebroadcast materials.

The usefulness of those excessive frequency transmissions in Queensland has declined with the prepared availability of recent medium frequency stations, and their future is unsure. It appears they are going to be turned off as was VLI in Sydney and VLR and VLH in Lyndhurst, which might bring to an end an period which started 45 years in the past when Bald Hills was new.

The A880A outdated VLQ transmitter is a really important historic engineering relic, as it’s in all probability the one surviving specimen of this very attention-grabbing brief wave transmitter kind. The design by STC dates from the late 1930’s.

This tools ought to be retained if in any respect doable, as a broadcasting heritage exhibit.

Bald Hills – Metropolitan Radio Centre[edit]

This chapter offers with the positioning and the amenities on the Centre that are widespread to all of the transmitters working there – 4QG, 4QR, VLQ and VLM. The historical past of those transmitters is handled in particular person chapters.

The Nationwide Broadcasting Service within the center 1930’s was restricted to Brisbane, Rockhampton and Townsville and it was deliberate to attempt to give some cowl to the remainder of Queensland via excessive frequency, “brief wave”, transmissions.

Accordingly in 1937 a website survey within the outer Brisbane metropolitan space was made by officers of the PMG Analysis Laboratories, and consideration was given to the Capalaba, Cleveland and Bald Hills districts. Making an allowance for that such a website would probably be used for medium frequency stations sooner or later, it was thought of that the Capalaba and Cleveland areas would offer the very best protection, notably in direction of Gympie. At the moment there have been peak restrictions on towers in these areas due to aviation necessities, and consequently the Bald Hills space was accepted with the issue of the Gympie district being solved sooner or later with a neighborhood low energy transmitter. Such a transmitter was supplied for Gympie, however not till 1951.

A number of websites have been examined within the Bald Hills district, some being within the neighborhood of the Strathpine railway station. A closing determination was made a couple of mile north of the Bald Hills settlement, adjoining to the Sandgate/Bald Hills street. The block of land was flat, 114 acres in measurement with a bit agriculture however in all probability used largely for dairy cattle grazing. It was owned by Samuel Hawkins and the enhancements have been an outdated home in poor situation, a tennis courtroom, storage, outbuildings and a windmill. Two small blocks which apparently had as soon as fashioned a part of the principle property and had been offered out of it, confronted the principle street. Every had a home and the homeowners have been W. S. Thompson and J. Grantham. It was not thought of that the lack of these two small areas would prejudice the deliberate use of the principle website for broadcasting functions and negotiations for the acquisition of the property have been begun in 1940.

By this time the proprietor was J. W. Man however the sale proceeded with no bother and spot of acquisition appeared in Authorities Gazette 69 of three April 1941. All authorized issues have been accomplished by July 1943. The property description is resub 2 of sub 2 of portion 37, Parish of Nundah.

Now the nation was at struggle and plans for the set up of the excessive frequency station have been pushed forward. In January 1941 the Director Basic of Works, Division of the Inside, was requested to contour the positioning and put together drawings for an appropriate constructing. This was finished and in July the constructing contract had been let to T. F. Woollam of Days Street, Wilston.

The positioning was surveyed by F. H. Burcher, and inquiries made as to the probabilities of flooding. Two main floods have been thought of, the 1893 and the 1931. In neither of those was the central western frontage at risk, though the east aspect of the positioning had been coated with floodwater as a result of backup from the Pine River right into a shallow gully which traverses this a part of the positioning. The constructing and the excessive frequency aerials have been subsequently sited on the western street frontage. Actually, no website flooding has been skilled within the ensuing 45 years.

All buildings on the positioning have been eliminated and by October the partitions of the brand new construction have been up, the storage was nearly full and the HF aerial website was being fenced. Works Division had proposals for connecting the windmill to a brand new excessive degree water tank to produce the station. By January 1942 the principle constructing was prepared for set up of apparatus.

In March, electrical energy was linked, and because the vertical pipe mast was now full, the 4QR transmitter was moved from the Central Phone Alternate within the metropolis to its new dwelling at Bald Hills.

In direction of the tip of the yr the excessive frequency transmitter VLQ was constructed and introduced from Sydney to Bald Hills by street for set up within the new constructing. The H. F. aerials for VLQ have been erected and this transmitter started operation early in 1943.

Vince Henderson recollects that throughout the Japanese risk of the struggle years, workers slept on the constructing in a single day, as there was no official residence and the positioning was relatively distant.

Workers in these years with Harry Conway as OIC have been Vince Henderson, Invoice Mellish and Alf Jackson on the Jam Manufacturing facility website.

A contract had been let throughout 1942 with a agency within the USA for the availability of a 130 HP engine generator set and plans have been ready for an engine room with blast resistant partitions and two 500 gallon underground gasoline tanks. The entry of the U.S. into the struggle prevented this contract from being fulfilled and it was some years earlier than Bald Hills received its emergency energy provide. Within the meantime additional plans have been ready for a constructing extension which was to incorporate area for an emergency engine. As soon as once more, nothing eventuated and as proposed further transmitters have been discovered to be bigger than initially anticipated, the engine area was utilized for them

In 1942 a request for a home for the Foreman Mechanic was made and in January 1944 Works Division drew up plans for an official residence which was constructed simply south of the principle constructing. The primary OIC of Bald Hills was Harry Conway and he and his household moved in and have been to stay there till 1963.

The constructing extension referred to above was constructed in 1945-46 and the principle switchboard was upgraded to take the load of the brand new 10 kW 4QG and the anticipated second excessive frequency transmitter VLM. {The electrical} contractor was Burleys Electrical Workshop Pty Ltd of Charlotte Road, Brisbane.

Plans have been ready for a brand new vertical radiator to serve 4QG and 4QR, and a contract was let in August 1946 with Johns and Waygood of Melbourne for the availability and erection of a lattice metal mast simply over 660 toes excessive. Check borings to find out the soil circumstances had been made in January 1945 by Vern Kenna and Eric Gough, in order that the contractors may design foundations.

Johns and Waygood started metal supply within the latter a part of 1946 however the mast was not accomplished till late December 1947. Presently the one obstruction lighting obtainable was supplied by two purple glass hurricane lanterns on high of the mast, a not very efficient plane warning system, Early within the new yr nevertheless {the electrical} agency Burleys started the set up of the principle obstruction mild system and accomplished this in April. The coupling hut was additionally accomplished about this time.

The mast, which remains to be in use, is a triangular part lattice metal construction of Eight toes sides, guyed at 4 ranges in three instructions. There’s an inside climbing ladder and 4 relaxation platforms. It’s painted in orange and white bands for plane obstruction warning. The only porcelain base insulator has to assist 80 tons in nonetheless air, and 145 tons beneath full wind loading.

Due to the potential for flooding, the mast was constructed on a triangular concrete block about six toes excessive.

Close to the highest of the mast is a sheet copper cabin to accommodate a big inductor and capacitor in parallel, forming a part of the adjustable electrical loading. At the side of a 60 toes diameter round disk armature or “hat”, these elements allow the adjustment of efficient peak of every of the 2 transmissions of 4QG and 4QR which share the mast, to optimum values of simply over a half wavelength at every frequency.

An ordinary earth system was employed, 120 copper wire buried radials, every 668 toes lengthy.

The transmitters fed vitality to the mast over separate 6 wire strains, every 1,550 toes lengthy.

In addition to line and aerial matching items, the coupling hut contained rejection networks to minimise cross coupling between the transmissions. The constructing floor ground was used to retailer spare mast {hardware} and all coupling tools was on the primary ground.

Nearly as good copper tubing was scarce, a amount of recovered refrigeration piping was obtained and annealed and straightened in a fireplace beside the lagoon on the station, after which drawn right down to measurement with a winch and a metal die. The Brisbane PMG Workshop then wound the tuning coils and ready the aluminium clad metal entrance panels of the coupling items.

The overall design of any such twin frequency construction resulted from work by Alex McKenzie of Central Workplace, and the precise adjustment of the Bald Hills system was finished by Vern Kenna and West Hatfield an engineer from Central Workplace. Others aiding have been Tom Curtis, Col Williams and Doug Sanderson.

An attention-grabbing paper on this work finished by McKenzie, Kenna and Hatfield appeared in Proc. IRE Aust., in January 1955.

This new system with each 4QG and 4QR on 10 kilowatts went to air on 1 September 1948.

The elements within the high cabin proved to be inclined to wreck by lightning, and it was obligatory to exchange a failed capacitor by an air-spaced variable mounted in a tank of transformer oil. This was largely self therapeutic after any inside discharge, as a result of pure circulation of the oil.

General, the twin frequency system operated satisfactorily.

Plans for the lengthy awaited exterior emergency engine room have been ready by Works and Housing in September 1948 and the constructing was accomplished and the engines put in early in 1950.

The tools consisted of two units which may very well be synchronized if required.

The engines have been by Ruston and Hornsby, six cylinder diesels, class VCB, 204 BHP at 600 rpm. The serial numbers have been 253277 and 253278. They have been direct coupled to Brush Electrical Co. alternators rated at 133 kVA with Brush exciters. The serial numbers have been 36596 and 36598. A compressor and two air receivers to retailer 11 cubic toes at 300 lbs every for engine beginning have been additionally put in. The compressor was pushed by a single cylinder Ruston and Hornsby petrol engine of two and 1 / 4 BHP. Three exterior, elevated gasoline tanks every 1,000 gallons have been put in close by.

Because the station is staffed, the emergency engines have been manually began, however transformed to auto begin in 1988.

With the passing of the years, enhancements and extra amenities have been put in. In 1955 an computerized fireplace alarm system was supplied by O’Donnell Griffin and Co. A cover for climate safety was constructed over the entrance entrance porch and city water was linked in 1960.

About this time planning for an additional constructing extension was in hand, as new transmitters have been in view. On the identical time consideration was given to new enlarged energy boards, modifications to the principle tuning hut and plans for a brand new twin frequency standby tuning hut to go along with the re-insulated pipe mast which had been standing idle for a few years. It was additionally deliberate to maneuver the management room with its program enter tools to the proposed extension.

A contract was let in December 1961 to Almar Constructions of Fortitude Valley for the constructing extensions which have been accomplished in April 1962.

Alterations to the ability switchboards have been accomplished by the tip of 1963.

!n 1962 the brand new standby coupling tools was put in within the new hut and linked to the principle constructing by two 6 wire transmission strains. Brian Robinson was the engineer answerable for this work. This enabled the standby pipe mast for use for each transmitters at full energy of 10 kW every.

About this time, in anticipation of the availability of a 50 kW transmitter for 4QR, a redesign of the principle mast coupling tools was put in hand. Some modifications had been made by Frank Sharp in 1957 to scale back aspect band attenuation which was inherent within the unique design. The brand new association envisaged 4QR’s tools being relocated on the bottom ground, a transfer necessitated by the larger area wanted to accommodate the upper energy elements.

Preparations have been made and the 10 kW 4QG and the 50 kW 4QR have been prepared by Could 1963 to make use of the brand new coupling tools. John Searle, Brian Robinson and Bernie Hogue adjusted the system.

In March 1964 one of many three giant insulators supporting the highest hat on the principle mast was discovered to be cracked and was changed by Radio part line workers. Some years later, in July 1970 the feed by way of insulator from the highest cabin to the hat was additionally changed as a result of cracking. Additional work was obligatory on this space in 1972 when it was determined to chop an inspection porthole within the metal boxing of the hat central assist and deal with the inside for rust.

The relocation of the management room from the entrance of the constructing to one of many new areas now obtainable on the rear, close to the 50 kW 4QR, was put in hand in 1968. New racks, desk and tools have been supplied. Ron Harris dealt with this operation. After the tools was eliminated, the outdated management room was remodelled to grow to be a workers lunch room.

Previous to the development of the Bald Hills part of a brand new fundamental freeway, a small space of the south west street frontage of the positioning was resumed in 1970. The minor street fronting the property was renamed Kluver Road and was fenced off from the brand new 4 lane freeway.

One other property adjustment was made in 1980 when 7 and three quarter acres on the south east nook of the positioning was offered by the Commonwealth. A part of this was purchased by the Queensland State Authorities and half by a property developer, Girvan Bros. Tasks Pty Ltd. There have been no broadcasting property on this space.

A block of land as giant because the Bald Hills website has some potential for inventory grazing and an software to make use of the land for this goal was acquired in 1942 from R. A. Pringle. A lease was organized. The rights have been offered quickly after to Mrs. A. Weitemeyer and later resold to J. F. Boland. He held the lease to 1946 when it was taken out by S. I. Denning who held it to 1952.

From 1952 to 1957, B. O’Donnell held the lease which was now obtainable for five yr phrases. The leases since then have been Muir, Eaton, O’Hara, Chinn, O’Hara and Mahoney.

A significant radio centre resembling Bald Hills, inevitably turns into an appropriate location for particular engineering actions, and one such was a collection of observations on evening time propagation of lengthy distance medium frequency indicators.

These observations have been requested in June 1972 for a Examine Group of the Asian Broadcasting Union.

Some preliminary observations have been made in July on the PMG receiving station at Capalaba on the next stations: Thailand 725 kc/s, Singapore 790 kc/s, Philippines 1140 kc/s, Japan 1178 kc/s and Thailand 1580 kc/s. Transmissions from some Australian stations on the identical or adjoining frequencies made reception of the three latter channels inconceivable, however good indicators have been acquired from the others. Accordingly an extended wire Beverage kind aerial was erected at Bald Hills in August 1972, about 1,400 toes lengthy, 10 toes excessive and on a bearing of 315 levels. Engineer Des Fulton was concerned on this. By the point the tools was prepared, some further stations had been added to the record, together with 4QA Mackay and 4QD Emerald. Japan (Akita) on 770 kc/s and 500 kW was additionally to be noticed. The indicators have been chart recorded.

A paper on the work was ready by Don Rodoni, engineer of Central Workplace, for presentation on the IREE 1973 conference.

Observations of the Queensland stations ceased in February 1974, however the abroad stations have been monitored till the tip of that yr. Monitoring was additionally finished on the Radio Australia receiving centre at Darwin and by the Australian Broadcasting Management Board in Melbourne.

Within the early years at Bald Hills, excessive frequency receivers have been used to tune the Victorian sporting outcomes for the Brisbane studios use, and three communication receivers, RCA AR88, have been used with a wide range of aerials in an area variety system. Later when the Capalaba receiving centre was established, this operate was faraway from Bald Hills.

In September 1973, the Authorities’s intention to start a particular Radio Australia excessive frequency service to Papua New Guinea was suggested, to coincide with the introduction of self authorities to that nation.

It was proposed to make use of the lately put in “new VLQ” transmitter for the service and to return VLQ9 to the outdated water cooled unit. Operation for a number of hours a day was envisaged within the 25 metre band and presumably the 49 metre band additionally. Accordingly a pair of nested rhombic aerials aligned on New Guinea have been erected by the Radio linestaff with engineer Des Fulton as mission supervisor. The supporting masts have been metal lattice and the termination was a dissipative line of stainless-steel wire, widespread to each aerials.

This system was acquired by landline from the Radio Australia studios in Melbourne, and transmission started on 1 December 1973 on 11880 kc/s. Because of adjoining channel interference, the frequency was later modified to 11885 kc/s. No transmission was ever wanted on the low frequency band as transmissions have been solely constructed from 4.30 pm to eight.30 pm each day.

The service continued till Could 1976 when the transmitter was returned full time to the VLQ9 inland transmission.

The rhombics have been used sometimes since then as standby aerials for VLQ.

The HF aerial was 61 toes excessive, 307 toes lengthy with a tilt angle of 67 levels, whereas the L.F. one was 112 toes excessive, 400 toes lengthy with a tilt angle of 65 levels. Each aerials used the identical set of 4 masts, constructed on a bearing of 340 diploma true.

Two different engineers Dave Ellis and Paul Chippendale have been additionally concerned with the mission, as have been technical workers Ron Harris, Barry Neilson and Col Hattersley. There’s on the Radio Centre at Bald Hills a normal Commonwealth of Australia, PMG Division guests e-book with the primary entries for guests to 4QG dated in 1938. That is very doubtless the primary e-book of this kind for use at 4QG. It was in use on the George Road website till the transfer in 1942. There follows then a spot and the following entries have been made in 1953 and the e-book has been used since then on the Radio Centre Bald Hills. It could appear that the e-book lay forgotten and unused for a few years. The primary identify within the e-book is that of S. J. Ross the then Supervising Engineer Transmission and the second is A. Bensley an engineer in the identical part. Since Bald Hills grew to become operational there have been 4 completely appointed officers in cost. They’re Harry Conway 1942 to July 1963, Gordon Andrews January 1964 to April 1969, Col Hattersley Could 1970 to August 1984 and George Marshall who took up workplace in 1985 and retired in February 1988. Vince Henderson and Bob Knight crammed in as appearing OIC’s within the gaps on this sequence. Nev Cole is at the moment OIC.

Frequency Modulation Broadcasting[edit]

The primary common FM broadcasting started in Brisbane on 6 October 1953, and used the 4QR program.

This was an experimental service and related stations operated in Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide.

The companies have been closed on 30 June 1961.

The positioning chosen for the transmitter was the Taylor Vary at Mirrimbul, on a knoll overlooking Brisbane, close to the place the current Channel 2 Nationwide Tv station is constructed.

The Brisbane Metropolis Council at the moment managed the world they usually agreed {that a} 100 toes excessive self supporting picket tower may very well be constructed to hold the FM aerial. A small picket constructing was designed and erected on website by the Commonwealth Division of Works. The tower was designed by PMG drafting workers and fabricated on the PMG workshops. The Division of Works organized the tower erection and all was prepared for station set up by Could 1950.

The transmitter operated on 91.1 Mc/s with an aerial energy of 1 kW. It was a Radio Engineering Laboratories, REL 518 D/DL unit using an Armstrong twin channel section shift modulation system with most deviation of 75 kc/s. An armoured coaxial cable, AS26A of 100 Ohm nominal impedance conveyed the output energy. This aerial was a halo kind of folded dipole, giving horizontally polarized waves. It was adjusted by Doug Sanderson and Ted Dennis of the Radio Laboratory in July 1953 (see Queensland Engineering Report QB61).

A program line equalized to 15 kc/s was supplied from the 4QR ABC studio and transmission instances have been 11 am to 11 pm.

In 1953, an emergency engine generator set was purchased from Military Disposal and put in on website. It employed a Ford V8 engine driving a 25 kVA Three section alternator.

To acquire info on the usefulness of the positioning for future excessive energy FM and Tv transmitters, a discipline energy survey was made within the interval November 1954 to January 1955. This was finished by Ken Holson, Maurice Palmer and Doug Sanderson of the Radio laboratory utilizing an RCA WX-1A UHF discipline energy set mounted in a van. Measurements have been made at a peak of 30 toes with the check dipole on a rapidly erected aluminium pole.

In depth spot checks, about 300, have been made within the metropolitan space and at 40 nation centres in South East Queensland.

Little use was manufactured from the service with only some fans shopping for or constructing receivers. A typical home receiver was solely mantle mannequin measurement and the large band benefits of the service may scarcely be appreciated with such tools. Some fashions featured a centre zero milliammeter as a tuning help. The circuits have been standard superheterodyne with ratio detectors.

The service was discontinued in 1961 and 20 years have been to go earlier than Brisbane once more had a frequency modulation station.

The destiny of the R.E.L. transmitter is unknown, but it surely was in all probability dismantled and offered for scrap metallic. No relics of this service stay, however the tower remains to be in use for aerials of VHF and UHF cellular companies housed within the outdated transmitter constructing.

The brand new period of stereophonic FM broadcasting started in 1980 with the set up of a 10 kW Nippon Electrical Firm (NEC) transmitter kind FBN-7150E within the Nationwide Tv constructing at Mirrimbul. It was outfitted for stereo operation and the aerial array produced a horizontally polarized sign. The array was supported on the tv tower and was a aspect mounted CO-EL kind CO-7FM. The service was opened on 31 August 1980. No distinctive name signal was allotted and in widespread with subsequent stations, was referred to as 4ABC-FM. The vast majority of this system was wonderful music, originating within the ABC’s Adelaide studios. Frequency was 106.10 Mc/s.

In October of the next yr, an identical system was opened on the Rockhampton Tv website at Mount Hopeful on a frequency of 93.70 Mc/s.

Townsville adopted in June 1982. On this case the FM sign shared the Tv aerial which was Channel 3. The FM frequency was 101.50 Mc/s.

A yr later, the service was prolonged to the Darling Downs and Toowoomba from the Tv tower on Mount Mowbullan. The aerial right here was organized for round polarization and the NEC transmitter was of 20 kW score. The frequency was 107.90 Mc/s.

The Maryborough district acquired stereo FM in November 1983 with the availability of  a  service just like  Rockhampton on a frequency of 92.50 Mc/s

A considerably decrease powered system was put in at Mount Isa in July 1984 on 101.7 Mc/s and Cairns acquired stereo FM from the transmitter on the Bellenden Ker Tv website in February 1985 on a frequency of 89.1 Mc/s. This service was vertically polarized.

Many small monophonic FM companies have been put in lately and extra are deliberate. These are to distribute the ABC Regional program to cities which obtain poor indicators from medium frequency transmitters. Within the case of cities receiving good protection of the Regional program, these FM items present the Nationwide service. Program is normally obtained from satellite tv for pc transmissions.

On the time of writing, early 1988, FM has not been supplied for Mackay because the Nationwide Tv transmitter at Mount Blackwood operates within the FM band. 

So because of FM, the ABC sound applications can now be acquired by a big proportion of the State’s inhabitants, lots of whom had as soon as suffered poor reception of the AM based mostly regional service.

Capalaba and Hemmant[edit]

Each of those outer suburban radio websites featured for a few years within the lifetime of Brisbane Broadcast workers.

The websites have been established throughout the Second World Battle and utilized by United States forces as excessive frequency transmitting-receiving areas. Massive numbers of rhombic aerials have been erected by PMG linestaff, having been pegged out by Brisbane Drafting Part officers.

After the struggle, in December 1946, properties have been acquired for the PMG Division and used initially for the emergency radio community. Capalaba grew to become the receiving centre and Hemmant remained because it had been, a transmitter website. A single brick tools constructing had been erected on every website however Hemmant had a separate emergency engine room, and on this room was a really giant diesel producing set made by Buckeye of the USA of America. This had been obligatory as quite a lot of 10 kW excessive frequency transmitters had been in use right here.

The Buckeye was not required for the modest transmitters of the emergency community and was finally offered and eliminated.

At Capalaba the USA forces had supplied a Cummins diesel generator, a 60 cps 208/120 Volt Three section mannequin which didn’t swimsuit Australian tools. It was changed by a 50 cps unit.

The emergency community was established between Brisbane and nation Publish Places of work, and a few Nationwide Regional Broadcast stations, throughout 1947, and Capalaba was staffed each day for testing and routine message dealing with. A minimum of 5 rhombics have been in use, with 2 double doublets and a wide range of wartime receivers resembling Kingsley AR7, RCA AR88, STC 3SU-3D and Hammarlund Tremendous Professional SP200. Some frequency shift telegraph receivers have been additionally in use. Fred Lubach was the technician right here for a few years.

In 1952 Capalaba was set as much as present as well as, amenities for the reception of ABC HF transmissions from Melbourne which have been used for rebroadcasting when interstate landlines failed.

Through the years, the usefulness of those websites has diminished and only some companies stay, resembling a Brisbane to Birdsville HF radio trunk circuit and a few low energy Telecom tools used for cellular communication by travelling Telecom workers. For some years now, the websites have had no Nationwide broadcasting element and are operated by Telecom.

Port Moresby – 9PA, VLT, VLK[edit]

The Nationwide Broadcasting Service was not represented in Papua New Guinea till 1944 when 9PA was opened within the medium frequency band.

Previous to this there had been a small low energy transmitter, 4PM, at Port Moresby on 1360 kc/s working primarily within the evenings to 8PM and believed to have been owned by AWA. It was transformed after Japan entered the struggle, to function for the military on 3.6 and 4.9 Mc/s, speaking with “coastwatchers”.

The radio leisure discipline was thus vacant, and as Port Moresby was a serious centre for troops, a Nationwide station was deliberate.

A Philips 500 Watt transmitter kind KUFH/500/59 was obtained and put in by PMG Division workers from Brisbane, in relatively primitive Military type buildings, on a hill at Wonga, close to the outdated 4PM website. Putting in workers have been Cec Morris, Geoff Beetham and Frank Nolan with engineering supervision by Col Elworthy. Fred Sorenson, a Line Foreman from Rockhampton got here up and supervised the erection of a T aerial with picket poles 90 toes excessive.

As there was no industrial electrical energy obtainable, the Military supplied two engine mills every of 25 kVA capability, to function the transmitter and studio tools.

The transmitter was of Dutch manufacture, and because the Netherlands had been invaded and the Eindhoven manufacturing facility destroyed throughout the struggle, no makers’ info was ever obtainable when wanted in later years. The frequency in use was 1250 kc/s. The station went to air on 26 February 1944 and Charles Moses of the ABC got here up for the event. Basic MacArthur opened the station which was to be collectively staffed by Australians and Individuals. The primary ABC supervisor was Robin Wooden and Michael Eisdell was senior announcer. Fred Warren was PMG OIC, on mortgage from Military Alerts.

A couple of yr later, the station was taken over by the Military, however was returned to ABC management on 1 July 1946.

With such low energy, the 9PA service space was very restricted, so a 2 kW excessive frequency service, name signal VLT, was launched on 28 June 1948 utilizing a brand new STC 4SU-14B transmitter. Two frequencies have been employed, 7280 and 9520 kc/s every with a “Delta” matched dipole.

This transmitter was utterly valve outfitted, the road up being: oscillator 6V6GT, isolator 6V6GT, two harmonic generator levels every 6V6GT, buffer 807, driver 3C/150A and a pair of 4279Z in push pull for the anode modulated energy amplifier. The audio was push pull all through, 6J7G, 6V6G, 3C/150A, 3C/150A and a modulator utilizing a pair of 4279Z. The excessive stress rectifier used three mercury vapour diodes 872A.

Vern Kenna and Col Elworthy got here up for the opening of this service which was put in on the “5 mile” website because the Wonga district was generally recognized by the locals.

By 1953 it was thought of that one single decrease frequency was all that was wanted and VLT was operated on 6130 kc/s. Later, in 1960, two frequencies have been once more discovered to be required and the station modified from 9520 kc/s by day to 6130 at evening.

Through the years the outdated Military engine mills have been changed by a 27 kVA Ruston and Hornsby diesel kind 4VRO and a 28 kVA Ford V8 petrol engine set.

In these days a lot materials for broadcast was recorded from different radio transmissions and in 1956 a brand new recording room was fitted out. The tools originated within the Radio Set up depot in Brisbane and was shipped to Moresby on the “Shansi”.

Recording will need to have been a well-liked exercise at 9PA studios, as a second recording room was put in in 1960.

Within the early 1960’s, plans have been ready for brand new studios and a brand new transmitter website. The studios have been to be at Wonga and the transmitters at Maigabu. 103 acres have been acquired for this latter goal as a number of excessive frequency transmitters have been contemplated, with rhombic receiving aerials in addition to a fundamental and standby aerial for 9PA.

Development on the new website started in late 1961 and continued throughout 1962. A pair of recent STC transmitters 4SU‑55A serial numbers 56404 and 56405 every 2.5 kW, have been supplied for 9PA and standby. Radio linestaff beneath Norm Peterson erected an Eight inch diameter pipe mast for 9PA, 208 toes excessive and a 6 wire, 200 Ohm transmission line. The brand new transmitter went on air on 28 December 1962. The destiny of outdated 9PA shouldn’t be recognized.

The valve line up was oscillator 807, amplifier 807, driver QB3/300, energy amplifier 3x2500A3. The audio was push pull in all levels, EF37A, 807, 807, 4/1000A, and the excessive stress rectifier used three mercury vapour diodes 872A.

Set up at Maigabu continued, and in late 1963 two new 10 kW excessive frequency transmitters have been obtainable for VLT and a brand new service to be referred to as VLK.

Acceptance exams have been made on the STC manufacturing facility in Liverpool NSW by engineer Brian Robinson in November 1962.

These transmitters have been STC 4SU-48B serial numbers 62575 and 62576. The valve complement was oscillator 6AM6, buffer 6146, two harmonic mills every 6146, amplifier two 6146 in parallel, driver push pull 4/250A and energy amplifier push pull 3x2500A3. Audio as standard was push pull in all levels, EF86, 4/250A, 4/250A, and modulator 3x2500A3. In these transmitters the excessive stress provide utilized silicon diodes.

These excessive frequency transmitters have been supplied with aerials minimize for 3925, 4890, 9520 and 11880 kc/s.

VLK aerials have been designed for vertical incidence on 3925, 4890 and 9520 kc/s, to present good protection out to at the least 200 miles in all instructions.

The VLT system was designed for a decrease angle of fireside and was meant to cowl territory between 200 to 600 miles from the station.

All aerials have been of the three wire folded half wave dipole kind giving an enter impedance of about 600 Ohms which facilitated connection to 600 Ohm open wire balanced feeders.

In all, eight metal pipe masts and 64 anchor blocks have been used for these aerials.

The {hardware} for the arrays was shipped to Port Moresby on the MV Anking.

The efficiency of the system was checked in 1966 when Doug Sanderson and Ken Howard travelled to eleven cities in Papua New Guinea together with Lorengau, Kavieng, Rabaul and Kieta on the off shore islands and spent some three days monitoring VLT and VLK at every place. By cautious number of frequencies it was obvious that listeners within the designed service areas may obtain passable outcomes.

Engineer Brian Robinson was answerable for the design and commissioning of this excessive frequency system and technical workers have been beneath the management of W. L. Shaw and John Bopf. Others concerned have been Ron Tolmie and Otto Burmester.

Drafting officer Bob Wadley visited Maigabu in September and October 1963 to offer help with structure of the HF arrays.

Three receiving rhombics have been erected to be used with rebroadcast receivers if required, and designed for reception of stations in Brisbane, Lyndhurst and Shepparton.

Though the brand new 10 kW items have been prepared for service, each didn’t go on air as deliberate in June. Some troubles with the RF exciters necessitated the holding of one of many new items as a standby, with the outdated 2 kW remaining in service. The Maigabu H.F. arrays had not been accomplished at the moment, both.

In January 1967, a 3rd HF transmitter just like these already in service, was put in. John Siganto and Bob Hansen had assisted Brian Robinson simply previous to this with the availability of an uncommon standby aerial for 9PA. Two of the masts of the excessive frequency aerials have been used. These have been 150 toes excessive and 50 toes aside. Their tops have been joined by a copper conductor. One mast was earthed and the opposite insulated and base fed. The entire construction fashioned a sort of folded monopole. The enter impedance at 9PA’s frequency was 122 – j236 Ohms.

The two kW remained operational on the outdated website till decommissioned in November 1963. It was later moved to Maigabu and put in as a spare in April 1971. In the meantime the brand new studios at Wonga have been taking form.

Announcers desks have been constructed within the Brisbane PMG Workshops and wired within the Perry Park meeting depot, as have been the assorted tools racks.

D. C. Watkins Ltd. have been the studio builders.

In 1963 John Bopf and his workforce put in the tools and the studios have been opened on 5 September 1964. There have been three studios within the group, 901, 902 and 903 every with its personal management sales space, working right into a fundamental swap room. Within the emergency plant room was a 50 kVA engine generator.

The opening operate was held within the lobby of the brand new constructing and at 6 PM the Administrator launched the Postmaster Basic, Hon. Alan Hulme who formally opened the studios. Mr Simogun Peta, member of the Home of Meeting, then spoke in Motu and the printed continued from the principle studio, 901. Ron Tolmie and Alan Poulsen of PMG Radio in Brisbane have been additionally current.

The ABC studio supervisor at the moment was Doug Channell.

A plaque recording the opening was mounted within the entrance corridor, with a local carved head masks.

Along with English, at the moment two lingua francas, Pidgin and Police Motu, have been used over 9PA so a lot of the listeners within the Moresby district have been catered for. Nevertheless the excessive frequency service reached out to distant elements of the nation the place native languages predominated, so the Administration was eager to start native broadcasting in these areas.

Thus in 1969 we discover the quantity three HF transmitter in use on 11880 kc/s by the Division of Data and Extension Companies (D.l.E.S.) with the decision signal VL8BM and in November of that yr a daily D.I.E.S. information service started. In March 1971 a number of new aerials for this transmitter have been erected, together with one for 3290 kc/s.

About this time the outdated 2 kW HF transmitter was introduced from Wonga and put in at Maigabu as a standby unit.

In late 1973 the brand new Broadcasting Fee of Papua New Guinea took over all Nationwide property, though PMG workers continued to function the transmitters for one more six months till Could 1974, ending 30 years of Nationwide broadcasting.

9RB – Rabaul[edit]

The issue for radio in Papua New Guinea and the encircling islands was that there have been a number of hundred totally different languages in on a regular basis use all through the world. Though Moresby transmitted in English, Police Motu and Pidgin, the viewers receptive to those was restricted principally to these dwelling within the Moresby district. The excessive frequency service benefitted primarily the European inhabitants scattered all through the nation. Consequently the Administration got here to consider that what was wished was native radio utilizing native languages for the indigenous folks.

One such space with a substantial inhabitants was the Gazelle Peninsula the place, in 1960, some 38,000 Tolai folks resided. This peninsula is on the north east finish of the massive island of New Britain and is roughly 50 miles sq.. It’s in a volcanic area and closely forested. The one city of any measurement is Rabaul with a blended inhabitants of Europeans, Chinese language and Tolais.

Daytime medium frequency radio within the space was at the moment non existent and the two kW VLT excessive frequency transmitter at Moresby didn’t present passable reception.

Early in 1959 the Minister for Territories despatched a proposal to the Postmaster Basic for the institution of a broadcasting station within the Rabaul space to offer instructional applications to the indigenous inhabitants. It was proposed that the station could be operated by workers from the Division of Territories.

Following conferences of representatives of the Division of Territories, the Australian Broadcasting Management Board, the Australian Broadcasting Fee, the Administration of Papua New Guinea and the Postmaster Basic it was determined to ascertain a 2 kW medium frequency transmitter within the Rabaul space. The station was to have the ability to accommodate an ABC Nationwide service at some future date, and an appropriate website was to be decided by the Postmaster Basic’s Division.

For a primary hand have a look at the state of affairs C. M. (Mick) Corridor Supervising Engineer of the Radio Part and Doug Sanderson engineer flew to Port Moresby on 16 July 1960 and after discussions with the native ABC supervisor D.C. (Doug) Channell and L. Newby the Chief of the Division of Extension Companies, they flew to Rabaul. The District Commissioner Mr. Foldi described the state of affairs within the Gazelle Peninsula and Tom Pearson, native Posts and Telegraph’s Division engineer organized transport to examine two doubtless broadcast websites, one at Kurakakaul close to Rabaul and the opposite at Vunakanau 10 miles away.

It was determined {that a} full scaled radio survey could be obligatory to help with a range and this was undertaken by Doug Sanderson and Ralph Bongers a Supervising Technician of the Radio Part.

At the moment the Division had in Brisbane a 500 Watt HF Federal transmitter mounted in a GMC van with an influence take off driving a in-built alternator. This was a wartime facilities unit having seen service with the U.S. forces within the Pacific. It was designed to feed a sectionalized tubular vertical radiator. The bottom frequency tunable on this transmitter was about 1500 kc/s and for the Rabaul survey a frequency of 1542.5 kc/s was used. With the 60 toes excessive vertical aerial and 6 wire radials every 100 toes lengthy, about 100 Watts was radiated. The large left hand drive van, painted PMG purple was shipped to Rabaul on the Burns Philp “Malekula” in September 1960, and was an object of nice curiosity to the native inhabitants.

The transmitter was arrange at every of the 2 websites and after figuring out the unattenuated E x D worth for the set up, a discipline energy survey was made utilizing an RCA WX2D discipline depth set. As the motive force of the automotive equipped for this work by the P. and T. Division spoke no English and neither radiomen spoke native pidgin, the survey sometimes had its difficulties. Nevertheless as soon as it was found easy methods to cease, begin and switch spherical all went properly.

Bodily the Vunakanau website was perfect for a station, being a disused wartime airstrip (Japanese) in a transparent space on a plateau about 1,000 toes above sea degree. Nevertheless extension of energy mains largely throughout native occupied land would have been troublesome and the positioning was 11 miles from Rabaul.

However street and energy mains have been available at Kurakakaul though the positioning was relatively irregular with some steep gullies. It was on a small rise about 50 toes above sea degree and near Talili Bay. A church mission was adjoining. The world round Rabaul is volcanic and there was exercise within the 1930’s with

Matupi erupting and showering ash over the Rabaul space. The sub-soil consists largely of volcanic ash and a close-by street reducing confirmed as much as 30 toes of stable glassy ash. The bottom conductivity for radio frequency was consequently extraordinarily dangerous, the very best values measured in a single or two areas being 1 mS/m and the worst as little as 0.01 mS/m. The bottom was successfully an insulator relatively than a conductor.

The check van was returned to Brisbane on the Burns Philp “Bulolo”.

After contemplating the outcomes of the sphere exams written up in Queensland Engineering Report QB130, the Australian Broadcasting Management Board selected Kurakakaul as the positioning early in 1961.

Website particulars have been clarified with the Territories authorities throughout a go to in March 1961 by W. C. (Invoice) Rohde Supervising Engineer and W. C. Halstead PMG Properties officer. An space of 17 acres was chosen for the station which was to function on 810 kc/s. About 10 acres was Administration land and the stability was to be obtained from the Vunakakambi property of the Sacred Coronary heart Mission.

Throughout 1961 plans have been ready for buildings and website structure and doable staffing necessities thought of.

It grew to become apparent throughout this yr that extension of the ability line for the few miles required could be delayed as a result of problem with proper of means, and through 1962 it was determined to offer an interim service at a short lived website in Rabaul city.

Accordingly a go to by F. A. Jones ABC Port Moresby Appearing Supervisor and Eric Gough, Supervising Technician 9PA, to find appropriate short-term premises was made in March 1962. An empty metal and wooden framed ex military constructing 100 toes by 40 toes with concrete ground was discovered on the nook of Bay Street and Malaguna Street, owned by Messrs Thurston and Dowling and obtainable for renting. The rest of the property was giant sufficient to erect a guyed mast and lay an affordable earth mat.

The constructing with some inside alterations finally housed the studio, transmitter, information room, file library and important workers. A 4SU-55A STC 2.5 kW transmitter serial no. 60134 was put in and fed a 100 foot Kismet mast through a 75 Ohm coaxial cable kind UR57. A part of the three high man wires was used for loading and the enter impedance on 810 kc/s was 7 – j120 Ohms.

Receiving aerials for rebroadcast functions have been erected in order that information or different applications may very well be obtained from Port Moresby, Brandon and Lyndhurst.

The tools was put in by Jim Plunkett and John Bopf with Brian Robinson offering engineering oversight. Leo Moloney Engineer of Radio Service Division and Paul Hayden accepted the tools on completion of the set up.

9RB Rabaul and studio 906 have been put to air at 4.15 PM 15 December 1962 with Ran Weir as resident Supervising Technician. The official opening was at 7.30 PM.

A helpful sign was reported at Kavieng on New Eire, 140 miles to the north throughout the Bismark Sea.

Phil Maguire of the ABC Port Moresby workplace came visiting for the opening, and Graham Taylor took up responsibility as Rabaul Supervisor. Three European and three indigenous announcers have been employed and the working hours have been 6 AM to 12.40 PM and 5 PM to 11.30 PM each day.

Work was resumed on the everlasting website at Kurakakaul in September 1963, when the Rabaul department of the Division of Works engaged a surveyor J. C. Williams, to survey the positioning and take ranges so {that a} website structure plan may very well be ready in Brisbane. Brian Robinson went up for the survey.

A 2.5 kW transmitter for the brand new website was examined on the STC manufacturing facility in April 1964. It was a 4SU-55A/V serial quantity 66503, just like these at 9PA, with 71 Ohm output impedance.

In June 1964, the road social gathering beneath John Wright, comprising Ok. Krogh, P. Keong, and J. O’Rourke arrived to erect aerials and transmission strains. C. Mann joined the workforce later. Gear arrived on varied ships together with the Malaita, Matupi, Anking, Rhodes, Aros, Anslum and Soochow. Duncan Russell-Corridor, Ron Tolmie and Invoice Graham‑Wilson from the Radio Part inspected the positioning.

There was some pleasure in August whereas the road social gathering was clearing a part of the positioning. Whereas away for lunch that they had left a heap of particles to burn and a chunk of wartime ammunition exploded. No hurt was precipitated to anybody, however the website was handled with warning till native Works Division checked it and declared it protected. Reside shells had been discovered within the grass.

The principle MF radiator was of Eight inch diameter metal pipe, 200 toes excessive, guyed in 4 instructions, with a base enter impedance of 15.7 – j82 Ohms. The coupling unit was a single coil tapped for 71 Ohms to match the coaxial cable feeder, kind PT29M. Eight and a half miles of 1oo lb copper wire have been laid for the earth mat.

All cement for the job was purchased from Burns Philp and the mixture from Rabaul Quarries.

By November 1964 the exterior plant work was full and the road social gathering departed.

The development of the transmitter constructing progressed, however there was nonetheless delay within the extension of mains electrical energy to the positioning.

The constructing was of metal body and sheet metal development with a separate emergency engine room, a automotive port and rain water tanks. Though the contract had been let to A. M. Jennings and Co. in June 1964, the work was not full till March 1965.

No additional work was finished on the Kurakakaul website that yr.

In February 1966 the transmitter arrived in Rabaul on the “Wanlui” and in March electrical energy was lastly obtainable on the website.

The published set up social gathering arrived in April, Ken Lund in cost with Des Allen, Ken Vinton, Vic Suosaari and Les Naumann. The Engineer for the work was John: Searle.

It was discovered that among the circumstances of apparatus which had come up on the “Nordkil” have been affected by sea water and far of the contents badly broken. The set up proceeded with out additional incident and transmission started from Kurakakaul at Four PM on 12 July 1966. The workers then started the removing of the MF transmitter from the short-term city website out to the brand new website.

For some years previous to this, the Administration’s Division of Data and Extension Companies (D.l.E.S.) had been working a low energy excessive frequency service designed for the indigenous listeners. Now, with the institution of a totally outfitted Nationwide website settlement was reached to put in a brand new 10 kW H.F. transmitter at Kurakakaul, this tools to be equipped by the Administration.

The transmitter, an STC 4SU-48B, arrived from Port Moresby on the “Bulolo” in March and was put in by Ken Lund’s social gathering. It went to air in September utilizing a Three wire folded dipole 0.2 wavelengths above floor on 3385 kc/s, name signal VH9BR .

The 60 kVA emergency generator had arrived from the Dunlite suppliers in Adelaide on the “Tenos” in April, a Lister HA6 diesel, 1500 rpm, 224HS615, with a Dunlite LADAMF, serial 66203 generator, however because the McColl management tools was not then obtainable, it couldn’t be commissioned. One other set up social gathering accomplished the set up in August 1967.

A second frequency for the HF service grew to become obligatory and 5985 kc/s was allotted. The aerial for this was erected with a 600 Ohm transmission line by Robin Bell and Kev Krogh of the linestaff and Noel Bolton and Les Naumann put in the aerial changeover swap and readied the transmitter for the brand new frequency. Engineer Len Mor commissioned the brand new system which was prepared to be used by January 1968.

The transmitter was additionally partly time use by the ABC for each day Faculty Broadcasts, with the callsign VH9RA.

Because of heavy finish of yr bookings, no air transport again to Brisbane for Len Mar’s social gathering may very well be organized and berths have been obtained on the Dominion Line ship “Francis Drake”, Rabaul to Sydney. The group then returned to Brisbane by air.

Excessive frequency discipline energy was measured by Ed Kennewell, Engineer of the Radio Part, in Could 1968, when he visited New Britain, New Eire and Bouganville. He reported that the Rabaul transmissions have been usually higher than VLT by about 6 db.

Working workers at 9RB through the years of PMG management have been Ran Weir, Martin O’Sullivan, Frank Early, Frank Dowse, Don Guthrie, Grant Beaumont and Wayne Bignell.

The ABC assumed technical management of the studio in 1964 and in November 1973 the newly fashioned Broadcasting Fee of Papua New Guinea took over all property of the Nationwide Broadcasting Service though workers of the PMG remained on the station till Could 1974.

From the start of the NBS in Rabaul, there had been plans for everlasting studios. They have been to have been on Namanula Hill, overlooking the city and Simpson Harbour, the place the outdated hospital was constructed and the place some 80 years earlier the Governor of German New Guinea had his residence. The hill had been occupied by the Japanese military throughout the struggle and a few underground tunnels nonetheless remained. Nothing was ever constructed though at one time in 1964 the Radio Part had begun workplace planning.

And so after 14 years, a vibrant and attention-grabbing episode within the historical past of the NBS ended, and the “haus wilus”, (Pidgin for “Radio Constructing”) handed into different arms.

Lae, Madang, Goroka and Wewak[edit]

Though these stations had a really brief life as items of the Nationwide Broadcasting Service and had scant time to build up any important historical past, their institution ought to be documented.

One of many suggestions within the 1966 report on the event of broadcasting in Papua and New Guinea by Alan Poulsen, an engineer of the Queensland Radio Part, was that nationwide medium frequency stations be constructed at sure main centres of inhabitants resembling Lae, Madang, Goroka and Wewak.

It was additionally advisable that the Port Moresby excessive frequency station VLT be raised to 50 kW to raised serve the outlying districts, however this was not finished throughout the remaining years of the NBS in that nation.

Basic settlement on the contents of the report was reached by the Co-ordinating Committee members comprised representatives of the Division of Territories, the ABC, the PMG, the Australian Broadcasting Management Board and the Papua New Guinea Administration. A “working social gathering” with representatives from the PMG, ABC and the Administration was fashioned in 1967 to arrange motion plans.

The report postulated that the Moresby studios ought to provide this system materials both by terrestrial strains or by excessive frequency transmissions on VLT and VLK. Due to its significance for street, sea and air communications on the outlet of the Markham Valley, it was advisable that Lae be supplied with a studio for native program which may be relayed to the opposite three MF centres recognized within the report.

A suggestion that the Abroad Telecommunications Fee’s lengthy wave vertical radiator be shared by the proposed Lae MF transmitter was thought of in 1967 however was not proceeded with. One main cause was that the aerial was already in use on at the least three frequencies and a fancy coupling community would have been obligatory.

At Goroka it was thought of that the hilltop website of the Administration HF transmitter was unsuitable for MF and {that a} new website ought to be positioned. There was no room on the Administration’s websites at Madang or Wewak both, so new websites have been wanted at these locations additionally.

Consequently, in October 1967, Lindsey Birch and John Searle, Divisional Engineer and Engineer respectively of the Brisbane Radio Set up group visited T.P.N.G. for a preliminary have a look at the areas, and to debate broadcasting issues with the workers of the Administration and the Division of Posts and Telegraphs.

At Lae, websites have been inspected alongside the Markham River Valley and three doubtless areas famous. In Lae city a search was made for a studio website.

Goroka is located on a plateau surrounded by excessive mountains. It was thought of that nearly any website on the plateau would serve the district out so far as the mountains. An space at Himetove was regarded as the very best obtainable, on the property of the Division of Agriculture, Inventory and Fisheries, and the selection was accepted by this Division in March 1968.

Madang is the centre of a populous coastal district with excessive mountains only some miles inland. A number of websites have been inspected on Lutheran Mission land within the Nagada space.

The preliminary impression gained at Wewak was that it will be troublesome to discover a website, because the Military and Airforce had taken over giant doubtless areas for receiving functions throughout disturbed relations with Indonesia.

After this preliminary survey, no motion ensued within the following yr, though contracts for metal masts have been let late in 1968 with R .W. Edmondston of Marrickville, New South Wales.

A better have a look at the doable websites was had in early 1969, when Neil Howard, Engineer, and Duncan Russell-Corridor of Radio strains visited Lae, Goroka and Madang.

At Lae discussions have been held with the appearing District Commissioner, Mr. Bunting, and with John Hughes the resident officer answerable for the Bubia Agricultural Station. An space at Bubia of about 61 acres adjoining the Wau Street appeared the very best obtainable. On the Portion 202 of the Milinch of Lae, 25 acres have been cleared however the the rest was rain forest. The world was low mendacity with springs and would require draining. It was about 1 and a half miles from the Markham River and seven miles north west of Lae aerodrome.

Madang was visited subsequent. Right here the District Commissioner, Clifton Bassett, organized for a patrol workplace, one Noblett, to accompany the social gathering, and John Schultz the supervisor of Nagada Plantation, recognized the areas beforehand famous by Birch and Searle.

The positioning at Himitove was additionally inspected and make contact with was made with a personal surveyor, J. Roberts, anticipating future website survey on Portion 188, Milinch of Goroka.

Wewak was not visited. The P & T Division had a receiving website there, but it surely was not giant sufficient for the proposed MF station.

In September 1969 permission to work on the Lae, Bubia website was given and the Commonwealth Division of Works started to clear and drain in January 1970.

Morobe Constructions undertook the constructing of a studio in Lae and a transmitter constructing at Bubia and these have been accomplished later in 1970.

At Madang, a studio on the town was constructed and accomplished in June 1970, by Madang Contractors.

Tenders for the transmitter constructing and caretaker’s lodge at Goroka have been let in December 1970 and an identical contract was let in Madang to Madang Contractors in June of that yr.

The AWA BTM-2M transmitters, 2.5 kW, kind 8J60110 with 200 Ohm output and full with dummy hundreds have been anticipated to be prepared in 1970.

One other go to to the websites was made in March 1970 by Howard, Birch and Russell-Corridor. Discussions with the Electrical energy Fee have been held in regards to the provision of energy to the proposed stations.

In Madang space, the Mission had agreed to promote the positioning and clearing was begun in April at Amron, on Portion 68, Milinch of Krankit.

{Hardware} for the outside plant grew to become obtainable in Could 1970 and was shipped to Lae on the “Nimos”. Fourteen tons of apparatus arrived at Lae and Robin Bell and Morrie Hartshorn of Radio Traces supervised the unloading. They organized with Highland Motors to maneuver the Goroka consignment, some 6 tons, to its vacation spot. A Toyota Landcruiser was a part of the cargo and was utilized by the linestaff throughout their development work.

Dave Southby and Kev Mansfield joined the others from Brisbane Radio Traces, and the earth mat, transmission line and 200 toes radiator have been put in at Himitove.

Some bother was encountered throughout the laying of the earth radials when the plough grew to become impeded by tangled candy potato vines. Portion of the earth mat was laid on the adjoining Goroka golf course.

For communications with the PMG workers at Port Moresby, a single sideband transceiver was despatched up and was used steadily on 12210 kc/s with the callsign VL8BQ/1. Messages for Brisbane have been then relayed by radio from Port Moresby Radio Centre at Maigabu on VL8BQ.

Throughout the work in Could, an inspection go to was made by Don Rodoni an engineer from Radio Headquarters in Melbourne, Lindsey Birch and Noel Medlin an engineer from the Australian Broadcasting Management Board, Melbourne. Their go to included Wewak they usually have been additionally contemplating working frequencies for the stations about to be supplied.

Extra tools for Goroka arrived at Lae on the “Island Chief” in June.

Ron Harris, Supervising Technical Officer from Brisbane Radio Part arrived that month and went to Goroka to test progress.

Appreciable rain fell right now and on one event in Lae, Robin Bell described the proposed website as “a duck pond”. The positioning was being cleared with some problem on account of the rain so attribute of Lae and different coastal cities within the islands.

Out of doors line plant destined for Madang arrived in June and on this month Neill Howard spent a while with a surveyor pegging out the Amron website at Madang.

In August a line social gathering beneath Line Foreman Ray Beutel started work on the transmission line, earth mat and 200 toes radiator at Amron. On the identical time the technical group, Brian Clancy and Bob Sanders started work on the studio and accomplished this by the tip of September. Subsequent month Beutel and his workforce started erection of the mast at Lae with elements of the positioning submerged.

The AWA transmitter for Madang, serial quantity 39, arrived on the “Salamoa” in November. Wayne Bignell and Sanders left Lae for Madang and have been joined by Tony O’Brien and Peter Brooke to take care of the transmitter set up.

Tim Howard within the lineparty at Lae was damage in an accident whereas utilizing the tractor to plough in earth radials. The tractor’s petrol tank exploded and Tim was burnt, requiring a while within the native hospital.

On 9 November 1970, a extreme earth tremor of energy 7.1 precipitated constructing injury in Madang and the Commonwealth Works Division workers have been diverted for emergency repairs away from the Amron transmitter constructing. One other tremor occurred three days later with a studying of 6.5.

In March 1971, the transmitter, serial 40 arrived at Lae on the “Slembe”, destined for Goroka.

In April the Wewak transmitter was prepared in Sydney however was not despatched as the positioning had not been decided. The issue was nonetheless that the military and airforce had reserved essentially the most fascinating areas and the Administration didn’t favour an strategy to amass any additional regionally owned land.

The MF installations at Lae, Madang and Goroka have been prepared to be used in June 1971 and Dave Ellis an engineer from Brisbane Radio Part commissioned them.

This system enter tools had been assembled within the Brisbane Set up Depot and was related at every station. Particulars of the transmitting tools are as follows:

9LA Lae:                         AWA transmitter kind BTM-2M, serial 41, 2.5 kW, frequency 670 kc/s. Aerial 200 toes lattice metal mast with 9 high loading wires every 100 toes lengthy at 45 levels. Aerial base impedance measured at output of coupling hut with static drain coil linked was

21 + j41 Ohms. An L-C coupler was used.

9GR Goroka:                  Related transmitter, serial 40, frequency 900 kc/s. Aerial 200 toes metal lattice mast with Three high loading wires every 100 toes lengthy at 45 levels. Base impedance 51 + j198 measured at Lae L-C coupler.

9MD Madang:                 Related transmitter, serial 39, frequency 860 kc/s. Aerial 200 toes metal lattice mast with 9 high loading wires every 100 toes lengthy at 45 levels. Base impedance 63 + j181 Ohms measured as at Lae L-C coupler.

The earth system in every case was 120 radials 0.Four wavelengths lengthy. Standard 200 Ohm, 6 wire transmission strains have been used at every station.

The valve lineup of the BTM was crystal oscillator 6AK5 pentode, isolator 5763 pentode, first buffer QE08/200 tetrode, driver QE08/200 and closing RF amplifier 5762 triode. The audio aspect was pushpull in three levels, 6BK8 pentodes, 6146 pentodes, and 4-1000A tetrodes as modulator.

The excessive stress was 5,000 Volts and the rectifier consisted of silicon diode stacks.

In regards to the time these stations have been put to air, microwave hyperlinks had been established between Moresby and the East coast, in order that program from the Moresby studios was obtainable. Brief wave reception from the excessive frequency transmitters VLT and VLK was used solely as a backup program supply. No native program materials was generated on the new stations.

After some appreciable delay an appropriate website was discovered for the Wewak transmitter, at Boram Bay near the airport. The property description was Lot 9, City of Wewak, East Sepik District and was 1.903 hectares. On account of its proximity to the airfield, the mast peak was restricted to 150 toes and warning lights and portray was obligatory. The mast was accomplished on the finish of October 1973.

Grant Beaumont and Wayne Bignell put in this transmitter, an AWA BTM-2M on 1520 kc/s. It had arrived on the “Slembe”. Closing testing and placing to work was finished by Ron Harris and Peter Brooke.

9WK was opened on 30 November 1973 and carried the Moresby ABC program, obtained by microwave broadband hyperlink. This was the one day the station was on air as a part of the Nationwide Broadcasting Service, because the Papua New Guinea Broadcasting Fee got here into being the next day and assumed accountability for all medium frequency stations at Moresby, Rabaul, Lae, Goroka, Madang and Wewak.

The NBS had functioned in Papua New Guinea for simply two months in need of 30 years.

The Papua New Guinea Division of Posts and Telegraphs engineer, R. T. (Tom) Pearson took a eager curiosity in provision of web sites and companies from the time of the 9RB Rabaul institution within the sixties, as much as the shut of PMG exercise within the seventies, and all who labored with him had a excessive regard for his enthusiastic help.

None of those stations had everlasting workers and the upkeep was the accountability of the native Posts and Telegraph Division officers.

Metropolitan Studios – Brisbane[edit]

The primary Brisbane broadcast studio was supplied within the Govt Constructing in George Road when the Queensland Authorities put in the primary low powered transmitter, 4QG, in 1925.

Studios in these days have been very elementary, being merely a closely curtained room with a microphone on a stand and a gramophone with a microphone positioned in entrance of the sound field. It was a while earlier than electrical choose up direct from the file was launched.

When the “new 4QG” was accomplished on the roof of the State Authorities Insurance coverage Constructing on the nook of George and Elizabeth Streets, a wonderful set of studios was integrated.

These studios served the State Governments’ Queensland Radio Service till 1930, then the Australian Broadcasting Firm till 1932 after they have been taken over by the newly fashioned Australian Broadcasting Fee.

When 4QR got here on air in 1938 a brand new studio was constructed for it within the South Brisbane Faculty of Arts library constructing in Stanley Road, subsequent to the Brisbane Dry Dock.

Firstly of the 1940’s, the ABC started to arrange workplace and studio area on the sixth ground of the constructing referred to as Penneys which ran by way of from Queen Road to Adelaide Road. Two fundamental studios have been put in with related management cubicles and have been used for 4QG and 4QR. Different studios on this ground have been supplied for small musical teams and drama. The South Brisbane studio was then used along side the orchestra.

After the transfer to Penny’s, studio exercise ceased within the George Road location and actually the 4QG transmissions have been eliminated to Bald Hills shortly afterwards.

In 1944 a brand new studio block for 4QG – 4QR was begun in Alice Road beside an outdated home going through the Brisbane Botanic Gardens. It was of concrete, and designed to be fairly safe in opposition to bomb blast as this was wartime. The set up was accomplished and 4QG and 4QR started working from studios 400 and 401 on Wednesday 12 December 1945.

The Alice Road studio block was partly underground and recognized to workers as “the dungeons”. It contained a small ABC common workplace, the 2 studios, two management rooms and a swap room (or grasp management).

Upstairs the outdated home was transformed for workplace area and file library. In time a 3rd studio and management room was put in and two Presto disk reducing machines transferred from Penneys. These cutters had been acquired on the time of the autumn of Singapore when the “Mariposa” was diverted to Brisbane with tools destined for S.E. Asia.

An extension of the outdated home, in all probability initially a kitchen and servants quarters, was transformed to an ABC/PMG locker and lunch room annex. A small room on this block was used as a retailer and meeting room for outdoor broadcast tools required for races, church companies and different occasions steadily broadcast in these days.

Harvey Humphreys took up responsibility at Alice Road as Studio Supervisor with Mrs Costigan as Document Librarian. The Information Division with Mr Wright, Mrs Delalande and Mrs Willis was additionally established within the outdated home. Different younger women related to the Alice Road operation have been Kelly, Haren, Dyke, Beal, Grobman, Vowles, McIvor, Sherrin and Rosendorff.

PMG workers concerned within the set up have been Divisional Engineer Vern Kenna, Arthur Clark, Dan Baxter, Otto Burmester, Jack Plunkett, Frank Nolan and trainees Ian Byrnes, Ken Mann and Doug Sanderson. Senior workers in management room have been Nat Gould, Harold Oxford, Bert Taylor and Jim Todd.

Womens Session announcer at the moment was Rita Humphress and responsibility announcers have been Graham Webster, Ted Sheppard, Joan Hockey, Sybil Willey and Bramley Graves.

In Penneys, one of many vacated management studios grew to become 403, the sporting studio, used extensively on Saturday afternoons. Clive Harburg was a frequent announcer right here.

The Penneys studios had an emergency engine generator in case of energy failures, put in in a room close to the raise home on the roof. It was a 4 cylinder Ford petrol engine driving a Three section 6 kVA Skelley alternator.

No emergency engine was supplied initially at Alice Road however when a Southern Cross engine and a 30 kVA, Three Part Braybon alternator grew to become surplus at 4QB Pialba in December 1952, they have been put in in a separate room behind the studio block. Within the early 1950’s a studio was put in within the Science Corridor on the Brisbane Royal Nationwide Affiliation’s Exhibition grounds. This was studio 417 and it operated throughout Present week annually. Comprising studio, management room, tape recording room, newsroom, workplace and entrance counter, it gave the general public their first view of a contemporary broadcasting system.

The big open space adjoining was used annually by the PMG to show some attention-grabbing characteristic. In 1952 a big mannequin was arrange displaying the plans for the brand new station 4SO, pictures depicting the assorted elements of station design, and a mannequin of the aerial system.

For emergency energy, one of many 5 kVA single section Onan mills with Ford engine recovered from the primary 4QL Longreach, was put in in 1953.

This studio was in use yearly for about ten years, when the rented area was surrendered in 1964.

On February 1960 a information studio located within the new TV constructing at Toowong grew to become 405 and was operated for sound as a distant studio managed from Alice Road.

Within the late 1950’s the ABC acquired a property on the banks of the Brisbane River at Toowong simply reverse the railway station. This historic website with its outdated home “Middenbury” had been established by one Rogers within the 1870’s and was subsequently the house of Thos Finney the draper, the Murray-Priors and the O’Sheas. A brand new brick sound studio block was constructed adjoining to the outdated home which was used as workplace area. The brand new dwelling for 4QG – 4QR was prepared to be used in July 1962 and took over from Alice Road. The set up engineer was Ron Tolmie with Invoice Graham-Wilson main the technical workers. These studios are in present use.

In 1963 a brand new studio was in-built Finance Home in Elizabeth Road. Workplace area was obtainable on floor degree and a big auditorium on the primary ground. The world was leased by the ABC to be used by the orchestra. An adjoining management room was constructed with a view of the studio. The constructing had initially been the theatre Royal.

As particular results have been anticipated to be required for music or drama, a reverberation unit was supplied with adjustable reverb time. This was within the kind of a giant metal plate and was put in in Studio 419, Penneys Constructing on the sixth ground and remotely managed from studio 429, Finance Home. A program line loop was subsequently required between studio and Penneys. The nameplate on the unit was EMT however particulars aren’t recognized apart from that it was of German provenance. It was finally eliminated and saved at Middenbury however its destiny shouldn’t be recognized.

A brand new orchestral studio was constructed at West Finish throughout the river from the Toowong Studios in 1978 and the Finance Home premises have been now not required.

Concert events within the Brisbane Metropolis Corridor have been initially broadcast utilizing exterior broadcast (OB) tools set as much as the suitable of the stage on a small desk. This was a relatively public and inconvenient location, so throughout the 1950’s a small studio was constructed behind the gallery seating, with an not easily seen window enabling a view of the stage. Brian Cleary and Jim Plunkett did the set up with Brian Robinson as engineer in cost. The precise date shouldn’t be recognized though surviving drawings are dated 1955.

Rockhampton Studios[edit]

When 4RK transmitter was put in in 1931, a neighborhood studio was supplied on the highest ground of the Rockhampton Publish Workplace.

At this stage, the applications have been the accountability of the Australian Broadcasting Firm which preceded the formation of the Australian Broadcasting Fee.

The tools was equipped by STC of London and was just like that supplied for emergency operation on the transmitter.

All amplifiers have been battery operated and used STC triode valves varieties 4102D and 4205D. The microphone was a condenser mannequin and with its amplifier valve, was housed in a refined picket field.

Two gramophone turntables outfitted with Western Electrical oil damped pickup arms have been obtainable and have been usually operated by the management room technician.

One of many earliest announcers was George Gardiner. Two information companies a day have been broadcast and the graziers of the district little question welcomed the inventory reviews from the Gracemere cattle saleyards.

The longest serving announcer and later, Regional Consultant, was Charles Beck.

In 1940, Dan Baxter and Ken Ebeling, Radio Part technicians, changed this outdated type tools. Images of the emergency studio desk on the transmitter round that point present a Western Electrical shifting coil microphone kind 633, so it’s doubtless that this kind would have changed the unique condenser on the studio.

Some years later about 1946, the tools was modernized and rooms within the Faculty of Arts have been used, one studio, quantity 460, and one management room.

In 1958 a totally new studio was put in within the Nationwide Mutual Constructing in Denham Road by Mick Pike with Brian Robinson offering engineering supervision. Because of a slight miscalculation, the brand new management desk couldn’t be introduced up the steps and needed to be partially dismantled.

The ultimate transfer within the Rockhampton studio saga was made in 1964. A brand new studio, 461, was put in in a constructing in Quay Road, going through the Fitzroy River. This had been the premises of the Mount Morgan gold mining firm·at an earlier date and the management room was put in in what had as soon as been a bullion vault.

Once more, Brian Robinson was the engineer involved.

Townsville Studios[edit]

After the set up of 4QN in 1936, a neighborhood ABC studio was in-built Thorpe’s Constructing, in direction of the seaward finish of Flinders Road, Townsville. It occupied the entire high ground of this enticing three storey constructing, now referred to as the Queensland Constructing.

Jack Loth, and presumably different 4QN putting in workers, was concerned with the institution of this studio.

In 1942 the tools was moved to the A.M.P. Constructing and modernized with tools designed by Vern Kenna who was at the moment an engineer within the PMG Analysis Labs in Melbourne. Geoff Beetham who was answerable for the set up recollects that Kenna got here as much as Townsville for the commissioning of this new studio. Native lineforeman Peter Smith and his gang moved the heavier {hardware} from Thorpe’s to the AMP.

This studio served Townsville till 1964 when a transfer was made to the brand new ABC premises in Wickham Road which was the brand new tv centre. Brian Robinson and Ron Tolmie have been the engineers answerable for studio design and set up right here. Bernie Bischa, Bob Hansen and Dick Hazel have been engaged on the technical aspect.

Two of the early ABC Regional Representatives have been Keith Kennedy and Reg Peach. They have been adopted by Hugh Peddie and Ralph Taylor. Hugh later went to the Maryborough workplace of the ABC and Reg Peach frolicked within the Brisbane Studios.

Maryborough Studios[edit]

About two years after the opening of 4QB Pialba in 1948, a neighborhood studio was in-built Maryborough within the Faculty of Arts.

Solely restricted native broadcasting was finished from this studio, to 4QB and 4GM when the latter was opened in 1951. The Faculty of Arts studio served till in 1965 a brand new studio was opened within the State Authorities Insurance coverage Workplace constructing in Kent Road. Brian Robinson was the mission engineer for this set up.

The ABC Regional officer and announcer for a few years was Hugh Peddie.

Longreach Studios[edit]

Though 4QL was established in Longreach in 1947, it was not till September 1952 {that a} native studio was supplied.

Area within the Shire Corridor was made obtainable and regular small studio tools was put in by PMG radio workers.

In these days a brand new regional studio was a matter of some significance and a gap ceremony was held.

Senator Cameron the Postmaster Basic spoke on line from Sydney as did R. J. Boyer of the ABC head workplace and W. Riordan the Member for Kennedy. E. J. McCann the ABC’s appearing supervisor for Queensland was current at Longreach with Councillor Edkins the native Shire Chairman.

The opening was compered by announcer Clive Harburg.

The studio was used to insert native information and views into the regional program usually relayed from Brisbane through the Rockhampton studio, and so a larger native and western regional participation was achieved.

On Friday evening, 31 October 1958, the Shire Corridor caught fireplace and suffered appreciable injury. Happily the studio was untouched and remained usable till a choice was made to demolish the outdated corridor and rebuild.

The studio was moved to short-term quarters within the Faculty of Arts constructing in Eagle Road and remained there till the current studio and regional workplace was in-built Duck Road in 1964.

Cairns Studios[edit]

Though 4AT Atherton was acquired in 1941 and 4QY Cairns opened in 1950, no native studio was in-built Cairns till the mid 1950’s. Till this time, particular Far North materials was produced in Townsville and inserted into this system line to 4AT and 4QY on the Townsville studios.

The primary Cairns studio was put in in a constructing on the nook of Abbott and Shields Streets and operated there for about 10 years.

A brand new studio was constructed about 1965 within the State Authorities Insurance coverage Workplace on the nook of Shields Road and the Esplanade overlooking Trinity Bay. The PMG installers have been Peter Chew and Ron Prepare dinner.

Upkeep of the studio was finished by Cairns Phone Alternate technicians till 1972 when the ABC assumed accountability.

Mackay Studios[edit]

Though 4QA was opened in 1951, it was not till 1956 {that a} native studio was constructed. This primary studio was put in on the primary ground of a constructing above Chandler’s retailer in Sydney Road. The technical workers concerned have been John Holland, Bernie Hogue and Brian Cleary.

After some years a brand new studio was established within the State Authorities Insurance coverage Workplace constructing in Victoria Road, and that is the present location.

Mount Isa Studios[edit]

Though 4MI was established at Mount Isa in 1960 all program came visiting Telecom strains till 1986. At this stage the ABC acquired a property in Mount Isa and constructed a studio. With this, a neighborhood breakfast session is supplied for 4MI and 4JK Julia Creek. The rest of this system is derived from satellite tv for pc reception of the ABC’s common regional service.

Half 3 – Radio Actions apart from Nationwide Broadcastng[edit]

The next are examples of the various and diverse works undertaken by Broadcasting workers along with their regular duties of set up, operation and upkeep of studios and transmitters of the Nationwide Broadcasting Service.

Public Shows[edit]

Brisbane Exhibition:  In all probability one of many first main actions, apart from broadcasting, engaged in by the early broadcasters of the Nationwide Broadcasting Service was related to that nice annual occasion, the Brisbane Royal Nationwide Present. Within the prewar 1930’s the PMG Division had a big stand in the principle pavilion with one of the crucial mechanically fascinating shows ever seen on the Present. It featured communication by street, sea and air with automobiles and vehicles traversing streets with visitors lights, ships departing from wharves and mannequin plane carrying mail from one nation to a different.

The automobiles have been moved by an advanced association of magnets beneath the show, and the lights in them have been powered by induction from a grasp oscillator. The electronics have been the accountability of the radio males.

Related to this nice show was a courtroom room scene the place the actors have been outdated type candlestick telephones, a spectacular creation of the phone trade staffs. Varied minor points of interest resembling voice sample shows on a cathode ray oscillograph have been additionally very fashionable. Contingents of faculty kids have been introduced alongside for previews of those marvels, and shouted right into a microphone feeding the CRO. Later, essays needed to be written at college, describing the wonders seen on the PMG show.

The place the funds got here from for all this isn’t sure, however it’s rumoured that the prices of sustaining computerized phone exchanges in Queensland have been a lot greater than in different States at the moment.

No additional broadcasting shows have been seen on the Present till the early 1950’s when a mannequin was displayed based mostly on the brand new Southport regional station then beneath development. By this time the ABC had a studio in use throughout showtime within the Corridor of Science, and an adjoining space was obtainable for Radio Part shows. These weren’t at all times associated to broadcasting. Early Muirhear-Jarvis picturegram tools working over a light-weight beam was included one yr and the wonders of the brand new microwave communication tools have been featured on one other event.

Finally the ABC discontinued the Exhibition Studio and the chance for NBS broadcast publicity on this space vanished, because the area used was a part of the ABC leased lodging.

Work for the ABCB[edit]

Industrial Inspections:  In its early years, the Australian Broadcasting Management Board had no amenities within the States for performing exams on industrial broadcasting stations, and for a few years throughout the 1950’s and 60’s common inspections of those stations have been made by officers of the PMG Radio Part. Full studio and transmitter exams have been required annually at station licence renewal time and these have been finished by an engineer and a supervising technician. Neil Howard, Leo Moloney, Jack Ross, Des Fulton, Doug Sanderson, Ralph Bongers, John Wheller, Gordon Gilbert and others have been concerned on this generally attention-grabbing, usually uncomfortable collection of exams, studios by day and transmitters and aerials within the small hours.

Surveys: Along with the inspection routines, particular exams have been requested now and again, and between 1950 and 1960 some 33 discipline energy surveys and determine of benefit measurements have been made by Leo Moloney, Doug Sanderson, John Wheller, Ralph Bongers, Maurie Palmer, Ken Hobson, George Barr and varied technicians in coaching. The work finished in these years has fashioned the bottom on which floor conductivity knowledge for varied elements of the State has been accrued.

Propagation: An attention-grabbing experiment was carried out over a 2 yr interval from July 1954 to Could 1956 to look at what variation if any occurred in daytime discipline energy of medium frequency stations over the total vary of annual local weather modifications. Discipline energy readings have been taken at noon every week on the Capalaba receiving website of indicators from 4IP Ipswich on 1010 kc/s, 4GR Toowoomba on 860 kc/s and 4QS Dalby on 750 kc/s. The seasonal variation was discovered to be small. The work is recorded in A.B.C.B. Technical Companies Division Report No. 20 written by J. Dixon, 1960. The common Queensland observations have been made by workers of the Brisbane Radio Part Laboratory.

Papua New Guinea Planning: To help the A.B.C.B. within the lengthy vary planning of broadcast amenities in P.N.G., Alan Poulsen, a Divisional Engineer within the Radio Part, researched and ready a plan for this in 1966. To find out the protection supplied at the moment by the excessive frequency transmitters of VLT and VLK at Port Moresby, a discipline energy and listening survey was made by Doug Sanderson and Ken Howard in April and Could 1966. They visited and noticed at eleven cities in Papua New Guinea, New Eire, New Britain and Bouganville. Presently the Queensland administration of the PMG was answerable for operation of those Nationwide broadcasting amenities in Papua New Guinea. This plan fashioned the premise for the following set up of recent medium frequency stations at Wewak, Goroka, Madang and Lae and quite a lot of excessive frequency transmitters at Daru, Kerema, Popandetta, Milne Bay, Lae, Goroka, Mendi, Mount Hagen, Kundiawa, Madang, Kavieng, Kimbe, Rabaul and Kieta.

M.F. Synchronized Operation: In 1955-56 the transmitters at Dalby and Townsville, 4QS and 4QN, have been operated in synchronism on 630 kc/s in an experiment to find out whether or not any enchancment may very well be made to nighttime time secondary protection within the space between the stations. Very secure oscillators have been ready within the PMG Analysis Labs and fitted at every station.

The sphere survey work was carried out by Frank Brownless a Divisional Engineer from Central Workplace Broadcasting Part, assisted by Doug Sanderson of the Radio Lab in Brisbane. They travelled by way of Queensland so far as Hughenden and Charters Towers observing the evening skywaves with tools mounted in an outdated panel van with getting old retreaded tyres. They have been joined for a part of the survey by West Hatfield, an engineer of the A.B.C.B. Some particular exams in Brisbane and Dalby have been made by Vern Kenna and Invoice Rohde of the Brisbane Radio Part. The work and outcomes are described in PMG Radio Part Report No. 30 by Brownless.

Hemmant and Capalaba: When the American armed forces arrived in Queensland throughout the 2nd world struggle they required communication with their headquarters within the USA and in different places, and two radio centres have been arrange close to Brisbane.

The one at Capalaba was designated a radio receiving centre and PMG workers supplied rhombic aerials and a constructing to accommodate the banks of standard and radio teletype receivers required. The US Military supplied a Cummins engine generator of 28 kVA capability. It was a Three section, 208/120 Volt, 60 cycle unit and was acquired by the Commonwealth for 200 kilos in 1946.

A number of miles away at Hemmant, an aerial farm of transmitting rhombics was put in. Within the transmitter constructing was a wonderful array of excessive frequency transmitters for speech and teletype. These have been introduced from the USA and have been sometimes 10 kW watercooled varieties. An emergency diesel generator was additionally put in, an enormous “Buckeye” in its personal engine room. It was a 6 cylinder of 350 horsepower coupled to a 250 kVA Three section alternator made by Excellent Electrical Co. The US Military put in the unit in 1942 and it was acquired in 1946 by the PMG Dept for 1,600 kilos.

The 2 institutions have been retained after the struggle by the PMG and used for years as headquarters for an emergency radio community extending to distant elements of the State. Though among the single sideband transceivers have been put in in Publish Places of work, a number of distant staffed NBS stations had a set and made common contacts with the workers at Hemmant and Capalaba. The decision indicators have been within the VL4 collection, VL4EA being one of many Hemmant transmitters.

Early installations used Australian Military No. 11 transceivers, AWA communications kind receivers and some AMT150 transmitters. Later Racal SSB 60 Watt transceivers have been obtained, with appreciable enchancment to the service. At one time the unique 200 Watt AT14 excessive frequency transmitter at Hemmant was transformed to a linear amplifier for SSB. Ken Stratton was largely answerable for this.

Fred Lubach spent a few years because the receiver operator at Capalaba.

One surviving wartime transmitter, too giant for the modest emergency community, a watercooled 10 kW Federal was reputed to have been tuned up on the 20 metre novice band sooner or later right into a rhombic and supplied the most important VK4 sign ever heard within the USA.

With the advance in PMG companies to distant areas, the significance of the auxiliary community declined and for some years now no use has been manufactured from it so far as NBS stations are involved. In more moderen instances a radio phone service has been supplied by SSB transmission to Birdsville and the Brisbane ends of the circuit have been put in at Hemmant and Capalaba.

The Capalaba centre was used for a few years by the Wi-fi Inspector’s workers within the days when that operate was throughout the PMG Division. Frequency measuring tools and common off air monitoring receivers have been employed.

Though used for a few years by PMG and later, Telecom, the Capalaba property doesn’t belong to this Fee, being thought of at the moment to be an asset of the Division of Communications.

Abroad[edit]

South East Asia:  In January 1966 Roy Wightman, a Divisional Engineer of the Radio Part, visited South Vietnam, at Ban Me Thuot, to do an acceptance check on a 50 kW broadcast transmitter which had been equipped by the Australian Authorities as a part of the Colombo Plan help to South East Asia. The transmitter had been equipped by STC and was a sort 4SU-38. Transmitter, emergency energy provide and vertical radiator had been put in by STC and others.

The emergency energy provide comprised a Blackstone diesel driving a 220 kVA Basic Electrical alternator, and the radiator was a high loaded kind, in all probability an efficient half wave.

The same set up at Khon Kaen in Thailand was subsequent examined. This had been equipped as a part of the SEATO (South East Asia Treaty Group) Support Plan.

Later in 1966, in November, one other related set up was checked at Korat in Thailand.

The next yr in December, a 10 kW 4SU-48A was inspected at Ban Me Thuot.· This had been supplied as a standby unit with its personal aerial, as man insulator issues had occurred on the unique fundamental mast such that transmission had been stopped pending repairs.

New Hebrides:  Following a go to to the New Hebrides by Invoice Rohde, Divisional Engineer of the Radio Part to look at broadcasting wants in these islands, a excessive frequency system was supplied in 1971. Two AWA transmitters have been put in by native workers of the New Hebrides Radio Communication Division and in November and December of 1971, Dave Ellis, an engineer of the Radio Part Brisbane, and a line social gathering erected two excessive frequency aerial arrays with their transmission strains for operation within the Three and seven Mc/s bands. This technique was designed for day and evening protection of the island group from Port Vila. Funds for this mission have been supplied by the Dept of Overseas affairs beneath the South Pacific Support Program.

New Britain: In August 1966 the Radio Traces and Set up workers put in a 10 kW excessive frequency transmitter 4SU-48B with its aerial system, at Rabaul for the Posts and Telegraph Division of P.N.G .. The NBS website of 9RB at Kurakakaul was used for this service, which enabled transmission of indigenous instructional applications by the P.N.G. Division of Data and Extension Companies, D.l.E.S. for brief. John Searle, engineer, was answerable for general supervision of this mission. The transmitter callsign was VH9RA.

Many different installations for the D.l.E.S. have been made by Brisbane workers in P.N.G.

Miscellaneous[edit]

Hospital Cardiograph:  Within the early 1940’s, broadcast workers constructed a big electro cardiograph unit to be used within the Brisbane Basic Hospital. A number of racks of apparatus with giant cathode ray oscilloscope tubes have been put in in a screened room.

R.A.A.F. Low Stress Chamber: Throughout the second world struggle, the Air Pressure put in low stress chambers for testing aircrew at simulated heights, and PMG radio workers have been concerned with the communication tools between the observers, pump operators, medical officers and the airmen being examined.

The chamber was within the type of a cylinder about 10 toes in diameter, with seats alongside both aspect for 14 males. In, Queensland one was in use on the RAAF coaching airfield at Kingaroy and after the struggle this tools or related, was put in on the new air base at Amberley. Engineer Kev Burke of the Radio Set up Division was answerable for equipping and commissioning the communication tools on this chamber throughout 1952.

Publish Workplace Ball:  In bygone years, the annual Publish Workplace Ball was held within the Cloudland Ballroom at Bowen Hills and lots of attention-grabbing devices have been produced by the Radio Part workers for the leisure of friends. One noteworthy machine was a strolling, speaking robotic, largely the work of Supervising Engineer Mick Corridor and Engineer Brian Robinson.

Ionospheric Prediction Service: Within the early days of Ionospheric Sounding, a transmitting and recording station for the Prediction Service was operated within the Brisbane suburb of lndooroopilly and the picket poles and aerials have been erected by Radio linestaff in 1947. Images present the poles being erected by a number of males with the then widespread linemans’ pikes.

Palm Island: Off the North Queensland coast between Townsville and Ingham lie the Palm Islands. The principle island, Palm, is dwelling for an aboriginal group whereas a close-by island Fantone was the positioning of a hospital for lepers. The hospital was staffed by a bunch of French Canadian Roman Catholic nursing sisters.

Throughout 1947 the hospital was moved to the other finish of the island and its radio transmitter and receiver, used for speaking with Palm Island, was despatched to the Radio Part in Brisbane for refurbishing. The transmitter was AWA, of 100 Watt functionality and used a frequency simply above the excessive frequency finish of the M. F. band.

Doug Sanderson who at the moment had simply accomplished the set up of a second transmitter at outdated 4QN Clevedon, was despatched to Palm to reinstall the upgraded tools on the new Fantome Island hospital website.

The outdated website had a T aerial supported by a pair of 80 toes excessive black iron pipes, and it was meant that these be moved to the brand new website. Because the labour equipped was a dozen Palm Island males and an outdated touchdown barge, just one pipe was dismantled and shipped to the brand new website. Right here it was erected on the aspect of the hill beside the sisters’ quarters, utilizing the increase of a lugger as a jury. An extended sloping wire was suspended and led to the brand new transmitter room. The one sister who spoke English properly was instructed in operation of the tools and communication was once more established with Palm Island. Energy for the transmitter was equipped by a cantankerous outdated diesel generator which needed to be began by hand cranking. The station callsign was VKR3.

Oil drilling at Morella: In 1950 the Shell Firm was drilling for oil at Morella north of lnjune and to offer radio phone communication a excessive frequency hyperlink was put in. The frequencies used have been within the 9 Mc/s band by day and the 5 Mc/s band at evening.

The tools at Morella was put in by AWA and consisted of a 400 Watt transmitter kind IJ50904. The Brisbane terminal was at Hemmant, utilizing a 250 Watt RCA transmitter kind ET4336/H. When the service was now not required, Doug Sanderson went to Morella to evaluate the worth of the tools at that finish with a view to buy by the PMG Division. The climate was moist and Carnarvon Creek was in flood, offering some attention-grabbing crossing episodes.

Radio on Trains: Previous to the 1950’s Queensland’s premier practice was the Sunshine Specific working between Brisbane and Cairns, over 1,000 miles. The locos have been steam pushed and the carriages picket.

Nevertheless a brand new practice was on the strategy planning stage with all metal coaches. It was to be referred to as the Sunlander and the Queensland Authorities Railways have been contemplating the potential for enlivening the lengthy journey with radio within the carriages.

The PMG Radio Part was approached on the topic and it was determined to make a sensible check of the proposition. One of many Sunshine Specific carriages was fitted with an extended aerial on its roof and any metal fittings have been bonded to the chassis. DC operated followers have been electrically suppressed and one regular sleeping compartment reserved for the operators and their tools.

So in April 1951, Ian Costello of the Railway Dept and Doug Sanderson made the journey to Cairns and again, listening and logging on an RCA AR88 receiver, and at stops, making discipline energy measurements of any station inside vary. The sphere energy receiver was an RCA WX2B.

Alas, though there have been lengthy stretches the place good reception of Nationwide or Industrial stations was doable, the QGR didn’t proceed with the thought and has by no means used radio re-broadcast on any of its trains.

Forestry Radio:  In 1955 an investigation was manufactured from excessive frequency transmission and reception issues being skilled by the Qld Forestry Division of their pine tree plantations at lmbil, south of Gympie. The transmitter issues have been quickly corrected and a few attention-grabbing receiving exams constructed from Forestry automobiles within the rugged nation round lmbil. The station callsign was VL4FT and the frequency 2.84 Mc/s.

Skywave Observations For C.C.l.R.: Between 1971 and 1974 workers on the Bald Hills Radio Centre made a collection of chart recordings of skywave indicators from a number of distant MF stations to achieve info for the Asian Broadcasting Union examine group on evening propagation over nice distances. This was a part of a CCIR program designed to minimise interference from excessive energy transmitters in neighboring and distant international locations.

An extended wire Beverage aerial was erected, 1,400 toes lengthy, 10 toes excessive on a bearing of 315 diploma T and chart recordings have been made on the output of a Racal RA7915 receiver.

Observations have been made on a Japanese station at Akita, 770 kc/s, 500 kW, and a Thai station at Ban Phachi, 1580 kc/s, 1,000 kW. As well as evening indicators have been recorded from 4QD Emerald, 4QA Mackay and 6DB Derby. Akita was sometimes logged by workers at 4AT Atherton. Observations have been additionally made by PMG workers in Darwin and Australian Broadcasting Management Board workers in Melbourne of a number of distant stations as a part of the identical program.

Des Fulton was the engineer answerable for the monitoring mission and Gordon Gilbert and Col Hattersley ready the tools.


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