Lipstick – Wikipedia

A younger lady making use of purple lipstick

Lips with darkish crimson lipstick

Lipstick is a beauty that applies shade, texture, and safety to the lips.

Many colours and varieties of lipstick exist. Some lipsticks are additionally lip balms, so as to add each shade and hydration.

Though the title initially utilized to the baton (stick) of fabric, inside a tubular container, normally round 10mm in diameter and 50mm in size the time period now typically relate to the fabric itself, no matter technique of utility.

Historical past[edit]

Early historical past[edit]

Historical Sumerian women and men had been presumably the primary to invent and put on lipstick, about 5,000 years in the past.[1] They crushed gems and used them to embellish their faces, primarily on the lips and across the eyes. Egyptians like Cleopatra crushed bugs (carmine) to create a shade of purple on their lips[citation needed]. Girls within the historical Indus Valley Civilization could have used rectangular items of ochre with beveled ends as lipstick.[2]Historical Egyptians wore lipstick to point out social standing relatively than gender.[3] They extracted the purple dye from fucus-algin, 0.01% iodine, and a few bromine mannite, however this dye resulted in critical sickness. Lipsticks with shimmering results had been initially made utilizing a pearlescent substance present in fish scales.[4]

Girls within the Minoan civilization coloured their lips with vivid purple cosmetics. Lip paint in historical Greece was initially restricted to prostitutes and courtesans, however expanded to the higher class between 700 and 300 BCE. Greek ladies coloured their lips with cosmetics created from dyes containing Tyrian purple, crushed mulberries, and the poisonous pigment vermilion.[5]

In Indian Ayurveda, ghee blended with dry petals of ratan-jyot was used initially as remedy for chapped and sore lips however later took up beauty worth and continues to be used as a pure lip color in some components of India.

The Chinese language made among the first lipsticks that had been created from beeswax over 1,000 years in the past to guard the fragile pores and skin of the lips. Through the Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE), scented oils had been added to them, which gave the mouth an attractive issue.

In Australia, Aboriginal ladies would paint their mouths purple with ochre for puberty rituals.[6]

United Kingdom[edit]

Lip colouring began to realize some recognition in 16th-century England. Through the time of Queen Elizabeth I vivid purple lips and a stark white face turned trendy. At the moment, lipstick was created from a mix of beeswax and purple stains from crops. Solely upper-class ladies and male actors wore make-up.

All through a lot of the 19th century, the plain use of cosmetics was not thought-about acceptable in Britain for respectable ladies, and it was related to marginalised teams equivalent to actors and prostitutes. It was thought-about brazen and uncouth to put on make-up.[7] Within the 1850s, stories had been being revealed warning ladies of the hazards of utilizing lead and vermilion in cosmetics utilized to the face. By the top of the 19th century, Guerlain, a French beauty firm, started to fabricate lipstick. The primary industrial lipstick had been invented in 1884, by perfumers in Paris, France. It was coated in silk paper and created from deer tallow, castor oil, and beeswax.[8] Previous to this, lipstick had been created at house.[9] Full acceptance of the undisguised use of cosmetics in England seems to have arrived for the trendy Londoner not less than by 1921.[10]

United States[edit]

Within the 19th century, lipstick was coloured with carmine dye. Carmine dye was extracted from cochineal, scale bugs native to Mexico and Central America which stay on cactus crops. Cochineal bugs produce carminic acid to discourage predation by different bugs. Carminic acid, which types 17% to 24% of the burden of the dried bugs, could be extracted from the insect’s physique and eggs. Blended with aluminum or calcium salts it makes carmine dye (also called cochineal).[11]:36

This lipstick didn’t are available in a tube; it was utilized with a brush. Carmine dye was costly and the look of carmine coloured lipstick was thought-about unnatural and theatrical, so lipstick was frowned upon for on a regular basis put on. Solely actors and actresses might get away with sporting lipstick. In 1880, few stage actresses wore lipstick in public.[12] The well-known actress, Sarah Bernhardt, started sporting lipstick and rouge in public. Earlier than the late 19th century, ladies solely utilized make-up at house. Bernhardt typically utilized carmine dye to her lips in public.[11]:36

Within the early 1890s, carmine was blended with an oil and wax base. The combination gave a pure look and it was extra acceptable amongst ladies. At the moment, lipstick was not bought in screw up steel tube; it was bought in paper tubes, tinted papers, or in small pots. The Sears Roebuck catalog first provided rouge for lips and cheeks by the late 1890s.

By 1912 trendy American ladies had come to contemplate lipstick acceptable, although an article within the New York Instances suggested on the necessity to apply it cautiously.[13]

By 1915, lipstick was bought in cylinder steel containers, which had been invented by Maurice Levy. Girls needed to slide a tiny lever along side the tube with the sting of their fingernail to maneuver the lipstick as much as the highest of the case,[14] though lipsticks in push-up steel containers had been obtainable in Europe since 1911. In 1923, the primary swivel-up tube was patented by James Bruce Mason Jr. in Nashville, Tennessee. As ladies began to put on lipstick for images, images made lipstick acceptable amongst ladies. Elizabeth Arden and Estee Lauder started promoting lipstick of their salons.[12]

Through the Second World Battle, steel lipstick tubes had been changed by plastic and paper tubes. Lipstick was scarce throughout that point as a result of among the important components of lipstick, petroleum and castor oil, had been unavailable.:50 World Battle II allowed ladies to work in engineering and scientific analysis, and within the late 1940s, Hazel Bishop, an natural chemist in New York and New Jersey, created the primary lengthy lasting lipstick, referred to as No-Smear lipstick.[15] With the assistance of Raymond Specter, an advertiser, Bishop’s lipstick enterprise thrived.

One other type of lip shade, a wax-free, semi-permanent liquid method, was invented within the 1990s by the Lip-Ink Worldwide firm. Different corporations have imitated the thought, placing out their very own variations of long-lasting “lip stain” or “liquid lip shade.”

Lipstick tendencies[edit]

All through the early 20th century, lipstick got here in a restricted variety of shades.

Darkish purple lipstick was one of the crucial fashionable shades all through the 19th and 20th century, particularly within the 1920s. Flappers wore lipstick to represent their independence. Lipstick was worn across the lips to kind a “Cupid’s bow,” impressed by actress Clara Bow.[16] At the moment, it was acceptable to use lipstick in public and through lunch, however by no means at dinner.[14][17]

Within the early 1930s, Elizabeth Arden started to introduce completely different lipstick colours. She impressed different corporations to create quite a lot of lipstick shades.[18][19] Within the 1930s, lipstick was seen as an emblem of grownup sexuality. Teenage ladies believed that lipstick was an emblem of womanhood, but adults noticed it as an act of riot. Many Individuals, particularly immigrants, didn’t settle for teenage ladies sporting lipstick. A examine in 1937 survey revealed that over 50% of teenage ladies fought with their mother and father over lipstick.[20]

Within the mid-1940s, a number of teen books and magazines harassed that males choose a pure look over a made-up look. Books and magazines additionally warned ladies that sporting cosmetics might damage their possibilities of recognition and a profession. The implication of those articles was that lipstick and rouge had been for teen ladies who acted very provocatively with males.[20] Regardless of the elevated use of cosmetics, it was nonetheless related to prostitution. Teen ladies had been discouraged from sporting cosmetics for concern that they might be mistaken for “free” ladies or prostitutes.[21]

By the 1950s, film actresses Marilyn Monroe and Elizabeth Taylor helped carry again darkish purple lips. A 1951 survey revealed that two-thirds of teenage ladies wore lipstick.

In 1950 chemist Hazel Bishop fashioned an organization, Hazel Bishop Inc., to advertise her invention of long-lasting, non-smearing ‘kissproof’ lipstick (“stays on you… not on him”), which rapidly gained acceptance.[22] On the finish of the 1950s, a beauty firm named Gala launched pale shimmery lipstick. Later, Max Issue created a preferred lipstick shade referred to as Strawberry Meringue. Lipstick producers started creating lipsticks in lavender, pale pink, white, and peach. Since mother and father typically frowned on teen ladies sporting purple lipstick, some teen ladies started sporting pink and peach lipsticks, which turned a pattern.[23] White or almost white lipstick was fashionable within the 1960s.[20] Rock teams such because the Ronettes and the Shirelles popularized white lipstick. Ladies would apply white lipstick over pink lipstick or place under-eye concealer on their lips. Throughout that point, many lipsticks had been both matte, sheer, or barely shiny. Within the 1960s, lipstick was related to femininity. Girls who didn’t put on lipstick had been suspected of psychological sickness or lesbianism.[20]

Within the 1970s, plenty of beauty corporations launched lipsticks in additional uncommon colours equivalent to iridescent mild blue (Kanebo), frosted lime inexperienced (Conga Lime by Revlon), and silver sparkled navy blue (Metallic Grandma by Biba). M•A•C cosmetics continues to launch restricted version and extremely collectible lipsticks in a variety of colours and finishes, together with uncommon hues of violets, blues, and greens.

Rocker Marilyn Manson helped popularize darkish lipsticks in various subcultures.

Black lipstick turned fashionable within the late 1970s and into the 1990s. Within the 1950s, black lipstick had been worn by actresses starring in horror movies. It turned fashionable once more due partially to punk and goth subcultures.

Within the mid-1980s, so-called temper lipstick, akin to temper rings, was bought to adults by mainstream beauty corporations. Any such lipstick modifications colours after it’s utilized, primarily based on modifications in pores and skin’s pH that supposedly mirror the wearer’s temper.[24] Beforehand these had been obtainable as little ladies’ play make-up. That they had one other resurgence within the very early 21st century, provided by cheap in addition to extra unique beauty traces, and shade altering chemical compounds additionally appeared in lip gloss, equivalent to Smashbox O-Gloss, and blush, equivalent to Stila Customized Coloration Blush.

Within the 1990s, lipstick colours turned semi-matte. Shades of brown had been very talked-about. These shades had been impressed by a number of reveals, equivalent to “Pals”. Within the late 1990s and into the 21st century, pearl shades turned very talked-about. Lipsticks had been now not matte or semi-matte, however had been shiny.

In 2012, vivid daring lip colours turned stylish once more with saturated colours equivalent to scorching pink, neon, and orange.[25]

In 2014 and early 2015 nude lipsticks turned fashionable. These lipsticks comply with the final pattern the place “much less is extra”. Examples of celebrities selling this pattern are Paris Hilton and Gigi Beautiful.

In late 2015 and 2016 liquid lipstick, which applies like a gloss however dries matte, turned popularized with manufacturers equivalent to Anastasia Beverly Hills, Sephora, Huda Magnificence, Kylie Cosmetics, NYX Cosmetics. Its most typical kind is available in a tube, utilized with an applicator wand. Liquid lipstick tends to have extra endurance and is extra pigmented than conventional lipstick. Nevertheless, it dries out extra and cracks extra readily over time.

Lipstick additionally has many variations together with liquid, lip balms, glosses, crayons, pencils, liners, palettes, and stains. Balms and glosses are usually extra translucent and never as darkish or vibrant. Some people purchase lip balms and glosses relatively than lipstick, as they get a extra hydrating feeling from these.

Significance in sexuality[edit]

A “lipstick lesbian” is a feminine who’s drawn to different females, however stays stereotypically female and has a “girly” identification, typically generally known as a “femme.”[citation needed] The time period “lipstick lesbian” turned fashionable when utilized by author Deborah Bergman, a reporter for the Los Angeles Instances.[26]


Lipstick incorporates wax, oils, antioxidants, and emollients.[27] Wax supplies the construction to the strong lipstick. Lipsticks could also be created from a number of waxes equivalent to beeswax, ozokerite and candelilla wax. Due to its excessive melting level, carnauba wax is a key ingredient when it comes to strengthening the lipstick. Varied oils and fat are utilized in lipsticks, equivalent to olive oil, mineral oil, cocoa butter, lanolin, and petrolatum.

Lipsticks get their colours from quite a lot of pigments and lake dyes together with, however not restricted to bromo acid, D&C Pink No. 21, Calcium Lake equivalent to D&C Pink 7 and D&C Pink 34, and D&C Orange No. 17. Pink lipsticks are made by mixing white titanium dioxide and purple shades. Each natural and inorganic pigments are employed.

Matte lipsticks include extra filling brokers like silica however don’t have many emollients. Creme lipsticks include extra waxes than oils. Sheer and lengthy lasting lipsticks include extra oil, whereas lengthy lasting lipsticks additionally include silicone oil, which seals the colours to the wearer’s lips. Shiny lipstick incorporates extra oil to present a shiny end to the lips.

Shimmery or frost lipstick could include mica, silica, and artificial pearl particles, equivalent to bismuth oxychloride, to present them a glittery or shimmering shine.[4]

Lipstick is created from grinding and heating components. Then heated waxes are added to the combo for texture. Oils and lanolin are added for particular method necessities. Afterwards, the recent liquid is poured right into a steel mildew. The combination is then chilled. As soon as they’ve hardened, they’re heated in flame for half a second to create a shiny end and to take away imperfections.[4]

Lead traces[edit]

Lead and different hint metals could also be discovered in lots of lipsticks; these happen naturally and might unintentionally contaminate different components throughout manufacturing. As contaminants are usually not added deliberately they won’t be listed as components.

In 2007, a examine by the Marketing campaign for Protected Cosmetics[28] launched a report referred to as “A Poison Kiss”[29] that examined 33 fashionable manufacturers of lipstick for lead content material. The examine discovered that 61 p.c of lipsticks contained lead with ranges as much as 0.65 components per million (ppm).[30] The examine raised public consciousness of the difficulty, placing stress on the FDA to conduct additional research utilizing a specialised testing technique.[31][32] In 2009, the FDA launched the follow-up examine[33] to the Marketing campaign for Protected Cosmetics’ report, which discovered lead was current in all 20 samples examined. The lead ranges ranged from 0.09 to three.06 ppm,[34] with the best ranges present in lipsticks made by Cowl Woman, L’Oreal, and Revlon.[30]

In 2010, the FDA performed an expanded survey[35] on its earlier examine, which broadened the testing to 400 lipsticks that had been obtainable on the U.S. market on the time. This examine was carried out by Frontier World Sciences, Inc. utilizing the identical testing technique as 2009. This examine discovered a mean of 1.11 ppm in comparison with the 1.07 ppm common within the 2009 examine, whereas the best quantity of seven.19 ppm in Maybelline’s Coloration Sensational 125 – Pink Petal.[34] This was greater than twice the best quantity discovered within the 2009 examine.

Hint quantities of lead can contaminate uncooked components, particularly mineral primarily based components, as this aspect happens naturally in soil, water, and air.[36] The Marketing campaign for Protected Cosmetics made a listing of chemical compounds for concern[37] which might include poisonous chemical compounds equivalent to lead.

While solely hint quantities of lead are ingested from lipstick, lead accumulates within the physique over time, which might ultimately result in lead poisoning. The commonest customers of lipstick are teenagers and grownup ladies, and a examine carried out by the College of California, Berkeley discovered that ladies utilized lipstick anyplace from two to 14 occasions a day. This interprets to as much as 87 milligrams of product ingestion per day.[32] Lead ingestion is especially regarding for pregnant ladies as a result of lead can enter the fetus from the mom.[38]

The FDA is the regulating physique[39] of beauty security below the U.S. FD&C Act.[40] Cosmetics regulated by the FD&C Act don’t have to be authorized for pre-market sale, however pre-market approval is required for any shade components utilized in lipsticks. At present, the FDA has not set a suitable lead restrict stage for lipsticks particularly, nevertheless it has set specs for lead within the shade components[41] utilized in lipstick. The FDA’s most lead restrict stage is 20 components per million in cosmetics; nevertheless, since lipstick is absorbed by way of the pores and skin and solely ingested in very small portions, the FDA doesn’t “take into account the lead ranges we discovered within the lipsticks to be a security concern”.[34] The CDC, alternatively, stories that there isn’t a protected blood stage for lead and that its presence, even at low ranges, can have an effect on IQ, the flexibility to concentrate, and educational achievement. As soon as current, the consequences of lead publicity on the physique can’t be reversed.[42]

In forensic science[edit]

Traces of lipstick, cosmetics, nail polish, or different “smears” could possibly be discovered left on consuming cups, glasses, cigarette butts, and tissue papers and should all be important forensic proof within the investigation of a criminal offense, particularly in circumstances equivalent to sexual assault, murder, and in government- or corporate-related corruption and controversies.

Lipstick, as a bodily proof, could also be discovered on clothes, components of the sufferer’s or convict’s physique, a tissue, a cigarette, and so on. By evaluating the composition of a lipstick smear with that of a sufferer or a witness, forensic scientists can reveal direct or oblique proof of contact or a relationship between the plaintiff and the defendant. Additionally, it’s typically attainable to extract saliva DNA from the lipstick print which could hyperlink a suspect to their presence on the crime scene.[43]

Varied different strategies of forensic lipstick evaluation are used. For example, a small quantity of lipstick (roughly 10 μg) might result in good comparisons in thin-layer chromatography.

See additionally[edit]

  1. ^ Schaffer, Sarah (2006), “Studying Our Lips: The Historical past of Lipstick Regulation in Western Seats of Energy”, Meals and Drug Legislation Journal, Digital Entry to Scholarship at Harvard, 62 (1): 165–225, PMID 17444030[dead link]
  2. ^ Mackay, E.J.A. (1937). “Excavations at Chanhu-daro”. Journal of the Royal Society of Arts. 85 (4405): 527–545.
  3. ^ Schaffer, Sarah (Could 16, 2006). “The Historical past of Lipstick Regulation in Western Seats of Energy”. Harvard. Retrieved Feb 8, 2016.
  4. ^ a b c “What’s That Stuff?”. Chemical and Engineering Information. Retrieved 2010-09-02.
  5. ^ Harvard Legislation College:Studying Our Lips: The Historical past of Lipstick Regulation in Western Seats of Energy Archived 2006-09-05 on the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Richards, Beth (1994). “Blood of the Moon”. Herizons: 28.
  7. ^ Vidal Claramonte, María del Carmen África (1990). “Greil Marcus. Lipstick Traces: A Secret Historical past of the Twentieth Century. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard College Press, 1989, 496 pp”. Revista Alicantina de Estudios Ingleses (3): 143–144. doi:10.14198/raei.1990.3.15-2. ISSN 0214-4808.
  8. ^ “A Full Historical past And Evolution Of Lipsticks: Attention-grabbing Info”. STYLECRAZE. Retrieved 2020-01-24.
  9. ^ Conway, Susannah (1999-01-03). “Trend: The Historical past of… Lipstick – Lip-Smackers Good”. London: The Impartial (U.Ok.). Retrieved 2010-02-09.
  10. ^ The Instances, Monday, Dec 12, 1921; pg. 7; Challenge 42901; col C, Retailers At Their Greatest: “Self-importance circumstances are in countless selection, massive sufficient to carry mirror, powder-puff, lip-stick, and different necessaries of female social life.”
  11. ^ a b Riordan, Theresa (2004-05-10). Inventing Magnificence: A Historical past of the Improvements that Have Made Us Lovely. New York, NY: Crown Publishing Group. pp. 36–60. ISBN 978-0-7679-1451-2.
  12. ^ a b “How Lipstick Works”. Discovery Well being. Retrieved 2010-09-02.
  13. ^ New York Instances, March 17, 1912, “The Artwork of Making Up”:”There was a time when to admit to make up was to put one’s self past the pale…We flaunt the vainness field today as frankly as our ancestors did within the eighteenth century…. Contact the lips barely with a lip-stick, however don’t make your mouth appear to be uncooked beef.”
  14. ^ a b “Clara Bow Lips – 1920s Magnificence”. Archived from the unique on 2006-03-05. Retrieved 2010-09-02.
  15. ^ Berg, Rona (2001-01-01). Magnificence: The New Fundamentals. New York, NY: Workman Publishing. pp. 144. ISBN 978-0-7611-0186-4.
  16. ^ “The Roaring 20s – Picture Assessment”. Illinois State College. Archived from the unique on 2011-07-23. Retrieved 2010-09-02.
  17. ^ McVeigh, Tracy (2010-01-17). “Lipstick Follows Financial system Into Pink”. London: The Guardian (U.Ok.). Retrieved 2010-09-02.
  18. ^ lipstick shades
  19. ^ Sherrow, Victoria (2001-03-30). For Look’s Sake: The Historic Encyclopedia of Good Appears to be like, Magnificence, and Grooming. Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing. pp. 180. doi:10.1336/1573562041. ISBN 978-1-57356-204-1.
  20. ^ a b c d Mitchell, Claudia; Jacqueline Reid-Walsh (2007-12-30). Woman Tradition: An Encyclopedia. Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing. pp. 396–397. doi:10.1336/0313339082. ISBN 978-0-313-33908-0.
  21. ^ Forman-Brunell, Miriam (2001-06-01). Girlhood in America: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. pp. 159. ISBN 978-1-57607-206-6.
  22. ^ New York Instances, December 10, 1998, obituary: ‘Hazel Bishop, 92, an innovator who made lipstick kissproof’
  23. ^ “Magnificence and Make Up Trend Historical past After 1950”. Trend Period. Retrieved 2010-09-02.
  24. ^ Mansour, David (2005). From Abba to Zoom: A Pop Tradition Encyclopedia of the Late 20th Century. Kansas Metropolis, Missouri: Andrews McMeel Publishing. p. 319. ISBN 978-0-7407-5118-9.
  25. ^ Macrae, Sarah. “2012 Critics’ Selection Awards Magnificence Pattern: Daring Lipstick”. POPSUGAR Magnificence Australia.
  26. ^ Faderman, Lillian, Simmons, Stuart (2006). Homosexual L.A.: A Historical past of Sexual Outlaws, Energy Politics, and Lipstick Lesbians. New York.
  27. ^ Günther Schneider, Sven Gohla, Jörg Schreiber, Waltraud Kaden, Uwe Schönrock, Hartmut Schmidt-Lewerkühne, Annegret Kuschel, Xenia Petsitis, Wolfgang Pape, Hellmut Ippen and Walter Diembeck “Pores and skin Cosmetics” in Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2005, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim doi:10.1002/14356007.a24_219
  28. ^ Marketing campaign for Protected Cosmetics
  29. ^ “A Poison Kiss”
  30. ^ a b “Lead In Lipstick – Protected Cosmetics”. Protected Cosmetics. Retrieved 2016-10-27.
  31. ^ testing technique
  32. ^ a b Hammond, Lui S.; Rojas-Cheatham, A. (2013). “Concentrations and Potential Well being Dangers of Metals in Lip Merchandise” (PDF). UC Berkeley – College of Public Well being. 2013 (6): 705–10. doi:10.1289/ehp.1205518. PMC 3672908. PMID 23674482. Archived from the unique (PDF) on 2016-10-20. Retrieved 2016-10-27.
  33. ^ follow-up examine
  34. ^ a b c Diet, Middle for Meals Security and Utilized. “Merchandise – Lipstick & Lead: Questions & Solutions”. Retrieved 2016-10-27.
  35. ^ expanded survey
  36. ^ Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Enazi, Sami (2011-07-01). “Hint metals in lipsticks”. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry. 93 (6): 1149–1165. doi:10.1080/02772248.2011.582040. ISSN 0277-2248. S2CID 94903710.
  37. ^ chemical compounds for concern
  38. ^ Gondal, M. A., Seddigi, Z. S., Nasr, M. M., & Gondal, B. (2010). “Spectroscopic detection of well being hazardous contaminants in lipstick utilizing Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy”. Journal of Hazardous Supplies. 175 (1–3): 726–732. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.10.069. PMID 19926220.CS1 maint: a number of names: authors listing (hyperlink)
  39. ^ regulating physique
  40. ^ FD&C Act
  41. ^ shade components
  42. ^ Well being, Nationwide Middle for Environmental. “CDC – Lead – New Blood Lead Degree Info”. Retrieved 2016-10-27.
  43. ^ “Hartnell Faculty Technical Word” (PDF).


  • Berg, Rona. Magnificence: The New Fundamentals. New York, NY: Workman Publishing, 2001. ISBN 978-0-7611-0186-4 (0761101861).
  • Forman-Brunell, Miriam. Girlhood in America: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2001. ISBN 1-57607-206-1.
  • Mansour, David. From Abba to Zoom: A Pop Tradition Encyclopedia of the Late 20th Century. Kansas Metropolis, Missouri:Andrews McMeel Publishing, 2005. ISBN 978-0-7407-5118-9
  • Mitchell, Claudia, and Jacqueline Reid-Walsh. Woman Tradition: An EncyclopedBeauty: The New Fundamentals. New York, NY: Workman Publishing, 2001. ISBN 978-0-7611-0186-4 (0761101861).
  • Forman-Brunell, Miriam. Girlhood in America: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2001. ISBN 1-57607-206-1.
  • Mansour, David. From Abba to Zoom: A Pop Tradition Encyclopedia of the Late 20th Century. Kansas Metropolis, Missouri:Andrews McMeel Publishing, 2005. ISBN 978-0-7407-5118-9
  • Mitchell, Claudia, and Jacqueline Reid-Walsh. Woman Tradition: An Encyclopedia. Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing, 2007. ISBN 0-313-33908-2
  • Riordan, Theresa. Inventing Magnificence: A Historical past of the Improvements that Have Made Us Lovely. New York, NY: Crown Publishing Group, 2004. ISBN 0-7679-1451-1.
  • Sherrow, Victoria. For Look’ Sake: The Historic Encyclopedia of Good Appears to be like, Magnificence, and Grooming. Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing, 2001. ISBN 1-57356-204-1.

Exterior hyperlinks[edit]

  • Media associated to Lipstick at Wikimedia Commons


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