stale – Wiktionary

English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Center English stale, of unsure etymology, however in all probability initially from Proto-Germanic *stāną (to face): evaluate West Flemish stel in the identical sense for ‘beer’ and ‘urine’.[1]

Adjective[edit]

stale (comparative staler, superlative stalest)

  1. (alcoholic drinks, out of date) Clear, freed from dregs and lees; previous and robust.
  2. Now not contemporary, in reference to meals, urine, straw, wounds, and so forth.
    • 1530, John Palsgrave, L’éclaircissement de la langue française, 325 2:
      Stale as breed or drinke is, rassis. Stale as meate is that begynneth to savoure, viel.
    • c. 1550, Wyll of Deuill, C 2 b:
      New freshe blood to ouersprinkle their stale mete that it could seme…newly kylled.
    • 2012, Stephen Woodworth, In Golden Blood: Quantity Three in sequence
      To her shock, Abe didn’t come to gather her for the same old morning inhabitation session with Azure. She didn’t see him till nearly midday, when he personally delivered lunch to her tent. One other stale roll and cup of water sat on the tray he carried. Abe hung his head, as abashed as Honorato had been. “That is all I may sneak in for now. I will attempt to get extra later.”
  3. Now not contemporary, new, or attention-grabbing, in reference to concepts and immaterial issues; cliche, hackneyed, dated.
    • 1562, in J. Heywood, Proverbs & Epigrams (1867), 95:
      Higher is…be it new or stale, A harmelesse lie, than a harmefull true story.
    • 1579, in G. Harvey, letter guide, 60:
      Doist thou smyle to reade this stale and beggarlye stuffe.
    • 1604, William Shakespeare, Hamlet, I ii 133:
      How cautious, stale, flat, and vnprofitable Seeme to me all of the vses of this world?
    • 1822 March, Charles Lamb, London Journal, 284 1:
      A two-days-old newspaper. You resent the stale factor as an affront.
    • 2002, Mark Lawson, And They Rose Up: Days of Retribution
      Rick would touch upon the truth that he’d by no means had such dangerous espresso, not even the mud at his precinct. Mark would inform him to give up with the stale joke, already
  4. Now not nubile or appropriate for marriage, in reference to folks; previous one’s prime.
    • c. 1580, J. Jeffere, Bugbears, I ii 108:
      Rosimunda…hathe an vncle a stale batcheler.
    • 1742, T. Quick, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 42 226:
      In barren Girls, and stale Maids, Tapping must be very cautiously undertaken.
  5. (agriculture, out of date) Fallow, in reference to land.
    • 1764, Museum Rusticum, II 306:
      Lime would do little or no or no good on stale ploughed lands.
  6. (legislation) Unreasonably lengthy in coming, in reference to claims and actions.
    a stale affidavit
    a stale demand
    • 1769, William Blackstone, Frequent Legal guidelines of England, IV xv 211:
      The jury will hardly ever give credit score to a stale grievance.
  7. Taking a very long time to vary
    • 2014, David L. Hough, Avenue Methods for Motorcyclists
      In most states, you might be ticketed for failing to clear the intersection, even in case you are hemmed in by visitors. One good clue to a stale inexperienced gentle is the pedestrian sign.
  8. Worn out, significantly on account of age or over-exertion, in reference to athletes and animals in competitors.
    • 1856, “Stonehenge”, Handbook of British Rural Sports activities, II i vi §7 335:
      By this implies the [horse’s] legs usually are not made extra stale than obligatory.
    • 1885 Might 28, Reality, 853 2:
      Dame Agnes will in all probability be stale after her exertions within the Derby.
  9. (finance) Old-fashioned, unpaid for an unreasonable period of time, significantly in reference to checks.
    • 1901, Enterprise Phrases & Phrases second version, 199:
      Stale cheque,…a cheque which has remained unpaid for some appreciable time.
  10. (computing) Of knowledge: old-fashioned; not synchronized with the latest copy.
    The bug was discovered to be brought on by stale knowledge within the cache.
Utilization notes[edit]

Within the third sense relating to meals, often (however not at all times) pejorative and synonymous with gone dangerous and turned. In reference to mead, wine, and bread, it could describe an appropriate or desired state (see: crouton). In trendy English, nevertheless, “stale beer” has been gentle struck, flat, or oxidized and is to be averted.

Synonyms[edit]
Antonyms[edit]
Derived phrases[edit]
Associated phrases[edit]
Translations[edit]

Noun[edit]

stale (plural stales)

  1. (colloquial) One thing stale; a loaf of bread or the like that’s now not contemporary.
    • 1874, Thomas Hardy, Removed from the Madding Crowd, II iii 39:
      I went to Riggs’s batty-cake store, and requested ’em for a penneth of the most cost effective and nicest stales, that had been all however blue-mouldy, however not fairly.
    • 1937, George Orwell, Street to Wigan Pier, I i 15:
      Frayed-looking sweet-cakes…purchased as ‘stales’ from the baker.

Verb[edit]

stale (third-person singular easy current stales, current participle staling, easy previous and previous participle staled)

  1. (of alcohol, out of date, transitive) To make stale; to age in an effort to clear and strengthen (a drink, particularly beer).
    • c. 1440, Promp. Parv., 472 1:
      Stalyn, or make stale drynke, defeco.
    • 1826, Artwork of Brewing, second version, 106:
      A inventory of previous porter must be stored, ample for staling the consumption of twelve months.
  2. (transitive) To make stale; to trigger to exit of style or forex; to decrease the novelty or curiosity of, significantly by extreme publicity or consumption.
    • 1601, Ben Jonson, Fountaine of Self-love, 36:
      Ile goe inform all of the Argument of his Play aforehand, and so stale his Inuention to the Auditory earlier than it come foorth.
    • 1601, Ben Jonson, Each Man in his Humor, I iv:
      Not content material To stale himselfe in all societies, He makes my home as widespread as a Mart.
    • c. 1616, William Shakespeare, Antony & Cleopatra, II ii 241:
      Age can’t wither her, nor custome stale Her infinite selection.
    • 1863, W. W. Story, Roba di Roma, I i 7:
      Footage and statues have been staled by copy and outline.
  3. (intransitive) To grow to be stale; to develop odious from extreme publicity or consumption.
    • 1717, E. Erskine, Serm. in Wks., 50 1:
      They’ve a lot of Christ as to be staled of his firm.
    • 1893, “Q”, Delectable Duchy, 325:
      Philanthropy was starting to stale.
  4. (alcoholic drinks, intransitive) To grow to be stale; to develop disagreeable from age.
    • 1742, W. Ellis, London & Nation Brewer, 4th ed., I 64:
      The Drink from that Time flattens and stales.
Derived phrases[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Center English stale, from Outdated English stalu, from Proto-Germanic *stal-. The event was paralleled by the ablaut which turned English steal, from Center English stele, from Outdated English stela, from Proto-Germanic *stel-.[2] The latter additionally produced Historic Greek στελεός (steleós, deal with) and Latin stēla, which turned English stele and stela.

Noun[edit]

stale (plural stales)

  1. An extended, skinny deal with (of rakes, axes, and so forth.)
    • 12th century, Sidonius Glosses in Anecd. Oxon., I v 59 22:
      Ansae et ansulae alicuius rei sunt illa eminentia in illa re per quam capi possit .i. ‘stale’.
    • c. 1393, Langland, Piers Plowman (Vesp. MS), C xxii 279:
      And lerede males a ladel bygge with an extended stale.
    • 1742, W. Ellis, London & Nation Brewer 4th ed., I 61:
      In Case your Cask is a Butt,…have prepared boiling…Water, which put in, and, with an extended Stale and a little bit Birch fixed to its Finish, scrub the Backside.
    • 1890 February 4, Manchester Guardian, 12 3:
      You got here to me with the axe head in a single hand and the stale within the different.
  2. (dialectal) The posts and rungs composing a ladder.
    • 13th century, Ancrene Riwle, 160:
      Scheome. and pine…beoð þe two leddre stalen. þet beoð upriht to þe heouene. and bitweonen þeos stalen beoð þe tindes i-vestned of alle gode þeauwes. bi hwuche me climbeð to þe blisse of heouene.
    • c. 1315, Shoreham Poems, I 49:
      Þis ilke laddre is charite, Þe stales gode þeawis.
    • 1887, W. D. Parish & al., Kentish Dial.
      Stales, the staves, or risings of a ladder, or the staves of a rack in a steady.
  3. (botany, out of date) The stem of a plant.
  4. The shaft of an arrow, spear, and so forth.
    • 1553, J. Brende translating Q. Curtius Rufus, Hist., IX
      The Surgians lower of the stale of that shaft in suche smart, that they moued not the heade that was wythin the fleshe.
    • c. 1611, G. Chapman translating Homer, Iliad, IV 173:
      …seeing th’arrowes stale with out.
Various types[edit]
Synonyms[edit]
  • deal with (grip of instruments, usually)
  • haft (grip of instruments, usually, and particularly of axes)
  • helve (grip of instruments, usually)
  • shaft (physique of arrows, spears, and so forth.)
  • snath, the shaft of a scythe
  • stem (vegetation)
Translations[edit]

Verb[edit]

stale (third-person singular easy current stales, current participle staling, easy previous and previous participle staled)

  1. (transitive, out of date) To make a ladder by becoming a member of rungs (“stales”) between the posts.
    • 1492 in Archæol. Cant., XVI 304:
      For stalyng of the ladders of the Churche xx d.

Etymology 3[edit]

From Center English stale, from Outdated French estal (place, one thing positioned) (evaluate French étal), from Frankish stal,[3] from Proto-Germanic *stallaz, earlier *staþlaz. Associated to stall and stand.

Noun[edit]

stale (plural stales)

  1. (navy, out of date) A set place, significantly a soldier’s in a battle-line.
  2. (chess, unusual) A stalemate; a stalemated sport.
    • 1423, Kingis Quair, CLXIX:
      ‘Off mate?’ quod sche…‘thou has fundin stale This mony day’.
    • 1625, Francis Bacon, Essays, 65
      They stand at a keep; Like a Stale at Chesse, the place it’s no Mate, however but the Recreation can’t stirre.
  3. (navy, out of date) An ambush.
    • c. 1425, Wyntoun Cron., IX viii 811:
      And he in stale howyd al stil.
    • 1513, G. Douglas translating Virgil, Æneid, XI x 96:
      It’s a stelling place and sovir harbry, Quhar ost in staill or embuschment could ly.
    • 1577, R. Holinshed, Chron., II 1479 2:
      The erle of Essex…with .ii. C. speares was layde in a stale, if the Frenchmen had come neerer.
  4. (out of date) A band of armed males or hunters.
    • c. 1350, in N. H. Nicolas, Hist. Royal Navy (1847), II 491:
      [Every time that it shall be ordered..that armed men..shall land on the enemy’s coast to seek victuals… then there shall be ordained a sufficient ‘stale’ of armed men and archers who shall wait together on the land until the ‘forreiours’ return to them].
    • 14th century, Morte Arthur, 1355:
      [Gawayne] sterttes owtte to hys stede, and along with his stale wendes.
    • c. 1540, J. Bellenden translating H. Boece, Hyst. & Cron. Scotl., XII xvi 184:
      The staill previous throw the wod with sic noyis…yat all of the bestis wer rasit fra thair dennys.
    • 1577, R. Holinshed, Hist. Scotl., 471 2 in Chron., I:
      The Lard of Drunlanrig mendacity al thys whereas in ambush…forbare to breake out to gyue anye cost vppon his enimies, doubting least the Earle of Lennox hadde stored a stale behynde.
  5. (Scotland, navy, out of date) The primary drive of a military.
    • 1532 in 1836, State Papers Henry VIII, IV 626:
      Neveryeles I knaw asweill by Englisemen as Scottishmen that their stale was no les then thre thowsand males.
Derived phrases[edit]

Adjective[edit]

stale (not comparable)

  1. (chess, out of date) At a standstill; stalemated.
    • c. 1470, Ashmolean MS 344, 21:
      Then drawith he & is stale.

Verb[edit]

stale (third-person singular easy current stales, current participle staling, easy previous and previous participle staled)

  1. (chess, unusual, transitive) To stalemate.
    • c. 1470, Ashmole MS 344, 7:
      He shall stale þe black kyng within the pointe þer the crosse standith.
    • 1903, H. J. R. Murray, Brit. Chess. Magazine., 283:
      In China, nevertheless, a participant who stales his opponent’s King, wins the sport.
  2. (chess, out of date, intransitive) To be stalemated.
    • 1597, A. Montgomerie, Cherrie & Slae, 202:
      For vnder cuire I bought sik test, that I micht neither muife nor neck, bot ather stale or mait.

Etymology 4[edit]

From Center English stalen (to urinate), of unsure origin. Maybe Outdated French estaler, associated to Center Excessive German stallen (to piss).[4]

Noun[edit]

stale (uncountable)

  1. (livestock, out of date) Urine, particularly used of horses and cattle.
    • 14th c., Stockh. Medical MS. in Anglia XVIII.299:
      In werd ben males & girls [] þat þer stale mown not holde.
    • 1535, Miles Coverdale translating the Bible, “Isaiah”, XXXVI.100:
      [] That they be not compelled to eate their owne donge, and drinke their owne stale with you?
    • 1548, Robert File, Vrinal of Physick, XI.89:
      The stale of Camels and Goats [] is sweet for them which have the dropsie.
    • 1583, B. Melbancke, Philotimus:
      Or annoint thy selfe with the stale of a mule.
    • 1603, Michel de Montaigne, chapter 48, in John Florio, transl., The Essayes [], guide I, London: [] Val[entine] Simmes for Edward Blount [], OCLC 946730821:

      These of Crotta being hardly besieged by Metellus, had been diminished to so onerous a pinch, and strait necessitie of all method of different beverage, that they had been pressured to drinke the stale or urine of their horses.

    • c. 1616, William Shakespeare, Antony & Cleopatra, I.iv.62:
      Thou did’st drinke The stale of Horses.
    • 1698, J. Fryer, New Acct. E.-India & Persia, p.242:
      Mice and Weasels by their poysonous Stale infect the Bushes so, that they produce Worms.
    • 1733, W. Ellis, Chiltern & Vale Farming, p.122:
      Sheep, whose Dung and Stale is of most Advantage within the Nourishment of all Bushes.
Hypernyms[edit]
Derived phrases[edit]

Verb[edit]

stale (third-person singular easy current stales, current participle staling, easy previous and previous participle staled)

  1. (livestock, out of date, intransitive) To urinate, particularly used of horses and cattle.
    • 15th century, Lawis Gild, X in Historic Legal guidelines and Customs of the Burghs of Scotland, 68:
      Gif ony stal within the but of the gilde…he sall gif iiijd. to the mendis.
    • 1530, John Palsgrave, L’éclaircissement de la langue française, 732 1:
      Tary a whyle, your hors wyll staale.
    • 1631, Ben Jonson, Bartholmew Fayre I iv 64:
      Why a pox o’ your boxe, as soon as againe: let your little spouse stale in it, and she’s going to.
    • 1663, T. Killigrew, Parson’s Marriage ceremony, I iii:
      I’m wondering [the knight’s son] doth not go on all 4 too, and maintain up his Leg when he stales.
    • 1903, Rudyard Kipling, 5 Nations, 150:
      Cattle-dung the place gas failed; Water the place the mules had staled; And sackcloth for his or her raiment.
    • c. 1920, Aleister Crowley, “Leigh Chic”:
      You stale like a mare
      And fart as you stale
    • 1928, Siegfried Sassoon, Memoirs of a Fox-Searching Man, Penguin 2013, web page 35:
      A mile or two earlier than we bought to the meet he stopped at an inn, the place he put our horses into the steady for twenty minutes, ‘to present them an opportunity to stale’.
Utilization notes[edit]

Sometimes transitive, when in reference to horses or males pissing blood.

Hypernyms[edit]
See additionally[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

From Center English stale (fowl used as a decoy), in all probability from unusual Anglo-Norman estale (pigeon used to lure hawks), finally from Proto-Germanic, in all probability *standaną (to face). Evaluate Outdated English stælhran (decoy reindeer) and Northumbrian stællo (catching fish).[5]

Noun[edit]

stale (plural stales)

  1. (falconry, searching, out of date) A stay fowl to lure birds of prey or others of its sort right into a lure.
    • c. 1440, Promp. Parv., 472 1:
      Stale, of fowlynge or byrdys takynge, stacionaria.
    • 1579, Thomas North, Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans, “Sylla”, 515:
      Like vnto the fowlers, that by their stales draw different birdes into their nets.
    • 1608, R. Tofte translating Ludovico Ariosto, Satyres, IV 56:
      A spouse thats extra then faire is sort of a stale, Or chanting whistle which brings birds to thrall.
  2. (out of date) Any lure, significantly in reference to folks used as stay bait.
    • c. 1529, “The Tunnyng of Elynour Rummyng”, 324, in John Skelton, Certayne Bokes:
      She ran in all of the hast
      Vnbrased and vnlast…
      It was a stale to take
      the deuyll in a brake.
    • 1577, Raphael Holinshed, Chronicles, “The Historie of England, from the Time that It Was First Inhabited, Vntill the Time that It Was Final Conquered”, 79 2:
      The Britaynes woulde oftentimes…lay their Cattell…in locations conueniente, to bee as a stale to the Romaynes, and when the Romaynes shoulde make to them to fetche the identical away,…they’d fall vpon them.
    • 1579, J. Stubbs, Discouerie Gaping Gulf:

      Her daughter Margerit was the stale to lure…them that in any other case flewe hyghe…and couldn’t be gotten.

    • 1615, George Sandys, A Relation of a Iourney begun An: Dom: 1610, I 66:
      …lots of the Coffamen preserving beaytifull boyes, who ſerue as ſtales to acquire them cuſtomers.
    • 1670, J. Eachard, Grounds Contempt of Clergy, 88:
      Six-pence or a shilling to place into the Field, for a stale to decoy in the remainder of the Parish.
  3. (crime, out of date) An confederate of a thief or felony performing as bait.
    • 1526, W. Bonde, Pylgrimage of Perfection, III:
      Their mynisters, be false bretherne or false sustern, stales of the deuyll.
    • 1633, S. Marmion, Positive Compan., III iv:
      That is Captain Whibble, the Towne stale, For all dishonest imployments.
  4. (out of date) a companion whose beloved abandons or torments him in favor of one other.
    • 1578, J. Lyly, Euphues, 33:
      I perceiue Lucilla (sayd he) that I used to be made thy stale, and Philautus thy laughinge stocke.
    • 1588, T. Hughes, Misfortunes Arthur, I ii 3:
      Was I then selected and wedded for his stale?
    • 1611, T. Middleton & al., Roaring Girle:
      Did I for this free all my mates…to be made A stale to a typical whore?
    • c. 1616, William Shakespeare, Comedy of Errors, II i 100:
      However, too vnruly Deere, he breakes the pale And feedes from residence; poore I’m however his stale.
    • c. 1640, John Fletcher & al. Little French Lawyer, III iv:
      This comes of rutting: Are we made stales to 1 one other?
  5. (out of date) A patsy, a pawn, somebody used below some false pretext to ahead one other’s (usu. sinister) designs; a stalking horse.
    • 1580, E. Grindal in 1710, J. Strype, Hist. E. Grindal, 252:
      That of the 2 nominated, one must be an unfit Man, and because it had been a Stale, to deliver the Workplace to the opposite.
    • 1595, William Shakespeare, Henry VI Half 3, III iii 260:
      Had he none else to make a stale however me?
    • 1614, W. Raleigh, Hist. World, I iv iii §19 239:
      Eurydice…which means nothing lesse than to let her husband serue as a Stale, preserving the throne warme until one other had been growne sufficiently old to sit down in it.
    • 1711, J. Puckle, Membership 20:
      A pretence of kindness is the common stale to all base tasks.
  6. (crime, out of date) A prostitute of the bottom type; any wanton lady.
    • 1600, William Shakespeare, A lot Ado about Nothing, II ii 23:
      Spare to not inform him, that he hath wronged his honor in marrying the famend Claudio…to a contaminated stale.
    • 1606, S. Daniel, Queenes Arcadia, II i:
      However to be leaft for such a one as she, The stale of all, what’s going to folke thinke of me?
    • c. 1641, Ralph Montagu, Acts & Monuments, 265:
      …detesting as he stated the insatiable impudency of a prostitute Stale.
  7. (searching, out of date) Any decoy, both stuffed or manufactured.
    • 1681, J. Flavell, Methodology of Grace, XXXV 588:
      ‘Tis the dwelling fowl that makes the most effective stale to attract others into the web.
    • 1888, G. M. Fenn, Dick o’ the Fens, 53:
      If my stay birds aren’t all drownded and my stales spoiled.

Verb[edit]

stale (third-person singular easy current stales, current participle staling, easy previous and previous participle staled)

  1. (uncommon, out of date, transitive) To function a decoy, to lure.
    • 1557, Tottel’s Misc., 198:
      The attention…Doth serue to stale her right here and there the place she doth come and go.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary. “Stale, adj. 1” & “n. 7”.
  2. ^ Oxford English Dictionary. “Stale, n. 2” & “v. 4”.
  3. ^ Oxford English Dictionary. “Stale, n. 4”, “n. 6”, “v. 3”, and “adj. 2”.
  4. ^ Oxford English Dictionary. “Stale, n. 5” and “v. 1”.
  5. ^ Oxford English Dictionary. “Stale, n. 3” & “v. 5”.

Anagrams[edit]

  • Astle, ETLAs, Slate, Teals, Tesla, astel, laste, lates, least, leats, salet, setal, slate, steal, stela, taels, tales, teals, telas, tesla

Friulian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Of Germanic origin, finally from Proto-Germanic *stallaz. Evaluate Romansch stalla, stala, Italian stalla, Venetian stała.

Noun[edit]

stale f (plural stalis)

  1. cowshed
  2. steady, stall
  3. pigsty

Synonyms[edit]


Center English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Outdated English stalu (theft), from Proto-Germanic *stal-.[1]

Noun[edit]

stale

  1. theft; the act of stealing
    • 1340, Ayenbite 9:
      Ine þise heste is vorbode roberie, þiefþe, stale, and gavel.
  2. stealth (used within the phrase bi stale)
    • c. 1240, Sawles Warde in Cott. Hom., 249:
      Rent wune is to cumen bi stale…hwen me least cweneð.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary. “Stale, n. 1”.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

stale

  1. consistently, regularly

Associated phrases[edit]

Additional studying[edit]

  • stale in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • stale in Polish dictionaries at PWN

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