Subtitles – Wikipedia

Textual illustration of occasions and speech in movement imagery

Movie with subtitles in English. Citation dashes are used to distinguish audio system.

A map of Europe displaying which translation strategies are utilized in every nation.

  International locations in Europe the place dubbing is just used for kids’s packages; in any other case, subtitles are solely used.

  Blended areas: International locations in Europe sometimes utilizing multi-voice voice-over translations; in any other case, subtitles are solely used.

  Voice-over: International locations in Europe normally utilizing Gavrilov translations, which characteristic one or two voices, whereas decreasing the quantity of the unique soundtrack; examples are Poland and Russia. This methodology is utilized in TV broadcasting, however dubbing can be utilized in these international locations.

  Normal dubbing: International locations in Europe the place dubbing is used for many foreign-language movies and TV sequence.

  International locations which sometimes produce personal dubbings however usually utilizing dubbing variations of different international locations since their languages are fairly comparable to one another and the viewers can be capable of perceive it with none issues (Belarus and Slovakia).

  Belgium: The Dutch-speaking area sometimes produces its personal dubbing variations, in any other case solely subtitles. The French-speaking area of Wallonia and the German-speaking area of East Belgium use solely a full-cast dubbing, each for movies and for TV sequence.

Subtitles are textual content derived from both a transcript or screenplay of the dialogue or commentary in movies, tv packages, video video games, and the like, normally displayed on the backside of the display, however may also be on the high of the display if there may be already textual content on the backside of the display. They will both be a type of written translation of a dialogue in a international language, or a written rendering of the dialogue in the identical language, with or with out added data to assist viewers who’re deaf or hard-of-hearing, who can’t perceive the spoken language, or who’ve accent recognition issues to observe the dialogue.

The encoded methodology can both be pre-rendered with the video or separate as both a graphic or textual content to be rendered and overlaid by the receiver. The separate subtitles are used for DVD, Blu-ray and tv teletext/Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) subtitling or EIA-608 captioning, that are hidden until requested by the viewer from a menu or distant controller key or by choosing the related web page or service (e.g., p. 888 or CC1), all the time carry extra sound representations for deaf and hard-of-hearing viewers. Teletext subtitle language follows the unique audio, besides in multi-lingual international locations the place the broadcaster might present subtitles in extra languages on different teletext pages. EIA-608 captions are comparable, besides that North American Spanish stations might present captioning in Spanish on CC3. DVD and Blu-ray solely differ in utilizing run-length encoded graphics as a substitute of textual content, in addition to some HD DVB broadcasts.

Generally, primarily at movie festivals, subtitles could also be proven on a separate show beneath the display, thus saving the film-maker from making a subtitled copy for maybe only one displaying. Tv subtitling for the deaf and hard-of-hearing can be known as closed captioning in some international locations.

Extra distinctive makes use of additionally embody operas, comparable to Verdi’s Aida, the place sung lyrics in Italian are subtitled in English or in one other native language outdoors the stage space on luminous screens for the viewers to observe the storyline, or on a display hooked up to the again of the chairs in entrance of the viewers.

The phrase subtitle is the prefix sub- (“beneath”) adopted by title. In some circumstances, comparable to reside opera, the dialogue is displayed above the stage in what are known as surtitles (sur- which means “above”).

Creation, supply and show of subtitles[edit]

At present, skilled subtitlers normally work with specialised pc software program and {hardware} the place the video is digitally saved on a tough disk, making every particular person body immediately accessible. Apart from creating the subtitles, the subtitler normally additionally tells the pc software program the precise positions the place every subtitle ought to seem and disappear. For cinema movie, this activity is historically achieved by separate technicians. The top result’s a subtitle file containing the precise subtitles in addition to place markers indicating the place every subtitle ought to seem and disappear. These markers are normally primarily based on timecode if it’s a work for digital media (e.g., TV, video, DVD), or on movie size (measured in ft and frames) if the subtitles are for use for conventional cinema movie.

The completed subtitle file is used so as to add the subtitles to the image, both:

  • immediately into the image (open subtitles);
  • embedded within the vertical interval and later superimposed on the image by the tip person with the assistance of an exterior decoder or a decoder constructed into the TV (closed subtitles on TV or video);
  • or transformed (rendered) to tiff or bmp graphics which might be later superimposed on the image by the tip person’s gear (closed subtitles on DVD or as a part of a DVB broadcast).

Subtitles may also be created by people utilizing freely obtainable subtitle-creation software program like Subtitle Workshop for Home windows, MovieCaptioner for Mac/Home windows, and Subtitle Composer for Linux, after which hardcode them onto a video file with packages comparable to VirtualDub together with VSFilter which may be used to point out subtitles as softsubs in lots of software program video gamers.

For multimedia-style Webcasting, verify:

Computerized captioning[edit]

Some packages and on-line software program enable computerized captions, primarily utilizing speech-to-text options.

For instance, on YouTube, computerized captions can be found in English, Dutch, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish. If computerized captions can be found for the language, they are going to routinely be revealed on the video.[1]

Similar-language captions[edit]

Similar-language captions, i.e., with out translation, have been primarily meant as an assist for people who find themselves deaf or hard-of-hearing. Internationally, there are a number of main research which display that same-language captioning can have a serious impression on literacy and studying development throughout a broad vary of studying talents.[2][3] This methodology of subtitling is utilized by nationwide tv broadcasters in China and in India comparable to Doordarshan. This concept was invented by Brij Kothari, who believed that SLS makes studying follow an incidental, computerized, and unconscious a part of in style TV leisure, at a low per-person value to shore up literacy charges in India.

Similar-language subtitling[edit]

Similar language subtitling (SLS) is using synchronized captioning of musical lyrics (or any textual content with an audio/video supply) as a repeated studying exercise. The essential studying exercise includes college students viewing a brief subtitled presentation projected onscreen, whereas finishing a response worksheet. To be actually efficient, the subtitling ought to have prime quality synchronization of audio and textual content, and higher but, subtitling ought to change shade in syllabic synchronization to audio mannequin, and the textual content needs to be at a degree to problem college students’ language talents.[4][5]

Closed captions[edit]

Closed captioning is the American time period for closed subtitles particularly meant for people who find themselves deaf or hard-of-hearing. These are a transcription quite than a translation, and normally comprise descriptions of necessary non-dialogue audio as nicely, comparable to “(SIGHS)”, “(WIND HOWLING)”, “(“SONG TITLE” PLAYING)”, “(KISSES)”, “(THUNDER RUMBLING)” or “(DOOR CREAKING)” and lyrics. From the expression “closed captions”, the phrase “caption” has lately come to imply a subtitle meant for the deaf or hard-of-hearing, be it “open” or “closed”. In British English, “subtitles” normally refers to subtitles for the deaf or hard-of-hearing (SDH); nevertheless, the time period “SDH” is typically used when there’s a must make a distinction between the 2.

Actual time[edit]

Applications comparable to information bulletins, present affairs packages, sports activities, some discuss exhibits, and political and particular occasions make the most of actual time or on-line captioning.[6] Reside captioning is more and more frequent, particularly in the UK and america, on account of rules that stipulate that nearly all TV finally should be accessible for people who find themselves deaf and hard-of-hearing.[7] In follow, nevertheless, these “actual time” subtitles will sometimes lag the audio by a number of seconds as a result of inherent delay in transcribing, encoding, and transmitting the subtitles. Actual time subtitles are additionally challenged by typographic errors or mishearing of the spoken phrases, with no time obtainable to right earlier than transmission.


Some packages could also be ready of their entirety a number of hours earlier than broadcast, however with inadequate time to organize a timecoded caption file for computerized play-out. Pre-prepared captions look much like offline captions, though the accuracy of cueing could also be compromised barely because the captions will not be locked to program timecode.[6]

Newsroom captioning includes the automated switch of textual content from the newsroom pc system to a tool which outputs it as captions. It does work, however its suitability as an unique system would solely apply to packages which had been scripted of their entirety on the newsroom pc system, comparable to quick interstitial updates.[6]

In america and Canada, some broadcasters have used it solely and easily left uncaptioned sections of the bulletin for which a script was unavailable.[6] Newsroom captioning limits captions to pre-scripted supplies and, subsequently, doesn’t cowl 100% of the information, climate and sports activities segments of a typical native information broadcast that are sometimes not pre-scripted. This consists of last-second breaking information or modifications to the scripts, ad-lib conversations of the broadcasters, and emergency or different reside distant broadcasts by reporters in-the-field. By failing to cowl gadgets comparable to these, newsroom model captioning (or use of the teleprompter for captioning) sometimes leads to protection of lower than 30% of a neighborhood information broadcast.[8]


Communication entry real-time translation (CART) stenographers, who use a pc with utilizing both stenotype or Velotype keyboards to transcribe stenographic enter for presentation as captions inside two or three seconds of the representing audio, should caption something which is solely reside and unscripted[where?];[6] nevertheless, newer developments embody operators utilizing speech recognition software program and re-voicing the dialogue. Speech recognition know-how has superior so rapidly in america that about 50% of all reside captioning was by way of speech recognition as of 2005.[citation needed] Actual-time captions look totally different from offline captions, as they’re offered as a steady move of textual content as folks communicate.[6][clarification needed]

Stenography is a system of rendering phrases phonetically, and English, with its multitude of homophones (e.g., there, their, they’re), is especially unsuited to simple transcriptions. Stenographers working in courts and inquiries normally have 24 hours during which to ship their transcripts. Consequently, they might enter the identical phonetic stenographic codes for quite a lot of homophones, and repair up the spelling later. Actual-time stenographers should ship their transcriptions precisely and instantly. They have to subsequently develop methods for keying homophones otherwise, and be unswayed by the pressures of delivering correct product on instant demand.[6]

Submissions to current captioning-related inquiries have revealed issues from broadcasters about captioning sports activities. Captioning sports activities can also have an effect on many alternative folks due to the climate outdoors of it. In a lot sport captioning’s absence, the Australian Caption Centre submitted to the Nationwide Working Celebration on Captioning (NWPC), in November 1998, three examples of sport captioning, every carried out on tennis, rugby league and swimming packages:

  • Closely lowered: Captioners ignore commentary and supply solely scores and important data comparable to “strive” or “out”.
  • Considerably lowered: Captioners use QWERTY enter to sort abstract captions yielding the essence of what the commentators are saying, delayed as a result of limitations of QWERTY enter.
  • Complete realtime: Captioners use stenography to caption the commentary in its entirety.[6]

The NWPC concluded that the usual they settle for is the excellent real-time methodology, which supplies them entry to the commentary in its entirety. Additionally, not all sports activities are reside. Many occasions are pre-recorded hours earlier than they’re broadcast, permitting a captioner to caption them utilizing offline strategies.[6]


As a result of totally different packages are produced below totally different situations, a case-by-case foundation should consequently decide captioning methodology. Some bulletins might have a excessive incidence of actually reside materials, or inadequate entry to video feeds and scripts could also be offered to the captioning facility, making stenography unavoidable. Different bulletins could also be pre-recorded simply earlier than going to air, making pre-prepared textual content preferable.[6]

Information captioning functions presently obtainable are designed to simply accept textual content from quite a lot of inputs: stenography, Velotype, QWERTY, ASCII import, and the newsroom pc. This enables one facility to deal with quite a lot of on-line captioning necessities and to make sure that captioners correctly caption all packages.[6]

Present affairs packages normally require stenographic help. Despite the fact that the segments which comprise a present affairs program could also be produced upfront, they’re normally achieved so simply earlier than on-air time and their length makes QWERTY enter of textual content unfeasible.[6]

Information bulletins, then again, can typically be captioned with out stenographic enter (until there are reside crosses or ad-libbing by the presenters). It is because:

  • Most gadgets are scripted on the newsroom pc system and this textual content will be electronically imported into the captioning system.
  • Particular person information tales are of quick length, so even when they’re made obtainable solely simply previous to broadcast, there may be nonetheless time to make use of QWERTY in textual content.[6]


For non-live, or pre-recorded packages, tv program suppliers can select offline captioning. Captioners gear offline captioning towards the high-end tv business, offering extremely custom-made captioning options, comparable to pop-on model captions, specialised display placement, speaker identifications, italics, particular characters, and sound results.[9]

Offline captioning includes a five-step design and enhancing course of, and does rather more than merely show the textual content of a program. Offline captioning helps the viewer observe a narrative line, develop into conscious of temper and feeling, and permits them to completely take pleasure in all the viewing expertise. Offline captioning is the popular presentation model for entertainment-type programming.[9]

Subtitles for the deaf or hard-of-hearing (SDH)[edit]

Subtitles for the deaf or hard-of-hearing (SDH) is an American time period launched by the DVD business.[10] It refers to common subtitles within the unique language the place necessary non-dialogue data has been added, in addition to speaker identification, which can be helpful when the viewer can’t in any other case visually inform who’s saying what.

The one important distinction for the person between SDH subtitles and closed captions is their look: SDH subtitles normally are displayed with the identical proportional font used for the interpretation subtitles on the DVD; nevertheless, closed captions are displayed as white textual content on a black band, which blocks a big portion of the view. Closed captioning is falling out of favor as many customers don’t have any issue studying SDH subtitles, that are textual content with distinction define. As well as, DVD subtitles can specify many colours on the identical character: major, define, shadow, and background. This enables subtitlers to show subtitles on a normally translucent band for simpler studying; nevertheless, that is uncommon, since most subtitles use an overview and shadow as a substitute, in an effort to block a smaller portion of the image. Closed captions should still supersede DVD subtitles, since many SDH subtitles current the entire textual content centered (an instance of that is DVDs and Blu-ray Discs manufactured by Warner Bros.), whereas closed captions normally specify place on the display: centered, left align, proper align, high, and many others. That is useful for speaker identification and overlapping dialog. Some SDH subtitles (such because the subtitles of newer Common Studios DVDs/Blu-ray Discs) do have positioning, however it isn’t as frequent.

DVDs for the U.S. market now generally have three types of English subtitles: SDH subtitles; English subtitles, useful for viewers who is probably not listening to impaired however whose first language is probably not English (though they’re normally an actual transcript and never simplified); and closed caption information that’s decoded by the end-user’s closed caption decoder. Most anime releases within the U.S. solely embody translations of the unique materials as subtitles; subsequently, SDH subtitles of English dubs (“dubtitles”) are unusual.

Excessive-definition disc media (HD DVD, Blu-ray Disc) makes use of SDH subtitles as the only real methodology as a result of technical specs don’t require HD to assist line 21 closed captions. Some Blu-ray Discs, nevertheless, are stated to hold a closed caption stream that solely shows by way of standard-definition connections. Many HDTVs enable the end-user to customise the captions, together with the power to take away the black band.

Music lyrics will not be all the time captioned, as extra copyright permissions could also be required to breed the lyrics on-screen as a part of the subtitle monitor. In October 2015, main studios and Netflix have been sued over this follow, citing claims of false promoting (because the work is henceforth not fully subtitled) and civil rights violations (below California’s Unruh Civil Rights Act, guaranteeing equal rights for folks with disabilities). Choose Stephen Victor Wilson dismissed the go well with in September 2016, ruling that allegations of civil rights violations didn’t current proof of intentional discrimination towards viewers with disabilities, and that allegations over misrepresenting the extent of subtitles “fall far wanting demonstrating that affordable customers would truly be deceived as to the quantity of subtitled content material offered, as there are not any representations in anyway that every one music lyrics could be captioned, and even that the content material could be ‘totally’ captioned.”[13][14]

Use by these not deaf or laborious of listening to[edit]

Though same-language subtitles and captions are produced primarily with the deaf and hard-of-hearing in thoughts, they might even be used to make sure understanding of dialogue (comparable to these spoken quietly or combined in with sound results, by these with accents unfamiliar to the meant viewers, or supportive dialogue from background or off-screen characters). Jason Kehe of Wired famous that ordinary use of subtitles by the non-deaf has been a rising development for these causes, and to assist decide up on extra particulars and knowledge discovered inside dialogue. He drew comparisons to the ubiquity of engines like google by stating that “similar to Google, closed captions are there, eminently accessible, able to make clear the unclarities, and so, desperately, we, the paranoids and obsessive-compulsives and postmodern completists, click on.”[15][16] Research (together with these by the College of Nottingham and the What Works Clearinghouse of america Division of Schooling) have discovered that use of subtitles may help promote studying comprehension in school-aged kids.[17]


In some Asian tv programming, captioning is taken into account part of the style, and has developed past merely capturing what’s being stated. The captions are used artistically; it’s common to see the phrases seem one after the other as they’re spoken, in a large number of fonts, colours, and sizes that seize the spirit of what’s being stated. Languages like Japanese even have a wealthy vocabulary of onomatopoeia which is utilized in captioning.

East Asia[edit]

In some East Asian international locations, particularly Chinese language-speaking ones, subtitling is frequent in all taped tv packages. In these international locations, written textual content stays principally uniform whereas regional dialects within the spoken type will be mutually unintelligible. Due to this fact, subtitling gives a definite benefit to help comprehension. With subtitles, packages in Putonghua, the usual Mandarin, or any dialect will be understood by viewers unfamiliar with it.

On-screen subtitles as seen in Japanese selection tv exhibits are extra for ornamental goal, one thing that isn’t seen in tv in Europe and the Americas. Some exhibits even place sound results over these subtitles. This follow of subtitling has been unfold to neighbouring international locations together with South Korea and Taiwan. ATV in Hong Kong as soon as practiced this model of ornamental subtitles on its selection exhibits when it was owned by Need Need Holdings in Taiwan (which additionally owns CTV and CTI).

South Asia[edit]

In India, Similar Language Subtitling (SLS) are frequent for movies and music movies. SLS refers back to the concept of subtitling in the identical language because the audio. SLS is highlighted karaoke model, that’s, to speech. The thought of SLS was initiated to shore up literacy charges as SLS makes studying follow an incidental, computerized, and unconscious a part of in style TV leisure. This concept was nicely obtained by the Authorities of India which now makes use of SLS on a number of nationwide channels, together with Doordarshan.[2][18]


Translation principally means conversion of 1 language into one other language in written or spoken type. The method of translation requires a translator e.g. Google Translate,[19] Microsoft Translator.[20] Subtitles can be utilized to translate dialogue from a international language into the native language of the viewers. It isn’t solely the quickest and most cost-effective methodology of translating content material, however can be normally most well-liked as it’s doable for the viewers to listen to the unique dialogue and voices of the actors.

Subtitle translation will be totally different from the interpretation of written textual content. Often, in the course of the course of of making subtitles for a movie or tv program, the image and every sentence of the audio are analyzed by the subtitle translator; additionally, the subtitle translator might or might not have entry to a written transcript of the dialogue. Particularly within the discipline of economic subtitles, the subtitle translator typically interprets what is supposed, quite than translating the style during which the dialogue is acknowledged; that’s, the which means is extra necessary than the shape—the viewers doesn’t all the time admire this, as it may be irritating for people who find themselves aware of a number of the spoken language; spoken language might comprise verbal padding or culturally implied meanings that can’t be conveyed within the written subtitles. Additionally, the subtitle translator can also condense the dialogue to realize an appropriate studying pace, whereby goal is extra necessary than type.

Particularly in fansubs, the subtitle translator might translate each type and which means. The subtitle translator can also select to show a notice within the subtitles, normally in parentheses (“(” and “)”), or as a separate block of on-screen textual content—this permits the subtitle translator to protect type and obtain an appropriate studying pace; that’s, the subtitle translator might depart a notice on the display, even after the character has completed talking, to each protect type and facilitate understanding. For instance, the Japanese language has a number of first-person pronouns (see Japanese pronouns) and every pronoun is related to a unique diploma of politeness. With the intention to compensate in the course of the English translation course of, the subtitle translator might reformulate the sentence, add acceptable phrases and/or use notes.



Actual-time translation subtitling normally includes an interpreter and a stenographer working concurrently, whereby the previous rapidly interprets the dialogue whereas the latter varieties; this type of subtitling is uncommon. The unavoidable delay, typing errors, lack of enhancing, and excessive value imply that real-time translation subtitling is in low demand. Permitting the interpreter to immediately communicate to the viewers is normally each cheaper and faster; nevertheless, the interpretation isn’t accessible to people who find themselves deaf and hard-of-hearing.


Some subtitlers purposely present edited subtitles or captions to match the wants of their viewers, for learners of the spoken dialogue as a second or international language, visible learners, starting readers who’re deaf or laborious of listening to and for folks with studying and/or psychological disabilities. For instance, for a lot of of its movies and tv packages, PBS shows normal captions representing speech from this system audio, word-for-word, if the viewer selects “CC1” through the use of the tv distant management or on-screen menu; nevertheless, additionally they present edited captions to current simplified sentences at a slower charge, if the viewer selects “CC2”. Applications with a various viewers additionally typically have captions in one other language. That is frequent with in style Latin American cleaning soap operas in Spanish. Since CC1 and CC2 share bandwidth, the U.S. Federal Communications Fee (FCC) recommends translation subtitles be positioned in CC3. CC4, which shares bandwidth with CC3, can be obtainable, however packages seldom use it.

Subtitles vs. dubbing and lectoring[edit]

The 2 various strategies of ‘translating’ movies in a international language are dubbing, during which different actors report over the voices of the unique actors in a unique language, and lectoring, a type of voice-over for fictional materials the place a narrator tells the viewers what the actors are saying whereas their voices will be heard within the background. Lectoring is frequent for tv in Russia, Poland, and some different East European international locations, whereas cinemas in these international locations generally present movies dubbed or subtitled.

The choice for dubbing or subtitling in varied international locations is essentially primarily based on choices made within the late 1920s and early 1930s. With the arrival of sound movie, the movie importers in Germany, Italy, France and Spain determined to dub the international voices, whereas the remainder of Europe elected to show the dialogue as translated subtitles. The selection was largely resulting from monetary causes (subtitling is extra economical and faster than dubbing), however in the course of the 1930s it additionally grew to become a political choice in Germany, Italy and Spain; an expedient type of censorship that ensured that international views and concepts may very well be stopped from reaching the native viewers, as dubbing makes it doable to create a dialogue which is completely totally different from the unique. In bigger German cities a number of “particular cinemas” use subtitling as a substitute of dubbing.

Dubbing remains to be the norm and favored type in these 4 international locations, however the proportion of subtitling is slowly rising, primarily to save lots of value and turnaround-time, but additionally resulting from a rising acceptance amongst youthful generations, who’re higher readers and more and more have a primary data of English (the dominant language in movie and TV) and thus desire to listen to the unique dialogue.

Nonetheless, in Spain, for instance, solely public TV channels present subtitled international movies, normally at late evening. This can be very uncommon that any Spanish TV channel exhibits subtitled variations of TV packages, sequence or documentaries. With the arrival of digital land broadcast TV, it has develop into frequent follow in Spain to supply optionally available audio and subtitle streams that enable watching dubbed packages with the unique audio and subtitles. As well as, solely a small proportion of cinemas present subtitled movies. Movies with dialogue in Galician, Catalan or Basque are all the time dubbed, not subtitled, when they’re proven in the remainder of the nation. Some non-Spanish-speaking TV stations subtitle interviews in Spanish; others don’t.

In lots of Latin American international locations, native community tv will present dubbed variations of English-language packages and films, whereas cable stations (typically worldwide) extra generally broadcast subtitled materials. Choice for subtitles or dubbing varies in line with particular person style and studying potential, and theaters might order two prints of the most well-liked movies, permitting moviegoers to decide on between dubbing or subtitles. Animation and youngsters’s programming, nevertheless, is sort of universally dubbed, as in different areas.

For the reason that introduction of the DVD and, later, the Blu-ray Disc, some excessive funds movies embody the simultaneous choice of each subtitles and/or dubbing. Typically in such circumstances, the translations are made individually, quite than the subtitles being a verbatim transcript of the dubbed scenes of the movie. Whereas this permits for the smoothest doable move of the subtitles, it may be irritating for somebody making an attempt to study a international language.

Within the conventional subtitling international locations, dubbing is mostly thought to be one thing unusual and unnatural and is just used for animated movies and TV packages meant for pre-school kids. As animated movies are “dubbed” even of their unique language and ambient noise and results are normally recorded on a separate sound monitor, dubbing a low high quality manufacturing right into a second language produces little or no noticeable impact on the viewing expertise. In dubbed live-action tv or movie, nevertheless, viewers are sometimes distracted by the truth that the audio doesn’t match the actors’ lip actions. Moreover, the dubbed voices could seem indifferent, inappropriate for the character, or overly expressive, and a few ambient sounds is probably not transferred to the dubbed monitor, making a much less pleasant viewing expertise.

Subtitling as a follow[edit]

In a number of international locations or areas almost all international language TV packages are subtitled, as a substitute of dubbed, notably in:

  • Albania (most all foreign-language exhibits are subtitled in Albanian, kids’s motion pictures and TV exhibits are dubbed, principally animated)
  • Argentina (cable/satellite tv for pc TV and cinemas)
  • Armenia (Subtitles in Armenian, kids’s exhibits principally are dubbed)
  • Arab Center East and North Africa – Fashionable Normal Arabic-language subtitling, used for international programming/cinema and infrequently used when Arabic dialects are the first medium of a movie/TV program. International locations comparable to Lebanon, Algeria, and Morocco additionally typically embody French subtitling concurrently.
  • Australia (particularly by SBS)
  • Belgium (Subtitles in Dutch in Flanders, dubbed into French in Wallonia, bilingual Dutch/French subtitles in Flemish and Brussels film theaters, dubbed variations in Wallonia. Youngsters’s exhibits and teleshopping are dubbed)
  • Bolivia
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina (Youngsters’s exhibits are dubbed in Serbian, Croatian or Bosnian, all the pieces else subtitled in Bosnian)
  • Brazil (some cinemas and cable channels use Brazilian Portuguese subtitles)
  • Chile (cable/satellite tv for pc TV solely)
  • China (Most Chinese language language programming consists of subtitles in Chinese language, since many languages and dialects are spoken by the populace, however the writing system is impartial of dialects)
  • Colombia (cable/satellite tv for pc TV solely)
  • Cuba
  • Costa Rica (cable/satellite tv for pc TV, and on some nationwide channels like Channel 7)
  • Croatia (Youngsters’s exhibits are dubbed in Croatian, all the pieces else is subtitled in Croatian)
  • Denmark (Danish subtitles in all international packages besides kids’s exhibits)
  • Estonia (Estonian language subtitles are utilized in international movies and tv packages besides for kids’s media)
  • Finland (Subtitles in Finnish or Swedish, Finland is bilingual; in TV kids’s packages are dubbed and off-screen narration in documentaries is usually dubbed)
  • Greece (solely kids’s exhibits and movies are dubbed)
  • Hong Kong (Dubbing in Cantonese typically occurs, however subtitling can be frequent, since these international packages are sometimes broadcast in a number of languages)
  • Iceland (Subtitles in Icelandic. Tv programming and movement footage directed in direction of kids are dubbed, though cinemas typically supply subtitled late-evening screenings of the latter. The off-screen narration in documentaries could also be dubbed, though on-screen dialogue is all the time subtitled)
  • India (Most English channels now give subtitles of their packages in English)
  • Indonesia (Subtitles in Indonesian, some international motion pictures have subtitles of multiple language)
  • Eire (Subtitles in English for non-English packages, together with these within the Irish language. Occasional subtitles in Irish language for packages proven on the Irish language channel: TG4)
  • Israel (Non-Hebrew tv packages and movies are all the time translated into Hebrew with subtitles. Bilingual Hebrew/Arabic or Hebrew/Russian subtitling, displaying translation into each languages concurrently, is frequent on public TV channels. Dubbing is restricted to packages and movies aimed toward kids beneath college age. As of 2008 the closed captioning business in Israel is on the rise since a regulation has been permitted, stating that every one the Hebrew packages of The Israeli Tv should be subtitled for the listening to impaired. Furthermore, lately it grew to become a norm in different channels and broadcasting our bodies in Israel)
  • Japan (side-by-side with dubs)
  • Latvia (Subtitles in Latvian, sometimes in Latvian language exhibits or just in Russian language channels in Russian)
  • Malaysia (Subtitles in Malay for programming in English and vernacular languages comparable to Chinese language and Tamil and international languages comparable to Hindi and Korean besides sure packages dubbed into Malay comparable to anime, information packages in respective vernacular languages (information studies in vernacular language information packages with international folks talking are translated in subtitles) and sure Malay-language reside motion packages subtitled in English. Additionally showing for programming in Indonesian since 2006 apart from information studies in Malay information packages which have Indonesian folks talking the place they aren’t subtitled. All motion pictures on 35 mm movie subtitled in Malay and Simplified Chinese language. Often, animation and 3D motion pictures are exempted from subtitling (although studios might select so as to add subtitles at their discretion). Indian and Chinese language motion pictures normally have subtitles of multiple languages)
  • Montenegro (Subtitles in Montenegrin, kids’s exhibits dubbed in Serbian; Serbian subtitles imported steadily)
  • Myanmar (Subtitles in Burmese, sometimes in Non-Burmese kids’s programming and anime, dubbing hardly ever used)
  • Netherlands (Subtitles in Dutch, kids’s exhibits are dubbed)
  • North Macedonia (Youngsters’s packages dubbed in Macedonian or Serbian, all the pieces else subtitled in Macedonian)
  • Norway (Subtitles in Norwegian. Tv programming and movement footage directed in direction of kids are dubbed, though cinemas typically supply subtitled late-evening screenings of the latter. The off-screen narration in documentaries could also be dubbed, though on-screen dialogue is all the time subtitled)
  • Peru (in Aymara and Quechua)
  • Philippines (some Filipino movies have been all subtitled in English, however all international tv packages have been dubbed in Filipino.)
  • Poland (virtually all live-action motion pictures in cinemas are subtitled; some motion pictures will be present in two variations, with subtitles and dubbing)
  • Portugal (Most exhibits are subtitled in Portuguese, however kids’s exhibits and documentaries are normally dubbed)
  • Romania (Subtitles in Romanian for many exhibits, besides kids’s packages, which began to be dubbed)
  • Serbia (All kids’s exhibits and teleshopping are dubbed, all the pieces else is subtitled in Serbian)
  • Slovenia (Youngsters’s exhibits are dubbed, all the pieces else is subtitled in Slovenian)
  • Singapore in English, Chinese language and Malay, with some subtitling bilingual in both Chinese language and English or Chinese language and Malay
  • South Africa (from Afrikaans, Sesotho, Xhosa and Zulu into English)
  • South Korea (Subtitles in Korean, no sequence dubbed, however solely kids dubbed)
  • Sweden (Subtitles in Swedish. Tv programming and movement footage directed in direction of kids are dubbed, though cinemas typically supply subtitled late-evening screenings of the latter. The off-screen narration in documentaries could also be dubbed, though on-screen dialogue is all the time subtitled)
  • Taiwan (Mandarin subtitles seem on most exhibits and all information or reside motion broadcasts)
  • Turkey (Ethnical languages of the nation in TRT 3)
  • Ukraine (TV exhibits in Russian are sometimes proven with Ukrainian subtitles)
  • United Kingdom
  • United States
  • Uruguay (cable/satellite tv for pc TV solely)
  • Venezuela (cable/satellite tv for pc TV solely)
  • Vietnam (Disney solely)

Additionally it is frequent that tv companies in minority languages subtitle their packages within the dominant language as nicely. Examples embody the Welsh S4C and Irish TG4 who subtitle in English and the Swedish Yle Fem in Finland who subtitle within the majority language Finnish.

In Wallonia (Belgium) movies are normally dubbed, however generally they’re performed on two channels on the identical time: one dubbed (on La Une) and the opposite subtitled (on La Deux), however that is not achieved as steadily resulting from low rankings.

In Australia, one FTA community, SBS airs its foreign-language exhibits subtitled in English.


Subtitles in the identical language on the identical manufacturing will be in numerous classes:

  • Listening to Impaired subtitles (generally abbreviated as HI or SDH) are meant for people who find themselves listening to impaired, offering details about music, environmental sounds and off-screen audio system (e.g. when a doorbell rings or a gunshot is heard). In different phrases, they point out the varieties and the sources of the sounds coming from the film, and normally put this data inside brackets to demarcate it from actors’ dialogues. For instance: [sound of typing on a keyboard], [mysterious music], [glass breaks], [woman screaming].
  • Narrative is the commonest sort of subtitle during which spoken dialogue is displayed. These are mostly used to translate a movie with one spoken language and the textual content of a second language.
  • Pressured subtitles are frequent on motion pictures and solely present subtitles when the characters communicate a international or alien language, or an indication, flag, or different textual content in a scene isn’t translated within the localization and dubbing course of. In some circumstances, international dialogue could also be left untranslated if the film is supposed to be seen from the perspective of a selected character who doesn’t communicate the language in query. For instance, in Steven Spielberg’s Amistad the dialogue of the Spanish slave merchants is subtitled, whereas African languages are left untranslated.[21]
  • Content material subtitles are a North American Secondary Trade (non-Hollywood, typically low-budget) staple. They add content material dictation that’s lacking from filmed motion or dialogue. As a result of normal low-budget allowances in such movies, it’s typically extra possible so as to add the overlay subtitles to fill in data. They’re mostly seen on America’s Maverick movies as pressured subtitles, and on Canada’s MapleLeaf movies as optionally available subtitles. Content material subtitles additionally seem to start with of some higher-budget movies (e.g., Star Wars) or on the finish of a movie (e.g., Gods and Generals).
  • Titles solely are sometimes utilized by dubbed packages and supply solely the textual content for any untranslated on-screen textual content. They’re mostly pressured (see above).
  • Bonus subtitles are an extra set of textual content blurbs which might be added to DVDs. They’re much like Blu-ray Discs’ in-movie content material or to the “data nuggets” in VH1 Pop-up Video. Typically proven in popup or balloon type, they level out background, behind-the-scenes data relative to what’s showing on display, typically indicating filming and efficiency errors in continuity or consistency.
  • Localized subtitles are a separate subtitle monitor that makes use of expanded references (i.e., “The sake [a Japanese Wine] was wonderful as was the Wasabi”) or can exchange the standardized subtitle monitor with a localized type changing references to native customized (i.e., from above, “The wine was wonderful as was the spicy dip”).
  • Prolonged/Expanded subtitles mix the usual subtitle monitor with the localization subtitle monitor. Initially discovered solely on Celestial DVDs within the early 2000s, the format has expanded to many export-intended releases from China, Japan, India, and Taiwan. The time period “Expanded Subtitles” is owned by Celestial, with “Prolonged Subtitles” being utilized by different corporations.
  • 3D subtitles mix the usual subtitle place alongside the X and Y axis of the image, with a 3rd place alongside the Z-axis. This third positioning permits the subtitle to “float” in entrance of the 3D picture. This feature is offered in Digital Cinema and in 3D Blu-ray releases.

Subtitles exist in two kinds; open subtitles are ‘open to all’ and can’t be turned off by the viewer; closed subtitles are designed for a sure group of viewers, and may normally be turned on/off or chosen by the viewer – examples being teletext pages, U.S. Closed captions (608/708), DVB Bitmap subtitles, DVD/Blu-ray subtitles.

Whereas distributing content material, subtitles can seem in one in every of Three varieties:

  • Onerous (often known as hardsubs or open subtitles). The subtitle textual content is irreversibly merged in unique video frames, and so no particular gear or software program is required for playback. Therefore, advanced transition results and animation will be applied, comparable to karaoke music lyrics utilizing varied colours, fonts, sizes, animation (like a bouncing ball) and many others. to observe the lyrics. Nevertheless, these subtitles can’t be turned off until the unique video can be included within the distribution as they’re now a part of the unique body, and thus it’s unimaginable to have a number of variants of subtitling, comparable to in a number of languages.
  • Prerendered (often known as closed) subtitles are separate video frames which might be overlaid on the unique video stream whereas taking part in. Prerendered subtitles are used on DVD and Blu-ray (although they’re contained in the identical file because the video stream). It’s doable to show them off or have a number of language subtitles and swap amongst them, however the participant has to assist such subtitles to show them. Additionally, subtitles are normally encoded as photos with minimal bitrate and variety of colours; they normally lack anti-aliased font rasterization. Additionally, altering such subtitles is difficult, however particular OCR software program, comparable to SubRip exists to transform such subtitles to “gentle” ones.
  • Tender (often known as softsubs or closed subtitles) are separate directions, normally a specifically marked up textual content with time stamps to be displayed throughout playback. It requires participant assist and, furthermore, there are a number of incompatible (however normally reciprocally convertible) subtitle file codecs. Softsubs are comparatively simple to create and alter, and thus are steadily used for fansubs. Textual content rendering high quality can fluctuate relying on the participant, however is mostly larger than prerendered subtitles. Additionally, some codecs introduce textual content encoding troubles for the end-user, particularly if totally different languages are used concurrently (for instance, Latin and Asian scripts).

In different categorization, digital video subtitles are generally known as inside, if they’re embedded in a single video file container together with video and audio streams, and exterior if they’re distributed as separate file (that’s much less handy, however it’s simpler to edit/change such file).

Comparability desk
Function Onerous Prerendered Tender
Might be turned off/on No Sure Sure
A number of subtitle variants (for instance, languages) Sure, although all displayed on the identical time Sure Sure
Editable No Tough, however doable Sure
Participant necessities None Majority of gamers assist DVD subtitles Often requires set up of particular software program, until nationwide regulators mandate its distribution
Visible look, colours, font high quality Low to Excessive, relies on video decision/compression Low Low to Excessive, relies on participant and subtitle file format
Transitions, karaoke and different particular results Highest Low Depends upon participant and subtitle file format, however usually poor[citation needed]
Distribution Inside unique video Separate low-bitrate video stream, generally multiplexed Comparatively small subtitle file or directions stream, multiplexed or separate
Extra overhead None, although subtitles added by re-encoding of the unique video might degrade general picture high quality, and the sharp edges of textual content might introduce artifacts in surrounding video Excessive Low

Subtitle codecs[edit]

For software program video gamers[edit]

Sortable desk
Identify Extension Kind Textual content styling Metadata Timings Timing precision
AQTitle .aqt Textual content Sure Sure Framings As frames
EBU-TT-D[22] N/A XML Sure Sure Elapsed time Limitless
Gloss Subtitle .gsub HTML/XML Sure Sure Elapsed time 10 milliseconds
JACOSub[23] .jss Textual content with markup Sure No Elapsed time As frames
MicroDVD .sub Textual content No No Framings As frames
MPEG-Four Timed Textual content .ttxt (or combined with A/V stream) XML Sure No Elapsed time 1 millisecond
MPSub .sub Textual content No Sure Sequential time 10 milliseconds
Ogg Writ N/A (embedded in Ogg container) Textual content Sure Sure Sequential granules Depending on bitstream
Phoenix Subtitle .pjs Textual content No No Framings As frames
PowerDivX .psb Textual content No No Elapsed time 1 second
RealText[24] .rt HTML Sure No Elapsed time 10 milliseconds
SAMI .smi HTML Sure Sure Framings As frames
Spruce subtitle format[25] .stl Textual content Sure Sure Sequential time+frames Sequential time+frames
Structured Subtitle Format .ssf XML Sure Sure Elapsed time 1 millisecond
SubRip .srt Textual content Sure No Elapsed time 1 millisecond
(Superior) SubStation Alpha .ssa or .ass (superior) Textual content Sure Sure Elapsed time 10 milliseconds
SubViewer .sub Textual content No Sure Elapsed time 10 milliseconds
Common Subtitle Format .usf XML Sure Sure Elapsed time 1 millisecond
VobSub .sub + .idx Picture N/A N/A Elapsed time 1 millisecond
WebVTT .vtt HTML Sure Sure Elapsed time 1 millisecond
XSUB N/A (embedded in .divx container) Picture N/A N/A Elapsed time 1 millisecond

There are nonetheless many extra unusual codecs. Most of them are text-based and have the extension .txt.

For media[edit]

For cinema motion pictures proven in a theatre:

For motion pictures on DVD Video:

For TV broadcast:

Subtitles created for TV broadcast are saved in quite a lot of file codecs. Nearly all of these codecs are proprietary to the distributors of subtitle insertion methods.

Broadcast subtitle codecs embody:


The EBU format outlined by Technical Reference 3264-E[26] is an ‘open’ format meant for subtitle change between broadcasters. Information on this format have the extension .stl (to not be combined up with textual content “Spruce subtitle format” talked about above, which additionally has extension .stl)

For web supply:

The Timed Textual content format presently a “Candidate Advice” of the W3C (known as DFXP[27]) can be proposed as an ‘open’ format for subtitle change and distribution to media gamers, comparable to Microsoft Silverlight.

Causes for not subtitling a international language[edit]

Most occasions a international language is spoken in movie, subtitles are used to translate the dialogue for the viewer. Nevertheless, there are events when international dialogue is left unsubtitled (and thus incomprehensible to many of the audience). That is typically achieved if the film is seen predominantly from the perspective of a selected character who doesn’t communicate the language. Such absence of subtitles permits the viewers to really feel the same sense of incomprehension and alienation that the character feels. An instance of that is seen in Not With out My Daughter. The Persian language dialogue spoken by the Iranian characters isn’t subtitled as a result of the principle character Betty Mahmoody doesn’t communicate Persian and the viewers is seeing the movie from her viewpoint.

A variation of this was used within the online game Max Payne 3. Subtitles are used on each the English and Portuguese dialogues, however the latter is left untranslated[28] as the principle character does not perceive the language.

Subtitles as a supply of humor[edit]

Sometimes, motion pictures will use subtitles as a supply of humor, parody and satire.

  • In Annie Corridor, the characters of Woody Allen and Diane Keaton are having a dialog; their actual ideas are proven in subtitles.
  • In Austin Powers in Goldmember, Japanese dialogue is subtitled utilizing white sort that blends in with white objects within the background. An instance is when white binders flip the subtitle “I’ve an enormous rodent downside” into “I’ve an enormous rod.” After many circumstances of this, Mr. Roboto says “Why do not I simply communicate English?”, in English. In the identical movie, Austin and Nigel Powers immediately communicate in Cockney English to make the content material of their dialog unintelligible; subtitles seem for the primary a part of the dialog, however then stop and are changed with a sequence of query marks.
  • In Yellow Submarine, the Beatles use the subtitles of “All you want is love” to defeat an enormous glove.
  • In The Impostors, one character speaks in a international language, whereas one other character hides below the mattress. Though the hidden character can’t perceive what’s being spoken, he can learn the subtitles. For the reason that subtitles are overlaid on the movie, they look like reversed from his perspective. His try and puzzle out these subtitles enhances the humor of the scene.
  • The film Airplane! and its sequel characteristic two inner-city African Individuals talking in closely accented slang, which one other character refers to as if it have been a international language: “Jive”. Subtitles translate their speech, which is stuffed with colourful expressions and gentle profanity, into bland normal English, however the typical viewer can perceive sufficient of what they’re saying to acknowledge the incongruity. Transcript of the dialogue
  • In Vehicles 2, Susie Chef and Mater communicate Chinese language with English subtitles and Luigi, Mama Lopolino and Uncle Topolino communicate Italian with English subtitles.
  • In parodies of the German movie Der Untergang, incorrect subtitles are intentionally used, typically with offensive and humorous outcomes.
  • Within the Carl Reiner comedy The Man with Two Brains, after stopping Dr. Michael Hfuhruhurr (Steve Martin) for dashing, a German police officer realizes that Hfuhruhurr can communicate English. He asks his colleague of their squad automotive to show off the subtitles, and signifies towards the underside of the display, commenting that “That is higher — now we have extra room down there now”.
  • Within the opening credit of Monty Python and the Holy Grail, the Swedish subtitler switches to English and promotes his nation, till the introduction is minimize off and the subtitler “sacked”. Within the DVD model of the identical movie, the viewer may select, as a substitute of listening to assist and native languages, traces from Shakespeare’s Henry IV, half 2 that vaguely resemble the traces which might be truly being spoken in movie, if they’re “individuals who hate the movie“.
  • In Scary Film 4, there’s a scene the place the actors communicate in fake Japanese (nonsensical phrases which principally include Japanese firm names), however the content material of the subtitles is the “actual” dialog.
  • In Not One other Teen Film, the nude international change scholar character Areola speaks frivolously accented English, however her dialogue is subtitled anyway. Additionally, the textual content is spaced in such a method {that a} view of her naked breasts is unhindered.
  • In Trainspotting, the main characters have a dialog in a crowded membership. To grasp what’s being stated, all the dialogue is subtitled.
  • Simon Ellis’ 2000 quick movie Telling Lies juxtaposes a soundtrack of a person telling lies on the phone towards subtitles which expose the reality.[29]
  • Animutations generally use subtitles to current the comical “faux lyrics” (English phrases that sound shut to what’s truly being sung within the music within the non-English language). These faux lyrics are a serious staple of the Animutation style.
  • Lock, Inventory and Two Smoking Barrels accommodates a scene spoken totally in cockney rhyming slang that’s subtitled in normal English.
  • In an episode of Indignant Beavers, at one level Norbert begins to talk with such a heavy European accent that his phrases are subtitled on the underside of the display. Daggett truly touches the subtitles, shoving them out of the way in which.
  • Within the American theatrical variations of Evening Watch and Day Watch, Russian dialogues are translated by subtitles that are designed accordingly to the depicted occasions. As an illustration, subtitles dissolve in water like blood, tremble together with a shaking flooring or get minimize by sword.
  • The movie Crank accommodates a scene the place Jason Statham’s character understands an Asian character’s line of dialogue from studying the on-screen subtitle. The subtitle is even in reverse when his character reads the road. Later, an exclamation made by one other Asian character is subtitled, however each the spoken phrases and the subtitles are in Chinese language.
  • In Deadly Intuition, additionally directed by Carl Reiner, one scene involving two characters speaking about their homicide plan in Yiddish to stop anybody from realizing about it, solely to be foiled by a person on the bench studying the on-screen subtitles.
  • Ken Loach launched the movie Riff-Raff into American theatres with subtitles not solely so folks may perceive the thick Scottish accents, but additionally to make enjoyable of what he believes to be many Individuals’ want for them (talked about within the theatrical trailer). A lot of Loach’s movies comprise conventional dialect, with some (e.g. The Value of Coal) requiring subtitles even when proven on tv in England.
  • In Bobby Lee’s “Tae Do,” a parody of Korean dramas in a Mad TV episode, the subtitles make extra sense of the story than the Korean language being spoken. The subtitles are made to look as if written by somebody with a poor understanding of grammar and are sometimes deliberately made longer than what they really say within the drama. For instance, an actor says “Sarang” (“I like you”), however the subtitle is so lengthy that it covers the entire display.
  • In tv sequence Skithouse, a journalist interviews a bunch of Afghan terrorists in English, however one in every of them will get subtitled and sees it. He will get mad as a result of he takes as an insult that he’s the one one to get subtitled.[30]
  • In Mel Brooks movie Males in Tights, the ideas of Broomhilde’s (Megan Cavanaugh) horse Farfelkugel are proven as subtitles when Broomhilde makes an attempt to leap on saddle off balcony. As Farfelkugel shudders, the showtitles present “She should be kidding!”
  • Within the tv sequence Drawn Collectively, the character Ling-Ling can solely be understood by way of English subtitles, as his dialogue is delivered in a nonexistent language known as “Japorean” by Abbey DiGregorio, the voice actress for the character.
  • Within the tv sequence Inexperienced Acres episode “Lisa’s Mudder Comes for a Go to” (season 5 episode 1), Lisa and her mom converse in Hungarian, with English subtitles. First, Lisa appears to be like down and corrects the subtitles, “No no no, I stated you hadn’t modified a bit! Now we have lots of hassle right here with subtitles.”, and so they change. Mom’s Japanese chauffeur asks “I begga pardon – I bringa luggage inna home?” that elicits a gong sound and Japanese subtitles. That is adopted by Mom’s Nice Dane barking with the subtitles “I’ve seen higher doghouses than this” with Lisa responding “We’re not concerned with what the canine says”, and the subtitles disappear. Later, the subtitles ask farmhand Eb if they are going to be needing any extra subtitles for the episode.
  • Within the UK tv sequence High Gear, in episode 6 of Sequence 13, they purposely mistranslate the music sung by Carla Bruni, having her supposedly denouncing hatred in direction of the trio of presenters (“however primarily James Could”) for destroying what’s claimed to be her personal Morris Marina.
  • In Vance Pleasure’s music video “Riptide” it exhibits a lady singing the lyrics to the music. At many factors the lyrics that are sung “I obtained a lump in my throat trigger you are gonna sing the phrases unsuitable”[31] are intentionally mis-subtitled as “I obtained a lump in my throat trigger you gone and sank the worlds wolf”[32]
  • In “Bizarre Al” Yankovic’s music video for “Smells Like Nirvana”, the second verse is subtitled as a approach to mock the supposed unintelligibility of the music. One of many traces is “It is laborious to bargle nawdle zouss???” (with three query marks), which has no which means, however is defined by the next line, “With all these marbles in my mouth”. Whereas singing the latter, Yankovic certainly spits out a few marbles.

One unintentional supply of humor in subtitles comes from unlawful DVDs produced in non-English-speaking international locations (particularly China). These DVDs typically comprise poorly worded subtitle tracks, presumably produced by machine translation, with humorous outcomes. One of many better-known examples is a duplicate of Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith whose opening title was subtitled, “Star struggle: The backstroke of the west”.[33]

See additionally[edit]

Many phrases comparable to “Mum/Mother”, “pyjamas/pajamas”, and so forth, are generally spelled in line with the accent or nationwide origin of the particular person talking, quite than the language, nation, or market the subtitles have been created for. For instance, a British movie launched in america may use “Mum” when a British character is talking, whereas utilizing “Mother” when an American character is talking.

Cellphone captioning is a free service offered by the U.S. authorities during which specifically skilled operators present transcriptions for hearing-impaired phone customers.


  1. ^ Use computerized captioning, YouTube.
  2. ^ a b Brij Kothari Archived 2008-08-28 on the Wayback Machine from Accessed on February 10, 2009
  3. ^ Biswas, Ranjita (2005). Hindi movie songs can increase literacy charges in India Archived 2009-08-20 on the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ “McCall, W. (2008). Similar-Language-Subtitling and Karaoke: The Use of Subtitled Music as a Studying Exercise in a Excessive College Particular Schooling Classroom. In Okay. McFerrin et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Data Know-how and Instructor Schooling Worldwide Convention 2008 (pp. 1190–1195). Chesapeake, VA: AACE”. Archived from the unique on 2012-07-09.
  5. ^ Gannon, Jack. 1981. Deaf Heritage–A Narrative Historical past of Deaf America, Silver Spring, MD: Nationwide Affiliation of the Deaf, p. 266-270
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j ok l m Division of Communications, Data Know-how and the Arts; Australian Caption Centre (1999-02-26). “Submissions to the captioning requirements evaluate | Division of Communications, Data Know-how and the Arts”. Archived from the unique (Microsoft Phrase) on 2007-09-08. Retrieved 2007-04-04. Australian Caption Centre
  7. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the unique on 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2011-04-28.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (hyperlink)
  8. ^ Caption Colorado (2002). “Caption Colorado”. Archived from the unique on 2007-08-23. Retrieved 2007-10-24. “Actual-time” vs. Newsroom Captioning
    Caption Colorado gives “real-time” closed captioning that makes use of distinctive applied sciences coupled with the abilities of extremely expert captioners who use stenographic court docket reporting machines to transcribe the audio on the fly, because the phrases are spoken by the broadcasters. real-time captioning isn’t restricted to pre-scripted supplies and, subsequently, covers 100% of the information, climate and sports activities segments of a typical native information broadcast. It can cowl things like the climate and sports activities segments that are sometimes not pre-scripted, final second breaking information or modifications to the scripts, advert lib conversations of the broadcasters, emergency or different reside distant broadcasts by reporters within the discipline. By failing to cowl gadgets comparable to these, newsroom model captioning (or use of the TelePrompTer for captioning) sometimes leads to protection of lower than 30% of a neighborhood information broadcast. … 2002
  9. ^ a b Caption Colorado (2002). “Caption Colorado”. Archived from the unique on 2007-07-29. Retrieved 2007-10-24. Offline Captioning
    For non-live, or pre-recorded packages, you possibly can select from two presentation types fashions for offline captioning or transcription wants in English or Spanish.

    Premiere Offline Captioning
    Premiere Offline Captioning is geared towards the high-end tv business, offering extremely custom-made captioning options, comparable to pop-on model captions, specialised display placement, speaker identifications, italics, particular characters, and sound results.

    Premiere Offline includes a five-step design and enhancing course of, and does rather more than merely show the textual content of a program. Premiere Offline helps the viewer observe a narrative line, develop into conscious of temper and feeling, and permits them to completely take pleasure in all the viewing expertise. Premiere Offline is the popular presentation model for entertainment-type programming. … 2002

  10. ^ Edelberg, Elisa (2017-06-19). “Closed Captions v. Subtitles for the Deaf and Onerous of Listening to (SDH)”. 3Play Media. Retrieved 2020-04-10.
  11. ^ U.S. Federal Communications Fee (FCC) (2008-05-01). Closed Captioning and the DTV Transition (swf). Washington, D.C. Occasion happens at 1m58s. Along with passing by way of closed caption indicators, many converter containers additionally embody the power to take over the captioning function that the tuner performs in your analog TV set. To find out whether or not your converter field is supplied to generate captions on this method, it’s best to discuss with the person handbook that got here with the converter field. In case your converter field. In case your converter field is supplied to generate captions on this method, then observe the directions that got here with the converter field to show the captioning characteristic on/off by way of your converter field or converter field distant management. Once you entry the closed captions in the way in which, you additionally will be capable to change the way in which your digital captions look. The converter field will include directions on the right way to change the caption dimension, font, caption shade, background shade, and opacity. This potential to regulate your captions is one thing you can’t do now with an analog tv and analog captions.
  12. ^ The Digital TV Transition – Audio and Video (2008-05-01). “What it’s worthwhile to know concerning the DTV Transition in American Signal Language: Half 3 – Closed Captioning – Flash Video”. The Digital TV Transition: What You Have to Know About DTV. U.S. Federal Communications Fee (FCC). Retrieved 2008-05-01.
  13. ^ Patten, Dominic (2015-10-20). “Hollywood Studios & Netflix Blasted For Civil Rights Violations In Music-Captioning Class Motion”. Deadline. Retrieved 2019-07-08.
  14. ^ “Netflix and movie studios face lawsuit over music captioning for deaf”. The Guardian. 2015-10-20. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2019-07-08.
  15. ^ Kehe, Jason (2018-06-26). “The Actual Cause You Use Closed Captions for Every thing Now”. Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved 2019-07-08.
  16. ^ Farley, Rebecca. “Get Over Your Worry Of Subtitles, Please”. Refinery29. Retrieved 2019-07-08.
  17. ^ “Closed Captioning Offers Literacy a Increase”. Schooling Week. 2015-07-21. Retrieved 2019-07-08.
  18. ^ Biswas, Ranjita (2005). Hindi movie songs can increase literacy charges in India Archived 2009-08-20 on the Wayback Machine from the Asian Movie Basis web site. Accessed on February 10, 2009
  19. ^ “Google Translate”.
  20. ^ “Break the language barrier”. Break the language barrier | Conversations.
  21. ^ “MISSING HEAVEN, MAKING HELL”. Washington Examiner. 1998-01-05. Retrieved 2019-11-24.
  22. ^ EBU (2015). “EBU-TT-D Subtitling Distribution Format”. European Broadcasting Union. European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  23. ^ Alex Matulich (1997–2002). “JACOsub Script File Format Specification”. Unicorn Analysis Company. Unicorn Analysis Company. Retrieved 10 March 2013.
  24. ^ “RealText Authoring Information”. Actual. RealNetworks. 1998–2000. Archived from the unique on 2 November 2011. Retrieved 10 March 2013.
  25. ^ “Spruce Subtitle Format”. Web Archive Wayback Machine. Archived from the unique on 28 October 2009. Retrieved 10 March 2013.
  26. ^ “Specification of the EBU Subtitling information change format” (PDF). European Broadcasting Union. February 1991. Retrieved 10 March 2013.
  27. ^ Philippe Le Hégaret; Sean Hayes (6 September 2012). “Mission”. Timed Textual content Working Group. Retrieved 10 March 2013.
  28. ^ “(Xbox 360 Overview) Max Payne 3”. The Leisure Depot. Retrieved 7 Could 2013.
  29. ^ “BBC – Movie Community”. Archived from the unique on August 31, 2006.
  30. ^ Skithouse: Information report from Iraq. YouTube. 5 August 2007.
  31. ^ “Vance Pleasure – Riptide Lyrics – MetroLyrics”.
  32. ^ Vance Pleasure – ‘Riptide’ Official Video. YouTube. 2 April 2013.
  33. ^ jeremy (6 July 2005). “episode iii, the backstroke of the west”. Google, Inc. Archived from the unique on 16 Could 2008. Retrieved 10 March 2013.

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